Skip to main content

Full text of "Seamen's Journal (1924-1926)"

See other formats


CALIFORNIA * 

STATE LIBRARY 



Call No 



■Cc HD 





i ^^^s- ^ ^^^ gags Mgj»gi^a55^^BSHBBBgBaBB8B»gaBBgaBaggSgKB 
Official Paper of the International Seamen's Union of America 



INDEX— VOLUME 38 

JANUARY, 1924 — DECEMBER 1924 



Title Page 

A 

\ir Disarmament* 40 

\laska Fishermen's Agreement of 1924 166 

American Boy, What Ails The* 262 

American Boys Shun the Sea, Why? 293 

American Crews, High Priced* 102 

American Shipowner's Idea of Co-operation* 134 

American Federation of Labor — 
The Best Investment (hy Hugh Frayne, A. F. 

of L. Organizer 5 

A. F. of L. Membership Statistics 16 

President Gompers Tells Truth About Mexico 185 
Joseph F. Valentine resigns as Vice-President 280 
President-elect Calles of Mexico calls on Ex- 
ecutive Council 281 

Ammunition From the Enemy 365 

Appeal to the Young, An (by Alexander Boije)... 364 

Arbitration, Compulsory, in Cuba 235 

Arguing About the Union* 294 

Asiatics, Exclusion, Etc. — 

Chinese Crew of "President Lincoln" (Photo- 
graph) 107 

Supplies for Dollar's Chinese Crews 112 

Captain Dollar's Crews* 136 

The "Gentlemen's Agreement" With Japan* 137 

Japanese Fishing Industry 142 

Asiatic Exclusion At Last* 167 

"President Lincoln's" Chinese Crew in Panic... 235 

Trade-Unions' in China 243 

Japanese Trade-Unions 293 

Same Old Excuse for Carrying Chinese Crews*... 297 
Japan, Geneva and Congress* 329 

Australian Seamen, Etc. — 

Australia's Population 179 

An Old Tragedy in New Zealand (Steamship 
Lost With All Hands) 299 

All editorial matter is designated by an asterisk (*). 



>--r Tith: : - . Page 

/>\ i i,« ' . • ' ! 3' ". : '. ! 

Book Reviews — 

Boundaries, Altitudes, Etc., of the United 

States 18 

The Great White South (by Ponting) 19 

Chinese Migrations 50 

The Ship's Baker (by Bond) 50 

An Outline of the Social and Political History 

of the United States (by Carman) 51 

Woodrow Wilson's Case for the League of 

Nations (by Toley) 112 

The Humanizing of Knowledge (by Robinson) 144 

The People's Corporation (by Gillette) 210 

Under the Lee (by Walter Macarthur 242 

Workers' Education Year Book 242 

1700 Miles in Open Boats (by Foster) 339 

Brazil, Land of the Future 16 

Brotherhood of the Sea, The* 70 

British Labor Party, The 362 

British Ship Subsidies 332 

British Seamen's Delegation Visits America* 326 

British Seamen's Wages* 201 

British Shipping Legislation 135 

Brutality on Barkentine "Puako" (Damages for 

Crew) 76 

Brutality on Barkentine "Rolph" (Circuit Court 

Opinion) 165 

C 

California Oil Ports, Shipments from 117 

California State Labor Convention 325 

Canada, Organized Labor in 208 

Canadian Government-Owned Shipping — Losses 

of 247 

Carnegie Peace Endowment Analyzed* 358 

Chinese — See Asiatics. 

Church, Muzzling The* 41 

Code, Seamen's International....99, 140, 172, 204, 236, 361 

Coffee Imports 340 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL INDEX— VOLUME THIRTY-EIGHT 



Title 



Page 



Title 



Page 



Compulsory Arbitration in Cuba 235 

Congress, The New 360 

Conrad, Joseph (Obituary) 298 

Consistency, Where Art Thou* 230 

Coolidge Labor Leaders 293 

Co-operation on B. & O. R. R.* 103 

Co-operation, Shipowners Idea of* 134 

Court Decisions, Maritime, Labor Legal Notes, 
Etc.— 
Damages for Injury (Andrew Johnson vs. 

Panama Railroad) 17, 147 

Street vs. Shipowners' Association 

18. 115, 231*, 326* 

Brutality on Barkentine "Puako." Opinion of 

Judge Rudkin 76 

Limitation of Liability (Judge Partridge's Opin- 
ion in re "Mary Winkleman") 80 

Payment of Wages (Cox vs. Lykes Bros.) 115 

Jurisdiction of State Accident Commissions.... 115 

Shipowners' Duty to Inspect Apparatus 147 

Seamen's Right to Choice of Remedy (John- 
son vs. Panama R. R. Co.) 147 

Brutality on Barkentine "Rolph," U. S. Circuit 

Court Upholds Judge Partridge 165 

Payment for Overtime Work 206 

Masters' Right to Discharge Seamen '.... 206 

Desertion Defined 239 

Seamen's Status Under Immigration Law......... 260 

Responsibility for .Drowning^ (Sec. # 33 of J;he^ 

Jones Act) ;\...j..Lf«.i..j.JL..V!^»..j j..... ?*•...!* 271 

Shipping Articles 'AteC tfufclfc V^ciOrcepiS-.'-'-V r.271 
Injuries Sustained in Foreign Port (Bennet 

vs. Connelly-) •...?.•..„•.....•*....•.;..:. j. **♦.».......... .303* 

Seamen's Right;" iN «S;ta;e'- ^crgrjts..;. j...|...jt.V 303, < 

Jury Trial in Contempt* Casev..?..vv .••?.. •„•.*„• 363 « 

Double Wages Denied (S. S. Nedmac) 371 

Seamen's Mother Awarded $15,000 370 



Danish Marine Firemen's Wages 197 

Dawes, Slander by Candidate 203, 234, 263 

Dawes' Plan Dissected 302 

Desertion Defined 239 

Death, The Beauty of 304 

Democracy, A. World Safe For 265 

Dickie's Criticism, Mr.* (Dr. Taylor's Book).... 295 

Diesel Tug, Largest in United States 79 

Diving, Deep Sea 333 

Diving for the S. S. "Laurentic's" Gold 334 

Dollar's Chinese Crews, Supplies for 112 

Dollar's Crews 136 

Dual Unions (by Geo. W. Perkins) 133 

E 

Economics, A. Study of, (by Professor Llovd M. 

Cosgrave) 75, 108. 139, 176, 208, 274, 303, 335, 367 

Everglades, Wealth of The 270 

Education, Etc. — 

Worthwhile Lectures* 6 

Workers' Education (Spencer Miller) 43 

History of the Sailors' Union of the 

Pacific, by Dr. Taylor (Criticism 

by Mr. Dickie) 295 

Union and Education 337 

Labor Education (by Charles Beard) 369 



Fake Unions* 71 

Fault Finding Is Easy (by Chas. Edw. Russell) 45 

Fear, If You Banish 336 

Ferryboatmen's Wage Increase 3 

Filipinos Strike on Hawaiian Sugar Plantations.... 298 



Fisheries, Etc. — 

U. S. Bureau of Fisheries 4 

Labor in the Alaska Salmon Industry* 38 

Alaska Salmon Trust Challenged 67 

Marketing of Fish* 71 

Alaska Salmon Trust Defiant 131 

Japanese Fishing Industry 142 

Alaska Fishermen's Agreement of 1924 166 

Fish Crop of the World 238 

The Butterfish 270 

Keeping Fish Fresh 275 

California Sardines 277 

Halibut Fishery Treaty Ratified 330 

Foe, The Treacherous 5 

Foreign Policy, Our Country's* 264 

France, Encouraging Large Families 187 

French Seamen's Right to Quit 231 

Furuseth, Andrew, Articles by, Etc. — 

Democracy or Slavery — Which? 11 

Furuseth Honored in United States Senate 171 

Letters Analvzing Proposed International Sea- 
men's Code 99. 140, 172, 204, 236. 361 



Galley, Electrified Ships 77 

Gandhi Movement, The 300 

German Companies, Tonnage of 141 

German Marine Firemen 337 

German Seamen's Strike in England 69, 105 

German Seamen's Wages 15 

Giant Power, Hydro-Electric 168, 207 

Greece, King of, Deposed* 7 

Great Lakes — 

Progressing Backward* 9 

Lake Freighters 14 

"Greater Detroit," Largest Passenger Steamer 

on Lakes 116, 341 

Lake Ferrymen's Agreement 211 

Richard H. Powers. Activity in Politics 293 



H 

Hamburg's Port Traffic 332 

Hawaii. Filipinos Strike on Island of Kauai 298 

Hawaii, Infant Mortality in 248 

High-Priced American Crews* (Atlantic Monthlv) 102 

Holland's Merchant Fleet 243 

Human vs. Property Rights* 326 

Hydro-Electric Power 168, 207 



India, Population of 243 

Injunction, What is an? 

Insurance, Unemployment* 105, 202 

Italian Poet Resigns as Leader of Seamen 274 

I. W. W., Inside The* 233 

I. W. W. Propaganda vs. Truth 234 

1. W. W.'s in Family Row 300 

Immigration — 

Hounding the Immigrants* 8 

America's Immigration Policy* 103 

"Mugging" the Immigrants* 169 

Immigrant Distribution in the United States 171 

Seamen's Status Under Immigration Bill Dis- 
cussed in Senate 178 

The New United States Immigration Law 195 

Seamen's Status Under Immigration Law De- 
fined 260 

Regulations Governing Seamen Under New 

Immigration Law 323 

Immigrants to Palestine 346 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL INDEX— VOLUME THIRTY-EIGHT 



Title 



Page 



International Seafarers' Federation — 

German Seamen Strike in England 69 

German Seamen's Strike Ended* 105 

The Seamen's International Code 

99, 140, 172, 204, 236, 361 

French Seamen's Right to Quit 231 

Welcome, Havelock Wilson!* 326 

World's Seamen Disunited* 328 

International Seamen's Union of America — 
Seamen's International Code — See "Code." 
Oriental Crews — See Asiatics. 
San Francisco Ferryboatmen's Wage Increase.. 3 

Secretary Nolan Commended 26 

The Twenty-seventh Annual Convention (Di- 
gest of the Proceedings) 35 

Wage Cost of Operation (Diagram) 101 

American Crews, High-priced* 102 

Merchant Seamen and the Navy 163 

Secrecy in Language Test (S. S. William Per- 
kins) 198 

Lake Ferrymen's Agreement 211 

American Boys as Seamen 262, 293 

La Follette and the Seamen's Act 291 

Criticism of Dr. Taylor's History of the Sailors' 

Union of the Pacific 295 

I. S. U. of A. Twenty-eighth Annual Conven- 
tion Call 363 

Appeal for La Follette Campaign Contributions 368 

J-K 

Japanese — See Asiatics. 

Jury Trial in Contempt Cases* 363 

Kiel Canal Traffic 145 



Labor Day Messages of 1924 259 

Labor Is Not a Commodity (by John R. Ford) 46 

La Follette Campaign, The* 227, 267, 268, 357, 358 

La Follette, an Estimate of (by William Allen 

White) 301 

Language Test on S. S. William Perkins (Secrecy 

in Law Enforcement*) 198 

Lithuania Is Ambitious 228 

Lloyd's Register Statistics 272 

Lloyd's Report on Missing Ships 117 

M 

Malaria On Board Ship 251 

Mankind, Proper Study of* 39 

Maritime Court Decisions — See Court Decisions. 

Merchant Seamen and the Navy 163 

Mars Is Habitable 306 

Mexican Revolt, The* 9 

Mexico's Emigrants 143 

Mexico's New President* 361 

Missing Ships of 1923 Reported by Lloyd's 117 

Money Wages vs. Real Wages 47 

Motor Liner, World's Largest 42 

Motorship Construction 240 

Mortality at Sea 229 

Movie Fleet, The 231 

N-0 

Norwegian Training for the Sea* 136 

Newspaper' Ownership 48 

Occupational Risk of Seamen 104 

Oil, Calming Waves With 241 

Operating Cost of Ships 101 

Organization, Respect for 363 



Panama Canal Tolls 19 

Panama Canal Traffic in 1923 78 

Panama Canal Outstrips Suez 110 






Title Page 

Panama Canal, The (by Professor Emory R. 

Johnson) 174 

Panama Canal* (Ten Years' Record) 295 

Peace, Can We Buy* 358 

Peace, Carnegie Endowment, Analyzed* 358 

Petersen, Walter J., 1923 Report as "General 

Manager" of Pacific Coast Shipowners 134 

Persia, Overland Sailings to 139 

Philippine Independence* 104 

Political Campaign Funds, Light on 241 

Political Campaign of 1924, see La Follette. 

Polish Merchant Marine 86 

Poverty a Man-made Evil 260 

Presidential Electors* 297 

Price True Men Pay, The 269 

Property vs. Human Rights* 326 

Proper Study of Mankind Is Man* 39 

Psychology, What Is? , 240 

Pusher, Are You A* 359 

Prohibition Problems, Etc. — 

That Washington Booze List 77 

Bootlegging Vessel, Strange Tale of 85 

Secretary Mellon's Distillery Business. 146 

Encouraging for "Wets" 239 

Dry's Seek Despotic Rule 335 

Q-R 

Quitter, Nobody Likes A 364 

Railways, The World's 305 

Redwood 241 

Riches to the Rich, More 261 

Ropes, M'aking of 306 

Ruhr, Working Hours in the* 41 

Rule, Do the People* 40 

Russian Steamship, On A 301 

Running Cost of Ships (Diagram) 101 

S 

Sailing Ships of the Future 115 

Sailing Ship, World's Longest 142 

Sailors' Union of the Pacific, Thirty-eighth Anni- 
versary Celebrated on March 6 101 

Sailors' Union of the Pacific History Criticized.... 295 

Salvage Swindlers 13 

Scab Shipping Office, Report of "General Man- 
ager" 134 

Scab Shipping Office Receives Benediction of 

United States Supreme Court ; 327 

Seamen's International Code. .99, 140, 172, 204, 236, 361 

Seamen's Occupational Risk. 104 

Security, Reflections on 43 

Ship Subsidies, British 332 

Smoking Room for Crew 82 

Soya Bean, The 338 

Spanish Merchant Marine, The 174 

Speed, The Age of* 201 

Strike Costs of the International Typographical 

Union 280 

Suez Canal Improvements 374 

Super-Power, The Control of* 168 

Surgery, Romance of 366 

Swedish Seamen's Union Anniversary 365 

T 

Theory vs. Practice* 170 

Thinking, The Most Difficult Job 142 

Tin Can, Use of the 273 

Tolerance, A Plea for (by Matthew Woll) 331 

Tolstoi, Life of 275 

Tonnage, Obsolete 279 

Travel, Contrasts in Ocean 366 

Truth vs. I. W. W. Propaganda 234 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL INDEX— VOLUME THIRTY-EIGHT 



Title Page 

U 

Unemployment Insurance* 105, 202 

Unionism Never Dies 307 

Union and Education 337 

Union, Arguing About the 294 

Union, Back to the (by W. A. Logan) 333 

Union Book, Your* 166 

Union Meetings, Your* 264 

Union, No Substitute for (by Edward Keating).. 81 
Union, Stand Up for Your (by Chester M. 

Wright) 299 

Union, You and Your* 296 

Unions, Fake* 71 

Unions, The Value of 324 

United Fruit Company, Twenty-fifth Anniversary 181 

United States Bureau of Navigation 4 

United States Destroyers Wrecked, Verdict of 

Courtmartial 20 

United States Foreign Policy* 264 

United States Navy and Merchant Seamen 163 

United States Navy, Minors Discharge From 270 

United States Public Health Service 44 

United States Steamboat Inspection 78 

United States Supreme Court, Authority of the, 

by John P. Frey 355 

United States Supreme Court Decisions — See 

Court Decisions. 
United States Undeveloped Water Power Meas- 
ured . 207 

Uruguay, Population of 306 



Title Page 

United States Shipping Board — 

Shipping Board's Annual Report 13 

Extravagance of the Lasker Regime 82 

Sale of Ships to Dollar Line 82 

Admiral Palmer Appointed President of E. F. C. 84 
Chinese Crew of "President Lincoln" (Photo- 
graph) 107 

Shipping Board Crews 132 

Merchant Seamen and the Navy 163 

Progress in Manning* 199 

Officers Sign Agreement With Shipping Board 232 

V-W 

Vancouver, B. C, Shipping Entered at 116 

Virgin Islands, Statistics 347 

Wage Cost of Operating Ships (Diagram) 101 

Wages (Money) vs. Real Wages 47 

Wages and Business* 8 

Water-Power 168, 207 

Wilson, Woodrow* (Eulogy) 73 

World Shipping Outlook (by E. S. Gregg) 356 

World's Seamen Disunited* $28 

World War Veterans, Number of 123 

X-Y 

Yesterday and Tomorrow (by Samentu) 83 

You and Your Union* 296 




Official Paper of the International Seamen's Union of America 

3iJjiriii!iiii:3iirnniiiiic3!itMr[irt3ii:3MitiiiMiiicziii[iiirji«jic3iiifi;jM:rtcaiii((iinii[c:a!iiMiriJM(rj[fi!r MijjiMMiic^iJFrMiiJMic^riMMtiMsic^riiiriLMiiir^iMMrnMfic^iiiiiJitiiiic^ntrMTTniir^MMiiiiinic^iMiiiiiii)^^ 



1 

i 


A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 

Sea power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's tools. 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use them. 

Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea Our Motto: Justice by Organization 


g 


Contents 

FERRY BOATMEN'S WAGE INCREASE 

THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 












3 
4 
5 
5 

6 

7 

8 

8 

9 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

13 

14 

15 

16 

16 

17 

17 

18 

19 

23 

26 


= 


THE BEST INVESTMENT, By Hugh Frayne 












H 

| 


THE TREACHEROUS FOE 

EDITORIALS: 

WORTHWHILE LECTURES 

THE TENTH KING DEPOSED 

HOUNDING THE IMMIGRANTS 

WAGES AND BUSINESS 

THE MEXICAN REVOLT 

PROGRESSING BACKWARD 

FAILURE OF ANTI-UNION DRIVE 

DEMOCRACY OR SLAVERY— WHICH? By Andrew Fun 

FISH FROM THE DESERT 

SALVAGE SWINDLERS 


iseth . . . 








1 










| 


SHIPPING BOARD'S ANNUAL REPORT 

LAKE FREIGHTERS 














GERMAN SEA WAGES 












2 


A. F. OF L. MEMBERSHIP STATISTICS 

BRAZIL— LAND OF THE FUTURE 

BEWARE OF LYING PROPAGANDA! 

CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 

BOOK REVIEWS 












PANAMA CANAL TOLLS • 












AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS. 
LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 






20, 


21, 

24, 


22, 
25, 


\rr\r vvvuttt -nt 1 Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice 

VUL. AAAV111, JNIO. 1 as second-class matter. Acceptance for 

\XTiir\T XT' -nt~ ,mn mailing at special rate of postage provided 

WliULli, NO. 1920 for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 

authorized September 7, 1918. 


SAN FRANCISCO 
JAN. 1, 1924 



RnillllllllCimilSIIIIIIQII lIllE3IJIIllllllIIC3llllll4IIIIlC3Illllllllll4C2IllllllllUlC3IIIIIIIlIIIIC3IIIIIltMllllllIIIC3IlIllIIlIIIIC3lllIIIlllllIC3IIIIIlIIIIIIC2IIIIIIIIIIlIC3IIII^IIIIlllC3IIIIIIIIIIIIC3lliailIIIIIlC3fllll IOIII.T- 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L. Bldg., Washington, D. C. 



K. B. NOLAN, Secretary-Treasurer 
355 North Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 



DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES: 

ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Secretary 

1% Lewis Street 
Branches: 

NEW YORK, N. Y WILLIAM MILLER, Agent 

67-69 Front Street 

BALTIMORE, Md C. RASMUSSEN. Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa S. HODGSON, Agent 

108 Walnut Street 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. JACOBSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex _ LOUIS LARSEN, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 



MARINE FIREMEN'S. OILERS' AND WATERTEND- 
ERS' UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y _....70 South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 
Telephone John 0975 

Branches: 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa ERNEST MISSLAND, Agent 

108 Walnut Street 

BALTIMORE, Md PATRICK KEANE, Agent 

804 South Broadway 

GALVESTON, Tex JOHN CLAUSSEN, Agent 

32l Twentieth Street 

BOSTON, Mass TONY ASTE, Agent 

288 State Street 

NORFOLK, Va _ DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHAS. W. HANSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 



ATLANTIC AND GULF COOKS', STEWARDS' AND 

WAITERS' UNION 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK. X. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretary 

4 South Street. Phone John 0975 
Branches: 

N. Y., WEST SIDE BRANCH E. DOYLEY. Agent 

46 Renwick Street 

BOSTON, MASS JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

No. 6 Long Wharf 

PHILADELPHIA, PA O. CHRISTENSEN, Agent 

13 South Second Street 

BALTIMORE, MD CHRIS. RASMUSSEN, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

NORFOLK, VA DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, LA R. T. KAIZER, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

PROVIDENCE. R. I FRANK B. HAYWARD, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 

GALVESTON, TEX LOUIS LARSEN, Agent 

321 20th Street 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass 202 Atlantic Avenue 

WM. H. BROWN, Secretary 

Branches: 

GLOUCESTER, Mass NEWMAN SHEA, Agent 

209 Main Street 
NEW YORK, N. Y JAMES J. FAGAN. Agtmt 

6 Fulton Street 



GREAT l*AKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

CHICAGO. Ill 357 North Clark Street 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary 

VAL. DUSTER. Treasurer 

Phone State 5175 

Branches: 

BUFFALO, N. Y PATRICK O'BRIEN 

55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1501 Columbus Road 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERING, Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Hanover 240 

DETROIT, Mich WM. DONNELLY, Agent 

410 Shelby Street. Phone Main 0044 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 
COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 71 Main Street 

THOS. CONWAY, Secretary 
ED. HICKS. Treasurer. Phone Seneca «048 

Branches: 

CLEVELAND, 819 Superior Avenue 

Phone Main 866 

MILWAUKEE. Wis 162 Reed Street 

Phone South 598 

DETROIT, Mich 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO. ILL 357 North Clark Street 

Phone State 5175 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y „ 35 West Eagle Street 

J. M. SECORD, Secretary 
Telephone Seneca 896 

Branches: 

CHICAGO, 111 357 North Clark Street 

CLEVELAND, 1501 Columbus Road 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

DETROIT, MICH 410 Shelby Street 



PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE C. LARSEN, Acting Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches: 

VANCOUVER, B. C G. CAMPBELL, Agent 

135 Cordova Street, West 
P. O. Box 571, Telephone Seymour 8703 

TACOMA, Wash _ A. KLEMMSEN, Agent 

2115% North Thirtieth Street 
P. O. Box 102 

SEATTLE, Wash _ P. B. GILL, 

84 Seneca Street. P. O. Box 65 

ABERDEEN, Wash CHAS. OLESEN, 

P. O. Box 280 



PORTLAND, Ore D. W. PAUL, 

51 North Union Avenue 

SAN PEDRO. Cal...- HARRY OHLSEN, 

P. O. Box 67, Telephone 491W 

HONOLULU, T. H JOSEPH FALTUS, 

P. O. Box 314 



Agent 
Agent 
Agent 
Agent 
Agent 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO. Cal 58 Commercial Street 

PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 3699 
(Continued on Page 26) 



January, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



FERRYBOATMEN'S WAGE INCREASE 




UCCESS has at last rewarded the un- 
tiring efforts of the Ferry Boatmen's 
Union of California to secure a just 
wage, and the United States Railroad 
Labor Board has awarded a ten-dollar 
monthly increase in the wages of firemen, 
deckhands, cabin watchmen and night watch- 
men on San Francisco bay ferries, and this in 
the face of the carriers' refusal to meet the 
demand for increased wages. 

The August issue of the Journal com- 
mented upon the scientific character of the 
"Argument and Brief in Support of the Ferry 
Boatmen's Application for a Wage Increase" 
and it is interesting to note that the method 
of procedure both in the Brief and in the 
Argument before the Labor Board, was not 
only admirable but effective in carrying con- 
viction of the justice of the union's claims. 
T*he '"Argument before the United States 
Railroad Labor Board," as presented by C. 
W. Deal, secretary and representative of the 
Ferry Boatmen's Union, gives a very enlight- 
ening picture of the type of opposition the 
unions have to face in cases of this kind. 
Mr. Deal's story of the controversy shows that 
for three years the union was fighting in- 
sincerity and evasion on the part of the 
Carriers, and that it took all of that time to 
get a decisive arbitration of the question. 

In 1920 the union was denied an increase in 
pay by the Board on the ground that the men 
in the port of San Francisco were then re- 
ceiving more than men doing similar work 
in the port of New York. Shortly thereafter 
wages in the port of New York were greatly 
increased, completely changing the situation 
which had been used as ground for refusal of 
increase in the port of San Francisco. A 
walkout seemed inevitable in San Francisco 
as a result of this condition and the public 
intervened through chosen representatives, 
urging that drastic action be called off and 
that they, the public, would try to secure fair 
treatment. Then, according to Secretary 
Deal's report, "The Carriers told the public 
their hands were tied. That if they wanted 
to they could do nothing. That it would be 
'contempt of court' to settle with the men." 
And so the public were misled and the Ferry 



boatmen were denied reconsideration by the 
Board. It was not until December 1 of this 
year that definite action was secured. 

In refusing the wage increase in August of 
this year the Carriers claimed that "the cost 
of living at this time is no greater than it was 
in January 1919" ; that when the Board denied 
increase in 1920, the cost of living was about 
thirty points higher than at the present time; 
that "present rates of pay are generally con- 
siderably higher than those paid by other 
carriers for similar service." The reply of 
the Ferry Boatmen's Union before the Labor 
Board indicates the fallacy of these arguments. 
That reply showed, 

First, "that the Carriers' statement and 
argument that 'cost of living is no higher 
now than January 1, 1919' is not an argument 
at all." . . . "That their wage cost has not 
increased since January, 1919, and . . . 
their entire cost of operating the ferries has 
not increased. Still they have obtained enor- 
mous increases in passenger and freight rates 
since then. . . . They received the last 
increase under a false assumption that they 
would have to increase wages." 

Second, That the Carriers would continue 
to use the decision of the Board in 1920 as 
an argument against increasing wages until 
the Board itself remedied the situation. 

Third, That the employes of the San Fran- 
cisco ferry system were not receiving a highei 
wage than that paid by other Carriers, and 

Finally, that the Carriers made misleading 
and erroneous statements and tried to twist 
the meaning of the Board's own decision. 

A detailed study of this whole controversy 
is worth while because it indicates the value 
of careful preparation of claims, and the diffi- 
culties involved in the accomplishment of 
such claims for fair treatment. It also in- 
dicates the futility in the long run of the 
shortsighted policy of the Carriers. As Sec- 
retary Deal said in his reply to the Carriers : 
"I am sometimes almost forced to the conclu- 
sion that the Carriers are deliberately trying 
to mislead and deceive someone. Surely they 
should know as Shakespeare so aptly puts it, 
'Thrice is he armed that hath his quarrel 
just.' " 



THE SEAMEN 



THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



The reading of Secretary Hoover's annual 
report affords a surprising glimpse of the 
wide range of activities of the Department of 
Commerce. They include such diverse mat- 
ters as coal distribution, fisheries, Russian 
relief, housing and construction, the census, 
foreign and domestic commerce, the promo- 
tion of foreign trade, and many others. Re- 
ports, as such, are apt to be dull, but this one 
contains much interesting and desirable infor- 
mation for the man who would study the 
functioning of our national government. 

The Bureau of Fisheries 

The report of the Bureau of Fisheries shows 
that existing legislation is not adequate for 
present conditions in the Alaska fisheries. 
This industry, as a result, is threatened with 
serious injury from over-exploitation. To 
meet emergencies arising from time to time, 
executive orders have created certain reserva- 
tions which must be perpetuated by legisla- 
tion if they are to be effectively beneficial. 
The bureau makes the following recommen- 
dation : 

To prevent further depletion of the Alaska fish- 
eries. I earnestly recommend that legislative ratifi- 
cation be given to the Alaska fisheries reservation 
vyhich have been established and are now in opera- 
tion under Executive order, and that legislative 
authority be given to the President affirmatively 
empowering him to create further reservations cov- 
ering the remaining Alaskan waters. 

The importance of the Alaska industry may 
be judged from the following figures, taken 
from the report: "In 1922, the number of 
persons employed in the fisheries industry 
of Alaska was 21,794; the active investment 
was $47,509,138, and the total value of prod- 
ucts was $36,170,948. The output of canned 
salmon was 4,501,652 cases of forty-eight one- 
pound cans each, valued at $29,787,192, an 
increase of 72 per cent in quantity and 52 per 
cent in value as compared with the previous 
year." 

The Bureau of Fisheries is attempting to 
facilitate the marketing of fish in inland mar- 
kets, and has almost perfected a process of 
freezing fish in brine for transportation. 

Tests for a preservative of fishing nets 
have been successfully conducted. Improve- 
ments in method of canning sardines, special 
statistical work, the preservation of fur seals 



S JOURNAL January, 1924 

and inquiries into means of perpetuating the 
fish in our streams are further activities of 
the bureau. 

The Lighthouse Service 
Legislation recommended for the Light- 
house Service is as follows : 

a. Extension of the retirement law to cover (1) 
cases of disability in the field personnel of the 
Lighthouse Service; (2) retirement, in the discre- 
tion of the Secretary of Commerce, after thirty- 
years of service; and (3) retirement of persons 
attending minor lights. 

b. Provision of medical relief for light keepers al 
remote stations inaccessible to public health service 
hospitals, and extensions of public health service 
treatment to employes on lighthouse vessels. 

c. Authorization of the payment of claims of 
lighthouse employes for losses of personal property 
incident to their work. 

d. Extension to lighthouse employes of privileges 
now accorded to similar services respecting the pur- 
chase of commissary supplies and transportation. 

e. Provisions for the protection of aids to naviga- 
tion damaged by passing vessels and making sums 
received in payment for such damages available for 
the repair of aids. 

In carrying on the routine work of the 
lighthouse service, much progress has be^n 
made in the use of automatic apparatus as 
aids to navigation. Many radio signals have 
been established, making a total of eight f< ig- 
signaling stations equipped with radio. 
The Bureau of Navigation 
The report of the Bureau of Navigation 
gives the following analysis of American sea- 
going tonnage on June 30, 1917, as the United 
States entered the war. at the close of the 
fiscal year 1923, and on June 30, 1923 : 

Registered Seagoing Tonnage 
Shipping board Private owners 
(over 1000 gross (over 500 gross 
June 30 — tons) tons) 

No. Gross tons No. Gross tons 

1923 1,498 6,861,241 2,035 6,242.547 

1922 1,711 7,686,973 1,933 5,664,323 

1917 19 7(»,160 1,552 3,564,160 

On June 30, 1923, there were building in 
American shipyards, including the Great 
Lakes, 208 vessels of 173,305 gross tons, as 
compared with 105 vessels of 204,544 gross 
tons on June 30, 1922. 

Legislation recommended by the Bureau of 
Navigation is as follows : 

(1) Legislation for the prevention of the pollu- 
tion of coastal waters resulting from the unrestricted 
dumping in harbors or other inland waters of bilges 
of oil-burning ships. 

(2) Amendment, improvement, and revision of 
the Navigation Laws. 

(3) Legislation to assure the admeasurement of 
vessels by men selected because of their technical 
knowledge of ship architecture and admeasurement. 

(4) Load-line law. "It is imperative to the welfare 
of our merchant marine that legislation substantially 



January, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



similar to the laws of the European maritime pow- 
ers on this subject be enacted in the near future, 
inasmuch as our cargo-carrying steamers are now 
allowed to clear from the ports of these powers 
solely as an act of courtesy and not as a matter 
of right." 

Shipping Commissioners 

On this subject the report gives the fol- 
lowing summary: 

During the year 538,755 officers and men were 
shipped, reshipped, and discharged before shipping 
commissioners, compared with 541,952 for the pre- 
vious fiscal year and 378,772 for the year 1914. The 
average cost per man was 17 cents, the same as for 
1922 and also 1914. Collectors of customs acting at 
ports where shipping commissioner offices have not 
been established shipped and discharged during the 
year 28,642 officers and men, as compared with 
47,200 officers and men during the previous year. 
American consuls shipped and discharged during the 
year 52,896 men. 

Of 276,093 officers and men shipped before ship- 
ping commissioners 116,325 were native Americans, 
41,015 naturalized Americans, 156,340 in all, or 56 
per cent, compared with 54 per cent the previous 
year. 

Recommendations are made for the estab- 
lishment of a shipping commissioner's office 
■ at ports where for a consecutive number of 
years the collectors of customs acting as ship- 
ping commissioners have shipped and dis- 
charged in excess of 1,000 men. 

It is asserted that the shipping commis- 
sioners and their staff are grossly underpaid 
and that energetic, ambitious young men can 
not be expected to enter and remain in such 
service. 



THE BEST INVESTMENT 

(By Hugh Frayne) 

In the beginning of the new year we will 
again hear much through the public press of 
the "progress" made by the so-called open 
shop promoters and of the paying of bonuses 
by concerns who specialize in this philan- 
thropic practice. 

The open shop is a mortgage on the work- 
er's opportunity for advancing his economic 
development. Bonuses are unpaid wages 
which the organized workers receive in their 
weekly pay envelopes without having to wait 
until the end of the year. Compare the wages 
of the organized with the unorganized, in- 
cluding their bonuses, and it will be found 
that the organized workers receive the highest 
pay. There is always a question whether 
the bonus will be paid and the unorganized 
worker has no say in this arrangement. It is 
optional with the employer whether it is paid 



or not. There are many instances where this 
has happened. If the bonuses that are unpaid 
were counted up it would mean millions of 
dollars in money and thousands of broken 
promises. 

There is no better investment that the work- 
ing man can make than to join and pay dues 
in a trade union of his craft or calling. Be- 
sides the guarantee of high wages and better 
general working conditions he insures his 
economic value. A paid-up union card has 
demonstrated that it is a better insurance 
policy and will pay higher dividends than any 
other investment a working man can make. 
This is not theory but proven fact. 

The living standards of the organized 
American working man and his family are far 
better than those of any other nation. If the 
unorganized workers, including the so-called 
white collar man, are not sharing these better 
conditions that is their fault and should not 
be charged against those who are far-sighted 
enough to protect themselves and their inter- 
ests by trade union affiliations. A reduction 
from the higher wages and standards of the 
organized to that of the unorganized would 
not help the latter group but would add very 
largely to the number of those who, because 
of being unorganized, are unable to defend 
themselves and are forced to accept conditions 
that are working great hardships upon them 
as they are compelled to meet the high cost 
of living which is a much greater problem for 
them than for the better paid men and women 
organized into trade unions. It is well that 
our members keep this fact always in mind. 

The doors of organized labor are wide open 
to all those outside of' the American Federa- 
tion of Labor who are eligible, and we invite 
them to join our ranks. This would be a good 
New Year's resolution for 1924. 



THE TREACHEROUS FOE 

(From the Australian Worker) 



The menaces outside our ranks are plain to 

fear or fight ; 
Yet they are open foes at least, e'en though 

they're ruthless — quite. 
But ah ! the greatest enemy — and vilely would 

he win — 
Is he who'd sneak into our ranks, and fight 

us from within. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1924 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month in San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



WORTHWHILE LECTURES 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW FURUSETH, President 

A. F. of D. Building, Washington, D. C. 

PATRICK FLYNN, First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

V. A. OLANDER, Second Vice-President 

166 W. Washington Street, Chicago, 111. 

THOS. CONWAY, Third Vice-President 

71 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

P. B. GILL. Fourth Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street, Seattle. Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR, Fifth Vice-President 

1% Lewis Street, Boston, Mass. 

WM. H. BROWN. Sixth Vice-President 

202 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Mass. 

OSCAR CARLSON, Seventh Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York, N. Y. 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary-Treasurer 

355-357 N. Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 

Office of Publication. 525 Market Street 
San Francisco. California 

Subscription price $1.50 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG Editor 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished in the JOURNAL, provided they are of general 
Interest, brief, legible, written on one side only of the 
paper, and accompanied by the writer's name and 
address. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the 
expressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscript. 



JANUARY 1, 1924 



WELCOME— 1924 



The ranks of organized labor in general, 
and of the organized seamen in particular, arc- 
stronger with the close of the year than at 
its birth. There's majesty about the impreg- 
nable character of this tremendous movement. 
However it may be buffeted, it moves on with 
added strength, always with the same great 
purpose, always with greater and ever greater 
determination. Altogether, the old year lias 
not been a bad year. The balance shows 
more for which to be grateful than otherwise. 
Progress has held the ascendancy. Much 
there has been of evil and of destructiveness, 
but we have more than held our ground. It 
is good. Welcome, 1924. It has been decreed 
that vour turn is next. 



Kind and courteous treatment of woman 
workers and protection of children is always 
guaranteed by the union label. 



By an arrangement with the Extension 

Division of the University of California, the 
San Francisco Port Committee of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America is con- 
ducting a series of unique educational meet- 
ings this winter. 

General educational meetings have been 
held before and are anything but a new ven- 
ture. Never before, however, has the oppor- 
tunity presented itself to hear lecture- in a 
Seamen's Union hall from the best talent of 
one of America's greatest universities. 

The dates, name of lecturers and title of 
subjects follow : 

December 13 — Prof. A. L. Kroeber, "Human Evo- 
lution/' 

December 27 — Dr. Ira B. Cross, "Democracy and 
Industry. - ' 

January 10 — Prof. R. T. Crawford, "Astronomy in 
Everyday Life." 

January 24 — Prof. E. T. Williams, "Orkntal Race 
Problems on the Pacific Coast." 

February 7 — Prof. L. J. Richardson, "Adult Edu- 
cation." 

February 21— Prof. E. M. Sait. -The Field of Or- 
ganized Labor in England and Contemporary De- 
velopment in the Labor Movements." 

March 6 — Prof. Charles F. Gross, "Handicaps of 
the American Merchant Marine." 

March 20— Prof. Charles A. Kofoid. "The Life of 
the Sea" (Illustrated). 

April 3— Mr. Herbert F. Metcalf. "The Past, Pres- 
ent and Future of Radio" (Illustrated). 

April 10— Prof. R. G. Gettell, "The United States 
as a Sea Power." 

It will be noted that the first two lecturer 
have already been given, and to state that 
these meetings were successful is putting it 
mildly, indeed. 

Seamen of all ratings, as well as Fishermen 
and Ferry Boatmen who should happen to 
be in port at San Francisco on any of the 
given dates, are cordially invited to attend 
these meetings. Every one of the speakers 
is a recognized master of his subject. The 
topics are timely and highly interesting. Re- 
member that "knowledge is power," and al- 
ways bear in mind that no one ha- a mon- 
opoly on knowledge or education. To quote 
Spencer Miller, of the Workers' Education 
Bureau of America: "The educated man is 
not necessarily the man who has been to 
school or to college, but rather the man who 
uses his own past experience and the past 
experience of the race in determining the 
course of his future actions. There are many 



January, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



educated men who have never been to college 
and had mighty little formal schooling. They 
are self-educated, as we say. And the path 
of self-education in America has not infre- 
quently led from relative obscurity to national 
prominence. In one case at least it has led 
from a lowly log cabin to the White House. 
As if to indicate the educational nature of his 
path, Abraham Lincoln has left us that 
homely saying, prophetic of his own life, 'I'll 
study, and some day, perhaps, I'll have my 
chance.' " 

In other words, education does not begin 
with the kindergarten and end with college. 
But it is a continuous process which comes 
out of the experience of men's lives. The 
University of Hard Knocks grants no aca- 
demic degrees, but its graduates know some- 
thing of the ways of life and can adapt them- 
selves accordingly. Education, thus con- 
ceived, is the result of human experience and 
in turn guides men in the acquisition of fur- 
ther experiences. To borrow an old adage, 
it is never too late to learn. So come to the 
meetings, if possible. Be on hand promptly 
at 730 p. m. in the Maritime Hall at 59 Clay 
street on the dates scheduled and enjoy a 
genuine treat. 



THE TENTH KING DEPOSED 



It is problematical, to say the least, just 
what will be the worker's status in the 
distant future. Bear in mind, however, that 
your remaining days on earth will be shaped 
largely by your attitude toward your union. 
It is possible for you to lose every advantage 
you now enjoy or that you may hope to 
enjoy in the immediate future. Destroy your 
union and you injure or destroy your future. 
Preserve your union and you preserve your 
future. The union is not responsible for 
slackness of work nor for your temporary 
financial embarrassments. The union is what 
you and your comrades make it. In many 
respects a union is like a human being. It 
will instantly respond to a friendly, helpful 
attitude. On the other hand it will be inert 
and spiritless if only knocks and kicks are 
forthcoming. Treat your union like your 
best friend and you will be rewarded a thou- 
sandfold. And the reward will be yours 
while you are still among the living. You 
don't have to die to "cash in" ! 



December, 1923, recorded the removal of 
King George of Greece, the tenth monarch to 
be deposed since the Great War. Spain and 
Italy still have their kings, but they also have 
their dictators. Great Britain has its royal 
house, but its wages are paid by the vote of 
the House of Commons, and these wages seem 
to be paid almost as hush money, for the king 
is not allowed to rule. He is an ornament 
with less privileges than a subject, and more 
restrictions on his mode of living. 

It has been given to the twentieth century 
to bring about the general disillusionment of 
mankind on the kingly office. Russia and 
Germany, the most typical of modern nations 
respecting the kingly postion, were the means 
to destroy it. Most illusions when given time 
or opportunity will bring about their own 
disillusion. The "Divine Right'' rule idea 
had the seeds of its own destruction. Given 
opportunity and time for growth, the rule by 
"Divine Right" would produce despotism, ty- 
ranny, or usurpation of the rights of peoples. 

This is what happened. Through the cen- 
turies monarchism had grown. Deluded phil- 
osophers aided the illusion of power and 
necessity by thin systems of governmental 
philosophy which presented the Kaiser and 
the Czar as the embodiment of their respec- 
tive nation and as the specially endowed ruler. 

The World War put this idea to the test 
and an awakened world swept the reigning 
houses of Germany and Russia into limbo. 
Other kings fell. Even the sultan of Turkey, 
one of the most inviolate of monarchs, the 
custodian of a religion, and, therefore, fanati- 
cally believed to have divine power, had to 
vacate his throne and flee for safety. Turkey 
became a republic. 

It has taken a long period of time for men 
to awake to what we now look upon as 
common sense. We may be living under 
other illusions. For instance, world domi- 
nance by Czars of Finance may be even worse 
than that of the deposed rulers. Who knows? 



It is the lack of interest in spending union- 
earned money that fills the pockets of our 
enemies. Ask for the label. 



8 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL January, 1924 

HOUNDING THE IMMIGRANTS WAGES AND BUSINESS 



The Prussian idea of compelling every- 
body except the wealthy to carry identifica- 
tion papers is making great headway in 
America. 

Various groups of employers, like the ship- 
owners, now insist that their employees carry 
a blacklisting discharge book. 

Now comes Secretary of Labor Davis with 
a brilliant plan to thumb-print every alien 
in our country. The secretary wants to 
start when the immigrant arrives on our 
shores by forcing him to carry an identifica- 
tion card from that day on until he is admit- 
ted to citizenship. The immigrant who 
receives this priceless certificate of freedom 
will also be obliged to report annually to 
the Federal authorities. 

The secretary advocates this old-fashioned 
Russian or Prussian device on the pious 
ground that the card would establish the 
immigrant's right to be in this country and 
receive the benefits of our educational system. 
Just how the possession of an identification 
card would do more for the alien than is 
being done is not explained. The secretary's 
real reason follows: "Under this system we 
would have no difficulty weeding out the 
illicit immigrant, the smuggled Oriental and 
the apostle of destruction." 

In other words, because a few Chinese 
are smuggled into America, because some 
immigrants are suspected of radical tenden- 
cies, every immigrant must submit to a 
system of registration and espionage by 
bureaucrats of the departments which have 
been responsible for the stupid inhumanities 
of Ellis Island and the wild hysteria of vari- 
ous anti-Red raids. W. G. Burns with his 
fantastic notions about the Red menace 
would have his finger in the pie— and the 
American workers know what that means. 

This much seems certain: If some pretext 
can be found to issue identification cards to 
unnaturalized workers, it won't be long 
before some other pretext will be sought for 
to register the rest of us so the bosses and 
their obliging government agents can keep 
track of all who are not properly certified as 
"meek and docile." 



It is becoming more generally understood 
that there is a direct relation of wag< 
business. In our country exports of manu- 
factured articles are insignificant in compari- 
son to the goods consumed by our own 
people. In a broad sense it is the producer, 
the wage earner and the farmer, who con- 
stitute the great market for the produ 
farm and factory. Strip the wage earn< 
their purchasing power and the home market 
for all commodities is destroyed. 

As standards of living go down so must 
the market for all commodities shrink. This 
was clearly stated by Frank Hodges in his 
speech at the American Federation of Labor 
convention in referring to British living 
standards : 

Although we are a great exporting nation, the 
maximum, the majority and the highest percentage 
of our products are consumed at home, and as 
long as we are consuming a majority of our 
products at home it is clear that if we have low 
in order to sell a minority of our products 
ahroad the general standard of living of all must 
fall. 

Our wives and families, when they go to the 
store, go with less money; less bread is bought, less 
clothing is bought, less hoots arc bought, less 
books are bought, less a thousand and one things 
are bought, because we cannot with our decreased 
purchasing power get the goods. The result is 
that factories, woolen factories, our agricultural 
and vegetable products, decline. 

During the war there were some amusing 
and sarcastic references in the American 
to workers buying high priced silk shirt-, [f 
they had not been in possession of 1 
they would not have bought the silk shirts 
or other things. What business needs ;it 
this time and at all other times is that wage 
earners should have more money to spend. 
That is what would assure general prosperity. 
A silk shirt may be the antithesis of thrift but 
when working people buy silk shirts it means 
there is money in circulation. 

Just at present American export business 
complains about the fact that there is un- 
employment throughout Europe. Of course, 
this merely proves that merchants cannot sell 
normal quantities of goods to underpaid 
or idle wage earners. To sumjnarize : the 
case of 'Svages vs. business" finds an apt illus- 
tration in every country where the workers' 
standard of living is far below the avei 



January, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



India and China are such countries. And who 
will maintain that either are shining examples 
of general prosperity? 



THE MEXICAN REVOLT 



The present Mexican revolution is directed 
by reaction and the military elements for the 
purpose of restoring special privilege. Trade 
unionists are being organized to take the field 
against these enemies of democracy. 

This is the word received by Samuel Gom- 
pers from Ricardo Trevino and Reynaldo 
Cervantes Torres, secretaries of the Confed- 
eracion Regional Obrera Mexicana (Mexican 
Federation of Labor). 

After due deliberation the executive com- 
mittee of the Pan-American Federation of 
Labor forwarded this telegram to the Mexi- 
can trade unionists : 

The Pan-American Federation of Labor supports 
with earnestness the position taken by the Mexican 
Federation of Labor in defense of the demo- 
cratically elected government headed by President 
Obregon, whom this committee has always re- 
garded as a patriot and a sincere friend of the wage 
earners. We are profoundly disappointed that 
there should be any leaders in Mexico so false 
to their professions as to resort to arms In an 
effort to overthrow a government which was demo- 
cratically and constitutionally elected by the people 
of Mexico, and which is the best government 
Mexico has ever had. 

We take this opportunity to record our condem- 
nation of any effort to overthrow democratic 
government anywhere, whether in behalf of monar- 
chists or dictators of the other extreme. We are 
well aware that the rebellious effort now confront- 
ing the Mexican government is supported by the 
powerful extreme reactionaries and a small group 
of extreme revolutionists of the communist or 
bolshevist type, a combination which is curious 
but not entirely unnatural, but which shows clearly 
the insincerity of the attempt from a democratic 
point of view. 

We interpret the resort to arms by the reaction- 
ary movement as proof positive that it could not 
win in a peaceful contest of ballots. All people who 
love democracy must protect the ballot against 
violence, and must know that only in a free and 
peaceful expression of the will of the people 
through the ballot can there be any security for 
political freedom or any guarantee of continued 
progress toward greater opportunity, freedom and 
justice. 

The message is clear and to the point. Col- 
lusion or open co-operation between self-styled 
radicals and irreconcilable reactionaries is one 
of the most peculiar developments of our 
complex civilization. In the political as well 
as in the economic field we find the extremes 



from the top and the bottom joining hands 
to retard constructive progress. 

The men on top are the oil magnates, fully 
determined to try one more drive against 
the Republic of Mexico before accepting the 
new constitution and all its wholesome pro- 
visions for the protection of labor. 

The whole lineup of the rebellion generals 
was plainly an oil organization. Their so- 
called grievances were nothing but oil mani- 
festos. Our own plutocrats north of the Rio 
Grande do not like the liberal and progressive 
government of Mexico. They do not relish 
paying workers compensation for injuries or 
for enforced idleness. They long for an iron 
rule by another Diaz. But it is one thing to 
finance a rebellion and quite another to make 
it successful. 

Well, here's hoping that President Obregon 
and his associates of the Mexican Republic 
will teach the oil plutocrats a much-needed 
lesson ! 



PROGRESSING BACKWARD! 



Iron ore shipments for the past season on 
the Great Lakes were fourth largest on rec- 
ord. There were 59,000,000 tons of iron ore 
carried this season. The highest amount ever 
carried was in 1916 when the fleet loaded 
64.7.U.000 tons. By using more and more 
ships of the larger improved type, the ship- 
owners are enabled to carry more ore than 
in former years with less effort, less ships and 
fewer number of sailors. In most other in- 
dustries the coming of improved labor-saving 
machinery has a tendency to make it easier 
for the men in that industry to obtain shorter 
hours of work; but on these steel trust-con- 
trolled iron ore ships the sailors are still 
forced to work twelve hours a day, eighty- 
four hours per week, which was the workday 
in effect for sailors when Christopher Colum- 
bus discovered America. It seems as if ship- 
owners on the Lakes will not grant shorter 
working hours to the sailors until compelled 
to do so. The compelling force may be either 
legal or economic pressure, but under no cir- 
cumstances will they voluntarily surrender to 
the sailors a reasonable share of the profits 
obtained through the use of larger and larger 
ships. 



10 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1924 



FAILURE OF ANTI-UNION DRIVE 

The drive against unions so widely advo- 
cated, in employing circles, some three years 
ago, seems to have completely subsided. The 
much wanted "American Plan" turned out to 
be a flat tire, largely because it was un- 
American. The last three years have proved 
that labor unions can not be swept out of 
existence by mere noise, nor by hired propa- 
ganda, nor by employers. It is only the wage 
earners who can destroy unions. 

This they sometimes do, either by remain- 
ing aloof or by joining rival factions, but 
in the general run when organized labor is 
attacked more workers rally to its defense 
and it finds itself supported by more and 
more loyal members even though its mem- 
bership rolls may be somewhat reduced. Thus 
such attacks develop more earnest workers to 
rebuild the forces of labor. That is why the 
greatest gains of union membership usually 
follow a violent attack accompanied by a 
temporary reduction in total membership. 

The anti-union drive has failed and nearly 
all its exhorters, paid and unpaid, appear to 
be silenced. It failed notwithstanding that 
there were nearly or quite 5,000,000 workers 
unemployed! The unions of labor have 
proved to the country that the only real 
"American Plan" is one where workers are 
organized and have a collective voice in 
disposing of their labor. And it is begin- 
ning to be believed that the defeat of the 
anti-union drive has been a good thing for 
business. Had employers been permitted to 
work their will as to wages they would have 
reduced them so seriously as to reduce pur- 
chasing power equally seriously and so 
retard retail merchandising and reduce manu- 
facturing. 

Thus the unions in their stern resistance 
to the union smashers have helped to save 
business from suicide. Union haters have 
unions to thank for saving them from their 
own destructive efforts. They will not thank 
us, and they probably feel just as bitter as 
they did two or three years ago, but their 
public following has shrunk to zero. They 
went up like a balloon and came down flat, 
like a kite. 

Now we are approaching a new year which 
should be for organized labor a year of 



recovery from all losses of membership. More 
than that, new standards of advancement in 
membership and loyalty should be set up. 
The earnest defenders of the unions during 
the past few years should now be equally 
earnest in strengthening the ranks for new 
gains and for gaining new workers for 
further gains. 

In the marine transportation industry we 
see signs of awakening interest among unor- 
ganized workers, and we urge our active 
members to be on the alert to take full 
advantage of every opportunity to extend the 
organization into new fields with increasing 
membership. 



In accordance with an agreement entered 
into between the Longshoremen's Association 
of San Francisco and the Waterfront Em- 
ployers Union December 10, 1919, and to re- 
main in effect for five years subject to an 
adjustment of wages in December of each 
year, based upon the cost of living, an in- 
crease of approximately \2 l / 2 per cent has 
been agreed to, effective December 10. 1923. 
This increase raises the general cargo rate 
from 80 to 90 cents per hour for straight 
time and from $1.20 to $1.35 per hour for 
overtime work, with eight commodities above 
the $1 per hour rate. Under the new schedule 
the pay ranges from 90 cents to $1.65 per 
hour, making wages of Longshoremen in San 
Francisco the highest in the United States. 



As previously announced, the twenty- 
seventh annual convention of the International 
Seamen's Union of America will meet in the 
Continental Hotel, New York City, during 
the week beginning January 14. Reports re- 
ceived to date indicate a record attendance 
including two fraternal delegates from the 
National Sailors' and Firemen's, Cooks, and 
Stewards' Union of Great Britain and Ireland. 
The editor of the JOURNAL will be a delegate 
to the convention and prepare a summary of 
the proceedings for the February issue. 



The index for Volumes 36 and 37 and the 
Journal is mailed with this issue to all 
libraries on the mailing list. Any other reader 
who has preserved his copies for binding will 
be supplied with a copy of the index upon 
application. 



in 



January, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



11 



DEMOCRACY OR SLAVERY— WHICH? 

(By Andrew Furuseth) 



Modern life is based on commerce. The 
overcrowded industrial nations must exchange 
their products for food and raw material or 
there is hunger and death until the population 
is reduced to correspond with the food supply. 
Central Europe illustrates what must of neces- 
sity happen when production is hindered and 
transportation stopped. The men who have 
developed and are carrying on this business 
are of the utmost importance and their opin- 
ions on questions of production and exchange 
of commodities are to be given the most 
careful thought ; but that does not necessitate 
that those gentlemen be given the power over 
life and death and the industrial power over 
the means of life is, of course, the power over 
life. 

The feudal magnates insisted that they 
must have power of life and death over the 
population living and working on their estates. 
They obtained it. Of course, they misused it. 
The result was a bondage under which men 
were tied to the soil. If the same power 
(under any other name) be granted to the 
industrial magnates, we shall have men tied 
to the mine, the factory, and the means of 
distribution, as .the men were tied to the soil, 
and to all appearance there are to be no 
asylums such as were provided by the free 
cities and by free territories. 

The {feudal system provided for some 
escapes. It is difficult to see what escapes 
there may be from any like servitude estab- 
lished by industry. The power of kings and 
priests did not watch over and pursue the 
subject as does the power of the industrial 
master. The hours of labor and the wages 
paid determine the whole of life. The twelve- 
hour day — the eighty-four-hour week — makes 
family life a caricature of what is meant to be 
and must be if the race is to continue. The 
wages determine the kind of shelter, the kind 
and amount of food, the clothing, the school- 
ing, the association. It may be, and often is, 
so inadequate that an ordinary human life 
becomes, as with seamen, an impossibility. 
To grant such powers to any class of men is 
to invite its fullest use with the inevitable 
result of hopelessness and annihilation. And 
yet such are the powers which the industrial 



magnates are insisting upon being necessary 
in order that they may continue and further 
develop the system. That the old system of 
society was destroyed by the late war and 
peace is now apparent to all. 

What is it, that is coming to take its place? 
Is it to be industrial bondage or industrial 
democracy? The government of the world 
has passed or is now passing from the old 
governing class. It is not industry only that 
is passing through some stupendous change; 
it is human society in all its aspects. The 
struggle between the temporal and the spir- 
itual powers finally gave to the world the 
condition in which it was largely found 
at the opening of the French revolution. The 
influences of that upheaval were of such 
importance that practically nothing looked 
the same, even after it was neutralized 
through the French defeats and the congress 
at Vienna. The real power had passed from 
the old governing class. The revolutions of 
1830, 1848 and 1860 simply tore down the 
defenses set up by the congress at Vienna. 
The struggle for mastery between the old 
and the new governing classes went on. The 
power over the common people exercised by 
the old governing class did not come to those 
who had fought for it and had expected it. 
There was a period in which the working 
people were given certain freedom and the 
right of combination in order that they might 
be used by either of the contestants for their 
own ends. Temporarily, at least, the strug- 
gle between the two seems to be at an end. 
The industrial magnates seem to have won. 
They think they have, and they are taking 
away, as far as they can, such rights as had 
been granted. Are they to succeed? It seems 
to me that nobody can answer that question 
now. We hope that they will not. We 
believe that they will not; and yet they may. 

Such freedom as the workers had, and to 
some extent still have, in fact as well as in 
law, was not obtained except by great sacri- 
fices on the part of a great many men. And 
it was not just a question of speaking nor 
even of fighting and dying, it was very often 
a question of timely silence and of bending to 
let the gale blow over. It was not the blatant 
demagogue — the talker. He was then, as now, 
more than anything: else, a hindrance. It was 



11 



12 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1924 



the thinkers, the doers, the men persistent and 
watchful, who guided the progress, whenever 
they could obtain an effective hearing. As 
that freedom was won, so it must be main- 
tained. We must learn how to distinguish 
the real from the seeming, the doer from the 
talker, the genuine from the apparent, or we 
shall lose all. 

The danger from without is as nothing 
compared with the danger from within. The 
cement that held the workers together in the 
past was mutual confidence — mutual aid. If 
that can be destroyed the workers will be 
helpless. If somebody can inculcate in the 
workers a belief that honesty is stupidity, 
that self-sacrifice is a deception, that all men 
without exception are governed by self-interest 
and neither can nor will be faithful to any- 
thing else, then combinations for mutual aid 
and protection are made impossible. 

This has become thoroughly recognized. 
The modern way of fighting the workers is 
to send men in among them to destroy con- 
fidence and faith. The question now is not 
how to break strikes. The question is how 
to prevent them. Those who are to do this 
must be among the workers and apparently 
be one of them. Such men must make them- 
selves the spokesmen of the extreme group. 
They must be the guides of those who hold 
projects that for the time being look good and 
possible, but are, in fact, impossible. To kill 
the possible, the really impossible must be 
urged, and the sane man with sane thoughts 
must be discredited. If any real struggle 
cannot be prevented, then the hot-bloods must 
be led into such actions as to forfeit all pub- 
lic sympathy. This is the job of the provoca- 
teur. Temporarily he appears as a hero ; but 
he is usually found to be a detective in dis- 
guise. He is quietly let off or he becomes 
a witness for the State. The rest suffer be- 
cause of their lack of discrimination when it 
comes to the men and things to be done. 

To fill the place of the radical leader and the 
provocateur the I. W. W. has come as if sent by 
the devil himself. Here we have an organiza- 
tion open to all. No previous knowledge is re- 
quired of the man who would become a 
member and :no previous knowledge of the 
work to be done is needed by him ; he is 
admitted. No one needs to know and vouch 



for him. This organization gives the oppor- 
tunity to get the full measure of the men 
before they are given a chance to know what 
the organization is doing. There is the public 
talk to the crowd and the secret talk to the 
initiated. If found suitable, the man usually 
becomes a detective, is well paid, well pro- 
tected, and henceforth very valuable to the 
employer who wants certain kinds of work 
done. Workingmen will have to find some 
way of discriminating between the genuine 
and the fraud, the ostensible and the real. 

The other way, and it is very much advo- 
cated by the employers and their employes, 
the I. W. W., is the open shop. The worker 
must work together with, live together with, 
and be in constant contact with, men of whose 
past he knows nothing. He may not like this 
man's talk to begin with, but heard too often, 
it generally goes as stated by the poet. He 
first hates, then endures, then pities and then 
embraces. 

The natural form of organization is by 
crafts or callings. Those who know the job 
feel its evils and are most likely to know the 
remedy. Then the men are likely to know 
each other. There is not the opportunity for 
deception that there is in the One Big Union. 
The crook is more likely to be unmasked. 
Unions of crafts or callings, organized upon 
that basis and federated together for common 
purposes, seems the best and safest up to the 
present. Let us try them out fully, and, 
above all, let us learn to trust one another, 
having first learned to know each other. In 
this there is hope for the future. If we are 
to escape industrial bondage this seems the 
way to travel and to work. 



FISH FROM THE DESERT 



Stanley W. Cosby, of the University of 
California, tells of finding a Spanish fisher- 
man taking heavy netloads of mullet out of 
a salty lake in the Laguna Salada region, 
Mexico, forty miles from Mexicali, and wholly 
cut off from the Gulf whence the fish had 
originally come. This man hauls hundreds of 
cases of this excellent vegetarian fish an- 
nually to Mexicali, where he ships them to 
San Diego by rail. For five years he has done 
a profitable business feeding seashore folk 
with fish from the desert. 



12 



January, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



13 



SALVAGE SWINDLERS 



During the war the master of an American 
ship performed a salvage service in the 
Mediterranean and settled on the spot with 
the Italian firm which owned the "lame 
duck." The proceeds of the transaction he 
calmly pocketed, and as communications were 
rather difficult in those days, it was not 
until the members of the crew approached 
the owners for the few dollars promised 
them by the captain and never paid them 
that the episode became known. The out- 
come was that the owners made a demand 
upon the careless Italians for their share 
of the salvage compromise, which the Italians 
had to pay over again. This incident, says 
"Nauticus," is brought back to mind by the 
indictments returned by the Federal grand 
jury in New York against Isadore Rabinow, a 
lawyer, and his acolytes, Richard L. Mon- 
taigne and Emmanuel Perry. The charge 
against them is that they collected from the 
Shipping Board the salvage award to the 
crew of the steamship East Indian in the 
matter of the services rendered at sea to 
the disabled Shipping Board steamship Lake 
Flag. 

It appears that when the East Indian 
arrived in port after towing the Lake Flag, 
Montaigne obtained the signature of the 
master and second mate to a paper appoint- 
ing him attorney for them, upon representa- 
tions that he was acting for the Shipping 
Board. When the fraud was discovered the 
master scratched his and the second mate's 
signatures from the paper and advised the 
crew not to sign it. However, some time 
later retainers showing the signatures of all 
the crew of the East Indian we r e presented 
to the Board, and amounts aggregating 
$8000 were paid thereunder in respect of 
salvage services. The checks were all 
indorsed by the payees as well as by 
Rabinow. It is alleged that the payees' 
names were forged, and that the amounts 
were kept by Rabinow who, however, gave 
as much as 40 per cent of their portion of 
the salvage award to those of the crew who 
complained. # It is added that similar frauds 
were perpetrated in respect of the salvage 
award to the crew of the steamship Triumph 



for their services in assisting the steamship 
West Greylock, and participating in the 
salvage of the steamship West Wauneke 
along with the East Indian. Admiral Benson, 
Commissioner of the Shipping Board, with 
Edward Wandles, attorney for the Board, are 
credited with having conducted the investiga- 
tions which resulted in the indictments being 
found against the trio named above. 



SHIPPING BOARD'S ANNUAL REPORT 



The seventh annual report of the Shipping 
Board, issued during the month, is a bulky 
document of 200 pages in which the activi- 
ties of the Emergency Fleet Corporation are 
reviewed at length. During the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1923, the Board succeeded in 
selling 382 ships of 1,734,213 deadweight tons 
for $30,138,906.96. Among these were 71 
steel cargo ships of 347,799 tons and realizing 
$8,725,372; 10 ships of 64,911 tons, sold for 
conversion to Diesel machinery and bringing 
$564,500; and 44 steel tankers of 412,420 tons, 
whose aggregate sale price amounted to $18.- 
875,004.90. In addition to these there were 
sold eight old or damaged vessels, thirteen 
ocean-going steel tugs and four wooden tugs 
and 233 wood and composite vessels sold for 
scrapping. 

The chartering department reports charters 
of tankers and cargo steamers for 389 trips, 
representing 3,325,000 deadweight tons, 
although, "aside from coal and oil move- 
ments, the ruling freight rates for the year 
were below actual operating costs." 

Specific instances of foreign discrimination 
are being investigated by the Board with a 
view to correcting them or enforcing retalia- 
tory measures, it is said. Among those listed 
in the report are the alleged practice of 
Australian shippers of giving preferential 
treatment to cargoes shipped by Canadian 
ports, and the operation of a South African 
conference agreement which prevents ship- 
pers in that country from utilizing American 
tonnage. 

The report lists these four factors as 
operating to the disadvantage of American 
shipowners : 

The high standard of living in the United 
States, with consequent effect on labor costs, 



13 



14 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1924 



which would make "an American built ship 
represent an investment of 25 per cent 
greater than a similar vessel constructed on 
the Clyde." 

High wage scales on American ships 
''amounting to an ordinary cargo steamer 
approximately $10,000 a year" more than the 
wages on a similar foreign ship. 

The difficulty of raising capital in the 
United States for strictly maritime enter- 
prises, as contrasted with certain foreign 
countries where this field is a popular one 
for investors. 

The advantage held by foreign lines 
through long careers in the business. 

"Some of these handicaps may disappear 
in time," the report continued. "The most 
serious, however, are those due to restric- 
tions which are imposed upon our ships by 
our laws for the general good of the country 
as a whole 

"Obviously, if the country is to impose 
financial burdens upon its shipping it must, 
in order to obtain such shipping, be willing 
to bear from the national treasury the higher 
costs which such impositions bring." 

To encourage the establishment of an 
adequate, privately owned, American mer- 
chant marine, the report recommends certain 
measures of indirect aid, such as making the 
Construction Loan Fund available for the 
reconditioning of existing vessels; the crea- 
tion of a joint rail and water board ; the 
amendment of Section 28 of the Merchant 
Marine Act, the confining of the transporta- 
tion of Government passengers and freight 
to American flag ships; the encouragement of 
a Naval Reserve and the transportation, as 
far as practicable, of one-half of our immi- 
grants in American flag ships. The report 
further contains a recommendation that the 
present mail subvention law which was 
passed in 1891 be corrected as to rates to 
meet present-day conditions. 



LAKE FREIGHTERS 



Error continually repeats itself in action ; 
for this reason we must never tire of repeat- 
ing the truth in word. — Goethe. 



Cheap is dear in the long run. Avoid bar- 
gain sales and patronize merchants who sell 
union-labelled goods. 



( )ne of the most interesting papers read 
at the recent annual meeting of the American 
Society of Naval Architects and Marine 
Engineers at New York was that by Prof. 
A. F. Lindblad on "Some Factors Affecting 
the Economy of Operation of Lake Freight- 
ers." The author stated at the outset that 
it was well known that the transportation 
of cargoes on the Great Lakes of North 
America is carried out very cheaply and 
efficiently, in spite of the fact that no steam- 
ers on those waters are fitted with cargo- 
handling equipment. All loading and dis- 
charging operations are performed by means 
of machinery on the quays at the various 
ports, and these appliances have been devel- 
oped to such a high pitch of efficiency, as 
well as being specially designed to suit the 
different kinds of cargo usually handled in 
each port, that for rapidity of despatch and 
economical working it is doubtful if any 
other ports in the world can excel those of 
the Great Lakes. This is particularly so in 
the case of bulk cargoes. Another very 
important factor touched on by the speaker 
was the phenomenal increase in the size of 
the vessels engaged in traffic in these waters. 
In 1886 the largest ship trading there was 
303 feet long; in 1989 there were two which 
each had a length of 455 feet and a beam of 
50 feet ; while the largest vessel afloat on 
the Lakes today is the W. Grant Morden, 
which is 625 feet long, 59 feet in breadth, 
33 feet in depth, and has a deadweight 
carrying capacity of 14,200 tons. Two other 
steamers are almost as big, these being the 
Colonel G. M. Schoonmaker and William P. 
Schneider, each of which is 617 feet by 64 
feet by 33 feet, and has a deadweight ton- 
nage of 14.000. Apart from these three, the 
majority of the ships launched within the 
last ten years or so are about 580 feet in 
length, with a beam of 60 feet and a depth 
of 32 feet, and have a deadweight carrying 
capacity of about 12,000 tons on a draught 
of about 20 feet. The most outstanding 
feature in the development of the design of 
Great Lakes cargo carriers has been the 
steady increase in length, while beam and 
moulded depth have changed very little. The 



14 



January, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



15 



reason for this lies in the limitations on the 
two latter dimensions imposed by the locks 
on the canals and narrow channels in 
parts of the routes which have to be navi- 
gated. These have hardly changed in the 
last forty years, but the demand for inert - 
cargo space has grown. In consequent 
it has not been possible to build wider or 
deeper ships, they have been built with 
greater length, the only possible way in 
which a greater displacement could be 
obtained without increasing the depth or 
beam. Grain, coal and ore forming by far 
the greater portion of the cargoes carried, it 
has naturally followed that most of the Lake 
type steamers have been designed for the 
express purpose of carrying these commodi- 
ties in the cheapest and most economical 
way. Superstructures have been reduced to 
the minimum, and everything excepting sea- 
worthiness and propelling and steering effi- 
ciency has been sacrificed to cargo space. 
The result is seen in the unwieldy looking 
but highly efficient vessels which form the 
greater part of the merchant fleet now 
engaged in trade on the Great Lakes. The 
navigating bridge is right up in the bows, the 
propelling machinery is aft. and the whole 
of the intervening space is available for 
cargo. The entire absence oi deck fittings 
and superstructure, and the provision of 
numerous large hatchways all along the 
deck, make for rapidity in loading and dis- 
charging, as no obstructions are offered to 
the smooth working of the very efficient 
cargo-handling appliances with which every 
port on the Great Lakes is provided. 



GERMAN SEA WAGES 



NORWEGIAN SEA WAGES 



A revised scale of wages for certain classes 
of Norwegian seamen has been agreed upon 
by the Norwegian Shipowners' Association 
and the Sailors' and Firemen's L'nion. The 
new rates are based upon the higher cost of 
living. Under the terms of the agreement, 
crews are allowed a half day off each month 
for shore leave and, after one year's con- 
tinuous service, one week's vacation with 
full pay. The agreement remains in force 
until Sept. 30. 1924. Notice of termination 
must be given two months in advance. 



The official paper of the German Seamen's 
Union, known as "Schiffakrt." has evidently 
suspended publication. At any rate 
Journal office has not received the 
exchange copy for some time past. 

The official paper of the licen- 
officers of the German Merchant Mai 
still published regularly. According to the 
current issue German shipowners 
organized deck officers have finally made an 
agreement for a year based on a new mark 
which is to be known as the Renten mark. 
This new mark has not been issued in 
sufficient quantity for general use. In the 
meantime payment will be made on a gold 
basis in any currency available. All marks 
shall be paid on the basis of the vain 
the gold mark. The new agreement will run 
until November 20 next year. If no notice 
is given previous to November 20 the agree- 
ment will run for another month. This 
agreement between the Central L'nion of 
Shipowners and the men was made after 
months of bargaining between the representa- 
tives of the two bodies. 

The first mate is to receive ISO Renten 
marks: the second mate. 132 Renten marks: 
the third mate. 96 Renten marks and the 
fourth mate 75 Renten marks. There are 
a little more than four Renten marks to the 
dollar. In addition to the wages the agree- 
ment provides for one-half of a Renten mark 
per hour overtime for any work that is done 
in port in excess of eight hours. Each officer 
shall also have his personal belongings in- 
sured by the company against loss. The 
master's personal property will be insured 
for 1500 Renten marks, first officer 1000 
Renten marks, the second, third and fourth 
officers for 900 Renten marks each. The 
German shipping agent, who is the govern- 
ment representative, deducts 10 per cent of 
the wasres as a government income tax. 



It has been a long time coming and it is 
not here yet. but we are getting closer and 
closer to* the time when all the unions af- 
filiated with organized labor will stand and 
pull together. 



IS 



16 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL January, 1924 

A. F. OF L. MEMBERSHIP STATISTICS BRAZIL— LAND OF THE FUTURE 



Employers and their spokesmen are busily 
circulating the statement that American Fed- 
eration of Labor membership has declined. 
They want to believe union membership has 
dropped and they want others to believe like- 
wise. 

American Federation of Labor membership 
has not dropped and it is not dropping. To 
the contrary, it is growing. During the com- 
ing year it is going to grow a lot more. 

The figures published yearly by the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor do not show mem- 
bership. They show per capita tax paid. 
There is a great difference. 

Figures published at convention time in 
October showed a decline in per capita tax 
paid over a period of sixteen months. During 
those months there was much unemployment 
and there were many strikes, some of them 
of huge proportions. They included the rail- 
way shopmen's strike. 

Unemployed workers and workers on strike 
do not pay per capita tax — they cannot. But 
they are union members just the same. There 
is no way of knowing with anything like sta- 
tistical accuracy at any time what is the total 
union membership. But everything that has 
any bearing on the subject goes to prove that 
union strength is as great as it was at the 
peak, and that it is going upward. 

President Samuel Gompers of the A. F. 
of L. recently said publicly that there are 
6,000,000 organized wage-earners in the 
United States. That is the best and most 
authoritative statement available. 

The American Federation of Labor is at 
top strength, and it is growing stronger every 
day. Tell that to those whose wish is father 
to the thought that the A. F. of L. is pining 
away. The A. F. of L. is on the upward 
sweep, a constructive, fighting organization ! 



During the year ended June 30, 1923, no 
less than 145,084 persons were admitted to 
American citizenship, 24,874 of whom were 
from Italy, 22,621 from Poland, 17,190 from 
Russia, 16,953 from Great Britain and posses- 
sions (except Canada), 12,064 from Germany 
and the remainder from smaller countries and 
their possessions. 



Brazil, which is the largest of the South 
American republics, covers an area greater 
than that of the United States, excluding 
Alaska, and, according to latest estimates, 
has a population of approximately 31,000,000, 
or nearly one-third of the total population 
of all Latin America. Commercially, the 
country may be divided into four zones— 
the northern zone, bordering the Guiana 
highland, which is potentially rich, not only 
in its valuable forests, but also in its wide 
stretches of open country, which make ex- 
cellent grazing lands; the north-central zone, 
which lies in the Amazon Valley and from 
which several tons of rubber, nuts and other 
forest products are shipped every year ; and 
the south-central and southern zones, which 
contain the bulk of the Brazilian population 
and in which the greatest development in 
agriculture, stock raising, mining and manu- 
facturing has taken place. 

With the exception of a few Indians in 
the interior and scattered along the Amazon 
Valley, the greater part of the Brazilian pop- 
ulation is found in the states bordering the 
Atlantic. Unlike the other Latin American 
countries, the first successful colonists of 
Brazil were the Portuguese, and their lan- 
guage is the one universally spoken through- 
out the republic. 

Brazil at present is pre-eminently an agri- 
cultural country, the chief crop being coffee, 
which is grown in the greatest quantities in 
the southern states of Sao Palo, Rio de 
Janeiro, Minas Geraes and Espirito Santo. 
Other important agricultural products are 
cacao and tobacco, which are grown around 
Bahia ; sugar, which is cultivated in the 
district between Natal and Sao Paulo; cot- 
ton, which is raised in several of the north- 
ern states, and beans and corn, which form 
the staple foods of the republic and are 
grown over a wide area. Closely allied with 
the agricultural industry is the livestock 
industry, which is arousing increased atten- 
tion, especially in Southern Brazil, where 
several large meat-packing concerns are lo- 
cated. 

Important forest products are para rubber, 
which comes from the Amazon district; co- 



ir, 



January, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



17 



coanuts, which are found in all parts of the 
country, but are of commercial importance 
only in the northern states; nuts, vegetable 
ivory, and carnauba wax. Brazil, perhaps 
more than any other country, is the land of 
undeveloped resources. It has vast areas of 
untold potential wealth. In other words, 
it is "the" land of the future. 



CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 



BEWARE OF LYING PROPAGANDA! 



Representative George Huddleston of Ala- 
bama performed a distinct public service in 
his recent vigorous attack on the lying propa- 
ganda which presents the farmers and the 
city workers as opposing forces, having noth- 
ing whatever in common. 

Speaking in the House, Mr. Huddleston 
pointed out that the farmers and industrial 
workers have much in common. He exposed 
the falsity of the "arguments" of those who 
assert otherwise and showed how the propa- 
gandists falsify and ignore facts to bolster up 
their contention that farmers and industrial 
workers must be at swordspoints. 

Declaring that the possibilities of economic 
co-operation or partnership between farmers 
and wage-earners are stupendous, Mr. Hud- 
dleston cited instances of how the producers 
and consumers are gouged. He said that it 
is estimated that in 1922 the farmers of the 
United States received a total of $7,500,000,- 
000 for their produce and that for the same 
produce the consumers paid $22,000,000,000. 
The farmer who produced the commodity re- 
ceived less than 30 cents from each dollar 
that the consumer paid for it, so that there 
went to handlers, speculators, dealers, car- 
riers and other middlemen 70 cents from every 
dollar that consumers paid, Mr. Huddleston 
added. 

Mr. Huddleston went on to say that the 
highest duty of the statesmanship of America 
is to bring the producers face to face with the 
consumers in direct dealing so as to permit 
the least possible intervention of middlemen. 

This is a sentiment to which the masses of 
America can subscribe, with the wish that the 
day is not far distant when the nation will 
see its way clear to bring about that co- 
operation that Mr. Huddleston so strongly 
advocates. 



Andrew Johnson vs. Panama Railroad — 
This case, involving the constitutionality of 
Section 33 of the Jones Bill, which is an 
amendment to Section 20 of the Seaman's Act, 
was argued before the Supreme Court of the 
United States on December 7, 1923. The 
argument was made by Wade H. Ellis, former 
Attorney General of the State of Ohio and 
Assistant Attorney General of the United 
States. It would seem from the argument, 
the briefs, and comments of the various 
members of the Court, that the Act would 
be upheld. Its general provisions have be- 
come known to seamen. It makes the Fed- 
eral Employes' or Railway Employes' Lia- 
bility Act applicable to ships and seamen. In 
other words,- if a seaman is injured by neg- 
ligent navigation or act of commission or 
omission of the shipowner or any of the 
officers or crew, the seaman may recover such 
damage as the jury may think will adequately 
compensate him for his injuries. It makes a 
vast difference to the seaman because, under 
the old law, he could recover only his main- 
tenance and cure and wages to the end of 
the voyage in these cases. Inasmuch as this 
Act has been held to be constitutional as to 
railway servants, it is difficult to see hov 
the Supreme Court can now say it is not 
constitutional when extended to seamen. 

Olbers vs. U. S. Shipping Board — The 
judgment of the lower court dismissing the 
complaint was affirmed without opinion by 
the Circuit Court of Appeals. This amounts 
to a denial of a jury trial, and the case will 
be taken to the Supreme Court of the United 
States. Arrangements are being made 
through Mr. Furuseth, president of the In- 
ternational Seamen's Union and Wade H. 
Ellis, of the Washington Bar. 

McGown vs. S. S. Tairoa — In admiralty. 
An appeal has been taken to the Circuit 
Court of Appeals. Judge Goddard held that 
the decision of the Cubadist, Section 4529, for 
waiting time applied to the case of American 
seamen who demanded half wages on a Brit- 
ish vessel while in a port of the United 
States. The half wage demand was complied 
with after a delay of three weeks. The sea- 
men are suing for three weeks' waiting time. 



17 



18 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1924 



It is a union case and will be carried to the 
highest court. 

Gotfred Line vs. S. S. Stavangeren — Judge 
Sheppard, sitting in the United States District 
Court for the Eastern district of New York, 
held that where a Norwegian seaman had 
received the greater part of his wages by- 
voluntary payment while in the harbor of 
New York, and then demanded one-half of 
the balance, he could not have it under Sec- 
tion 4530 of United States Revised Statutes. 
He dismissed the libel. The seaman had been 
required to deposit a bond to the value of 
about $100 in Norway upon joining the ship. 
If his half wage case is reversed in the Cir- 
cuit Court of Appeals, as it should be, it will 
be a great victory for the sailors. 

Brutality on Barkentine Puako — The 
famous case of Campbell, Jensen, -Matson, 
Jones, Grielsen, Reilly and Joe vs. Rolpli 
Steamship Co. for damages occuring out of 
assaults and brutal treatment committed upon 
their persons by the master of the barkentine 
Puako, Adolph Cornelius Pederson and his 
sons, who were subsequently convicted and 
served time in Leavenworth prison, will be 
brought to trial in January, 1924, at San 
Francisco, California. Attorney Axtell is 
anxious to have one or two of the victims 
present in court. Their testimony has been 
taken before trial, but it would be better ii 
one or more of them were there in person. 
Witnesses should apply to Silas B. Axtell, 
11 Moore street, New York City, or to Alden 
Ames, local attorney, 493 Mills building, San 
Francisco, for instructions. 

Street vs. Shipowners Association of the 
Pacific Coast— The United States Supreme 
Court has declined to rule in this case and 
has referred the petition back to the United 
States Circuit Court of Appeals (9th cir.). 
This is a test action brought to determine 
whether continuous discharge books for sea- 
men constitute an unlawful restraint of trade, 
and an attempt at blacklisting in violation cf 
the statute. 



BOOK REVIEWS 



When the workers acquire the virtue of 
self-dependence a great many "friends of 
labor" will have to adopt some other pro- 
fession. 



Boundaries, Geographic Centers, and Alti- 
tudes of the United States, by E. M. Douglas, 
has been issued by the Department of the 
Interior as Bulletin 689 of the Geological Sur- 
vey. The report is sold by the Superintendent 
of Documents, Washington, D. C, at nominal 
cost. It also gives numerous little-known 
facts relating to the organization of the 
original thirteen colonies and of the States 
after the Revolution. For example, how many 
know that the Colony of Virginia once in- 
cluded the Bermuda Islands also the country 
westward to the Pacific Ocean, then called 
the "South Sea" — so christened by Balboa 
in 1513, because at the place where he first 
saw it the shore line runs nearly east and west 
— or that the area now called Vermont once 
belonged to New York and that Massachusetts 
controlled the area now included in Maine. 

The reasons for the peculiar irregularities 
and jogs in some of the boundary lines are 
explained. For example, the "nose" projecting 
into Canada at the Lake of the Woods, on the 
Minnesota boundary, is due to the use of in- 
accurate maps by the makers of the treaties 
by which this area became United States 
territory. The "panhandle" at the southeast 
corner of Missouri is said to be the result of 
efforts of a prominent property owner to 
have his plantation included in the new State 

The indefiniteness of some of the early 
boundary lines is illustrated by a quotation 
from Rufus Choate, who in the boundary dis- 
pute between Massachusetts and Rhode Island 
said before the Massachusetts legislature: 
"The commissioners might as well have de- 
cided that the line between the States was 
bounded on the north by a bramble bush, or, 
the south by a blue jay, on the west by a 
hive of bees in swarming time, and on the 
east by five hundred foxes with fire brands 
tied to their tails." 

The State of California has within its 
boundaries the highest and the lowest points 
of dry land in the United States proper, and 
Alaska has the highest mountain peak in the 
possession of the United States. Colorado is 
the State having the greatest average altitude; 
Delaware has the least. 

The bulletin describes the outlying 



18 



January, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



19 



sions of the United States and tells when and 
how they were acquired. Of the newly added 
possessions (Alaska, bought in 1867, not in- 
cluded) the 7000 or more islands comprising 
the Philippine group cover the. greatest area. 
The Virgin Islands are the most recent ac- 
quisition and also the most costly. To obtain 
sovereignty over these islands, which have a 
combined land area of a trifle less than 133 
square miles, the United States paid nearly 
$300 an acre. For Alaska, which has been an 
important source of revenue, the United States 
paid less than 2 cents an acre. 

It is generally supposed that the United 
States has never relinquished territory once 
acquired, but this is not the case. The United 
States gave up more than 20,000 square miles 
of Western land when it purchased Florida 
from Spain by the treaty of 1819. 

The bulletin contains a facsimile repro- 
duction of a map of the British and French 
possessions in America as they were known 
in 1755. A copy of that map was used in 
the preparation of the treaty with Great 
Britain in 1782, when the United States was 
first recognized as an independent nation. 
The book also contains numerous other maps 
illustrating the growth of the United States 
and the changes in its boundaries from early 
colonial days up to the present time. 



The Great White South, by Herbert G. 
Ponting. Duckworth & Co., Publishers, 3 
Henrietta street, London, England. Price, 
7s 6d net. This book tells the tale of the 
photographer who accompanied Captain Scott 
on his heroic dash to the South Pole. Here 
is a fine pictorial record of the ill-fated ex- 
pedition which resulted in the death of so 
many heroic men, and of the wonderful 
beauty of the southern polar regions; and it 
is also a simple, straightforward and lucid 
account of the ups and downs, the joys and 
trials of the men who braved the terrors of 
the "Great White South." There are 22 
chapters in the volume, and every one of 
them teems with interest. Altogether it is a 
thrilling tale of dangers braved, hardships 
endured and sublime self-sacrifice. The story 
of Scott's dash to the pole is well known, 
and the principal features — how every con- 
ceivable kind of misfortune overtook the 



party on the homeward journey across the 
ice and snow; how Capt. Oates walked out 
into the blizzard to die, because, living, he 
was a hindrance to his companions ; and how 
the last few members of the polar party 
were overtaken by death in their tent before 
help could reach them — will never fade from 
memory. But the story bears both re-telling 
and re-hearing, and the opportunity thus af- 
forded of obtaining this book at the cost of 
an ordinary novel is one that should not be 
missed. 

PANAMA CANAL TOLLS 



Following is a schedule of the toll charges 
for transit of the Panama Canal : 

1. Merchant vessels carrying passengers or cargo, 
per net vessel ton (each 100 cubic feet) of actual 
earning capacity, $1.20. 

2. Vessels in ballast, without passengers or cargo, 
per net vessel ton (each 100 cubic feet) of actual 
earning capacity, 72 cents. 

3. Naval vessels, other than transpotrs, colliers, 
hospital ships, and supply ships, per displacement 
ton, 50 cents. 

4. Army and Navy transports, colliers, hospital 
ships, and supply ships, the vessel to be measured 
by the same rules as are employed in determining 
the net tonnage of merchant vessels, per net ton, 
$1.20. 

5. Tolls may not exceed the equivalent of $1.25 
per net registered ton as determined by United 
States rules of measurement, nor be less than the 
equivalent of 75 cents per net registered ton. 

6. Vessels returning from Gatun Lake to original 
point of entry into the canal, without passing 
through the locks at the other end, are charged 
tolls for one passage only. 

7. Vessels transiting the Panama Canal from 
Cristobal to Balboa and return for the sole purpose 
of having repairs made at the Balboa drydock and 
shops will be exempt from payment of tolls, but a 
charge will be made for pilotage in such cases, as 
provided in Paragraph 4, Item 3, of this tariff, and 
for handling lines in accordance with Item 4 of 
this tariff. 



The crowd will follow a leader who 
marches twenty steps in advance ; but if he 
is a thousand steps in front of them they do 
not see and do not follow him, and any liter- 
ary freebooter who chooses may shoot him 
with impunity. — Georg Brandes. 



Liberty is the right to think and choose for 
oneself. What liberty costs is, the trouble of 
thinking and choosing for oneself. He who 
thinks liberty worth the trouble, and actually 
likes the trouble, is the only really free man. 
— Bernard Shaw. 



19 



20 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1924 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The United States Navy will send an ex- 
pedition into the Arctic next summer for ex- 
ploration of the polar regions. 

Canada, in retaliation for U. S. Tariff regu- 
lation, has barred American fishing vessels 
from her ports except in an emergency. 

During the year July 1, 1922, to June 30, 
1923, inclusive, the Shipping Board authorized 
the sale or transfer of 132 vessels of 177,063.71 
gross tons to alien owners. In addition, one 
undocumented tug of unknown tonnage and 
two undocumented dredges of unknown ton- 
nage were transferred, making a total of 135 
vessels sold or transferred. 

The steamer Robin Adair, of the Isthmian 
Line, has steamed 165,000 miles in three years 
and ten months without a breakdown of any 
kind. Not a single cent has had to be spent 
for repairs to her main turbine engine. The 
vessel was built by the Skinner & Eddy Ship- 
building Corporation, of Seattle, for their own 
account, was launched December 21, 1919, and 
went into commission January 7, 1920. 

The Shipping Board has approved the sale 
of the Skinner & Eddy shipyard at Seattle 
to the Port Commissioners of Seattle. The 
consideration was approximately $60,000, with 
an agreement that Shipping Board vessels 
will be accorded free docking, wharfage and 
storage facilities at the yard. The sale does 
not include equipment and supplies at the 
yard, which will be offered for sale later. 

At an auction sale of securities held in 
New York recently, 150 shares of S. S. Cuba, 
Inc., par value $15,000, realized $5; 547 shares 
of Federal Export Corp. realized $54.70; 2400 
shares of United States Ship Corp., par value 
$24,000, were sold for $80, and 400 shares of 
Bath Iron Works went for $53. A block of 
$20,000 Atlantic Fruit Co. 7 per cent 15-year 
debentures, was sold on the basis of 19 per 
cent of face value. 

The Shipping Board has rejected all bids 
for the purchase of the thirteen obsolete and 
damage vessels offered for sale for scrapping 
except that of R. O. Elliot, of Thomaston, 
Maine, for the Polias, a 3500-ton concrete 
vessel wrecked off the coast of Maine. She 



was sold for $210. Bids for the other vessels 
were rejected because they were regarded by 
the Board as unsatisfactory as to price. It 
failed to disclose the bidders for the other 
ships or the prices submitted. 

Captain Edward H. Watson, commander of 
the destroyer squadron wrecked on the Cali- 
fornia coast, near Point Honda, last Septem- 
ber with a loss of twenty-three lives, will lose 
150 numbers, and Lieutenant-Commander 
Donald T. Hunter, commander of the de- 
stroyer Delphy, one of the squadron, will lose 
100 numbers as a result of the naval court- 
martial sentence approved on December 27 
by Secretary of the Navy Denby. All other 
officers of the wrecked destroyer squadron 
were held blameless. 

The St. Lawrence navigation season of 
1923 was on the whole a fairly active one, 
grain exports having reached a total of 120,- 
000,000 bushels. Ocean shipping was main- 
tained on practically the same level as last 
year, which was a record season, arrivals 
having numbered 1056 of a total tonnage of 
3,631,567 net, against 1184 of 3,902,729 net 
last year. Arrivals from the Great Lakes 
dropped by nearly 300,000 tons, though there 
was an increase of some 10 per cent in traffic 
over the railway terminals in the harbor. 

The Federal Government is to start, early 
in January, dredging a channel 2000 feet wide 
and three miles long over the bar at the south 
entrance to San Francisco Bay. This is one 
of the most important undertakings in the 
Government plan of harbor improvements. 
It has long been urged by W r ar Department 
engineers and awaited by shipping men a- a 
decided necessity to harbor development. 
The new channel will enable the greatest ves- 
sels of the Pacific fleet to pass in or utit of 
the harbor regardless of the tide stages and 
with sufficient sea room to insure safety in 
any weather condition. 

The Coast Guard cutter Bear, central figure 
in thrilling rescues, perilous adventures and 
stern battles with wind and waves in the 
dangerous waters of the north Pacific and the 
Arctic region for nearly a generation, is t<» lie 
retired from active service after one more 
cruise, according to a recommendation con- 
tained in the annual report of the Coast Guard 
service. A modern ship is expected to replace 



20 



January, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



21 



the Bear, which has been operating from 
Seattle on cruises to Point Barrow and along 
the coast of Siberia. The vessil has been 
in the Coast Guard service for thirty-eight 
years and previously was a unit of the United 
States Navy. 

Senator Walsh of Massachusetts intends to 
introduce a bill providing that the Govern- 
ment merchant fleet be made a part of the 
navy, and that a second assistant secretary 
of the navy take over the duties of the 
Shipping Board and the Emergency Fleet 
Corporation. The bill will provide that the 
second assistant secretary in time of peace 
operate all merchant ships now being operated 
by the Government. The officer would have 
authority to continue the existing lines and 
to establish new lines wherever necessary. 
The personnel of the ships would become 
naval reserves, and regular naval officers could 
be assigned to them if deemed advisable. 

The latest available statistics show that on 
November 1, 1923, seagoing merchant vessels 
of 500 tons gross and over flying the American 
flag (exclusive of U. S. Shipping Board ton- 
nage), number 2043 of 6,277,268 tons gross, 
against 2046 of 6,271,786 tons on October 1, 
1923, a decrease of three vessels and an in- 
crease of 5482 tons. In addition, 1425 vessels 
of 6,629,589 tons were owned by the U. S. 
Shipping Board, against 1449 vessels of 6,700,- 
173 tons on October 1, 1923. Altogether 3468 
merchant vessels of 12,906,857 tons gross were 
under the American flag on November 1, of 
which 2506 vessels of 11,546,009 tons were 
built of steel. Of the latter number 1211 ves- 
sels of 5,266,419 tons were privately owned. 

The "direct-operation" scheme has been 
dropped by the Shipping Board, but a plan 
is now being worked which will be put into 
execution on all trade routes, beginning with 
the United Kingdom and following up with 
Scandinavia. The new plan will limit the 
remuneration of agents to a fixed commission 
on freight earnings, based on a minimum to 
be determined by the Board. The husbanding 
fee is to be abolished, as well as the allow- 
ances for deck and engine stores and supplies, 
agents being restricted to a fixed limit and 
made directly responsible to the Board for 
accounting of expenditures. The trade name 
of steamship services will be subject to ap- 



proval of the Board and will remain its 
property, which is fair enough, considering 
that the Board has been defraying adver- 
tising expenses. 

The new Lamport & Holt liner Voltaire, 
specially built for the trade between New 
York and South America sailed from New 
York on December 15 with a large and repre- 
sentative passenger list on her maiden voyage 
to Brazil and the Argentine. The Voltaire 
is a twin screw, oil burning steamship of 
13,500 tons gross register with a displacement 
of 21,000 tons. She is 526 feet long with 
a beam of forty-three feet ; has a cruiser stern 
and is modeled on exceedingly attractive lines. 
Her propelling machinery which gives her a 
maximum speed of sixteen knots consists of 
two sets of quadruple expansion engines. 
These are augmented by an extensive equip- 
ment of auxiliary machinery which includes 
three large turbo-driven dynamos, each of 
ninety kilowatts, capable of operating her en- 
tire electrical system of lighting, ventilation 
and radio transmission. 

Arrangements are proceeding apace to 
make the round-the-world passenger service of 
the Dollar S. S. Line a success from the start. 
As previously announced, the first sailing will 
be made January 6 from San Francisco by the 
liner President Harrison, followed by the 
President Hayes, February 2, and five of the 
seven liners newly acquired by the company 
will begin their voyages at New York start- 
ing with the President Adams, February 7. 
The trip around the world "is expected to 
occupy 112 days, but -tickets will be issued 
good for two years, which will allow the 
passenger to break the journey at any port 
and proceed in any other of the company's 
vessels. The rates are very moderate con- 
sidering the class of service offered, and range 
from $1250 from New York to New York, for 
a room without private bath, up to $1890 for 
a room with private tub bath. From San 
Francisco to New York via Far East, rates 
range from $1000 minimum, up to $1440. 
There is no question about steamship travel 
today being much cheaper than any extended 
vacation that can be had within the country, 
considering the comforts and the surroundings 
available on such liners as those which the 
Dollar Line is about to put into operation. 



21 



22 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1924 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



Since the re-establishment of Turkish rule 
in Constantinople, German ships are again 
admitted to enter the ports of Smyrna, Mer- 
sina and Constantinople, to which access 
had been forbidden them by the inter-Allied 
control. The new regime took effect Octo- 
ber 4. 

Norway's shipping is reported silghtly im- 
proved and the idle tonnage is comparatively 
small, totaling forty-five ships with a dead- 
weight tonnage of 75,000 tons ; of this amount, 
53.000 tons are sailing vessels. The ship- 
building industry is dull and very few new 
hulls are ordered. 

The Greek Ministry of National Economy 
has warned owners against buying Russian 
vessels at present sequestered by the French, 
as the Soviet has officially intimated that it 
will not recognize such sales. The vessels 
referred to comprise seventy-seven merchant 
ships, of which twenty-six are passenger boats, 
twelve cargo boats and seven mixed. 

According to advices from Australia, the 
anti-dumping duty is to be applied to imports 
of cement carried at a lower rate of freight 
than 4s. 6d. per cask of 400 lb. It is pointed 
out that already cement imported into Aus- 
tralia is taxed, and that it has to bear the cost 
of the barrels in which it is carried, whereas 
the local product is marketed in sacks, and 
the imported cement has also to bear the cost 
of shipment. 

A recent issue of "The Shipyard," the house 
organ of Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richard- 
son and Barclay Curie & Co., contains an 
article on the Atlantic speed record of the 
Mauretania. It recalls that this fastest of 
Atlantic liners has not only made short 
spurts at 30 knots under favorable conditions, 
but has made twenty-seven consecutive Atlan- 
tic trips at an average speed of 25.5 knots. 
This constitutes a world's record. 

Satisfactory trials were recently carried out 
by the salvage tug Hoheweg, 303 tons net, 
which Messrs. J. L. Meyer have built at their 
Papenburg (Germany) yard for the Auster- 
weser Reederei Aktien Gesellschaft, the vessel 
being subsequently handed over to her owners. 



Her equipment includes a powerful salvage 
pump, a patent towing winch, and a wireless 
installation, and she has been provided with 
bunkers sufficient to carry enough coal to 
enable her to steam at full speed for twenty 
days. 

Mention was made in these columns of the 
attempt in 1922 to open up regular communi- 
cation between Germany and Persia, via Petro- 
grad, the Volga River and the Caspian Sea. 
The first vessel made this long passage 
successfully, but no further boats were put on 
this route by the German organizers for over 
eighteen months. We now learn that a second 
vessel, the Schmadan, a sister-ship to the 
Ispahan, which made the voyage last year, 
recently left Hamburg for the same destina- 
tion, carrying a cargo of 1200 tons of sugar 
and manufactured goods. 

On the occasion of the twenty-fifth anni- 
versary of Queen Wilhelmina's accession to 
the throne, Dutch papers published reviews 
of the remarkable growth in trade and ship- 
ping of The Netherlands since 1898. In that 
year the Dutch merchant fleet comprised ap- 
proximately 600 ships of 800,000 tons gross 
as compared with approximately 1100 ships of 
2,617,000 tons at the present time. The ton- 
nage movement at all the Dutch ports rose 
from 11,067 ships of 8,694,000 net tons in 1898 
to 15,723 ships of 18,809,000 net tons last 
year, while the Rhine river traffic grew from 
9,200,000 tons in 1898 to 27,900,000 tons in 
1913. 

We learn that the memorial to Norwegian 
seamen who lost their lives during the war 
will be of a practical as well as a sentimental 
nature. A large pyramidal building approached 
by broad flights of steps is to be erected on 
the west coast of Norway at Frederiksvern. In 
the apex of the pyramid a lantern will project 
powerful beams of light vertically, while by 
day the monument will serve as a good land- 
mark owing to its prominent position on the 
coast. The Hall of Memory, in the interior 
of the pyramid, will be faced with marble 
slabs bearing the names of the dead and a 
short record of the circumstances under which 
they lost their lives. 

In a review of the foreign trade of the 
United States for the fiscal year 1922-23, H. C. 
Campbell, Acting Chief of the Department 



22 



January, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



23 



of Commerce, Division of Research, states that 
the United Kingdom holds first place in our 
export trade by a wide margin, with 20.8 per 
cent of the total in 1922-23 and an even 
larger share in previous years. Next in order 
in 1922-23 were Canada (16.6 per cent), Ger- 
many (7.4 per cent), France (6.8 per cent) 
and Japan (5.4 per cent). Prior to the war 
Germany's share was larger (14 per cent of the 
total in 1910-1914), Japan's was smaller (about 
2 per cent of the total), while that of the 
other countries was nearly the same as now. 

The American dollar has been established 
as the exclusive standard for fixing steamship 
rates from French ports to the United States 
by all the transatlantic lines in Paris, includ- 
ing the Government-subsidized French Line, 
the Compagnie Generale Transatlantique, 
which refuses to quote passenger tariffs in 
francs even to French nationals. The British 
companies with offices there are also quoting 
rates in dollars, to the exclusion of sterling. 
The arrangement came into effect December 
1. Currency in francs and sterling is accepted 
for the payment of passage, but only after 
the amount has been obtained by figuring it 
on the dollar basis at the steamship com- 
panies' rate of exchange. 

In 1921 the Mindener Concrete Shipyard at 
Minden, Westphalia, completed a floating dry 
dock of reinforced concrete 60 feet long, 32^ 
feet wide and 11 feet 4 inches high with walls 
2 inches thick. The light draft is 16^4 inches 
and it was built in six weeks. Among other 
boats constructed in this dock is the Aquila 
I, a concrete ship of 800 tons deadweight, 220 
feet long. Lloyd's List estimates that the 
cost of maintaining a concrete dry dock is 
only one quarter of the outlay required to 
keep a steel dock of similar capacity in good 
condition. The Minden dock is so constructed 
that its several units can dock themselves. As 
the parts possess rustproof qualities, they have 
required no docking as yet. 

As the Swedish ports on the Gulf of Both- 
nia are closed by ice in winter, ore from Lap- 
land is shipped via Narvik, in Norway, which, 
besides being ice-free, has the additional ad- 
vantage of being some days nearer the great 
markets of England and the United States 
than Lulea. The latter place is largely used, 
when open, for shipments to Stettin, and 



25,000,000 tons of ore have been shipped from 
this port whose loading appliances have a 
capacity of 20,000 tons per day. Of the rail- 
way line which connect Lulea with Narvik, 
passing through the iron ore district, the 
section between Lulea and the Norwegian 
frontier has been electrified for some time, 
and the remainder, from Riksgransen, on the 
frontier, to Narvik, was officially opened for 
electrical working a short time ago. 

The new cable steamer 'Faraday, belonging 
to Siemens Brothers & Co., Ltd., of Woolwich, 
has returned from her maiden cable-laying ex- 
pedition. She has successfully completed the 
laying of the section of cable connecting New 
York and Canso, Nova Scotia, about 1000 
miles, notwithstanding the fact that she en- 
countered exceptionally bad weather during 
which a mishap occurred to the cable and the 
end was lost in 3000 fathoms of water. The 
vessel here proved her excellent qualities as 
a cable steamer, as the end was recovered 
very quickly and the whole section completed 
to the satisfaction of the engineers of the 
Commercial Cable Company, who have had it 
in continual use since laying. This section 
forms a part of the Commercial Cable Com- 
pany's new cable connection between America 
and England, which has the greatest traffic- 
carrying capacity of any existing cable. 

What is known in Germany as the "obliga- 
tion pilot" (Pflichtpilot) is a pilot who, by 
virtue of the legal regulations, must be taken 
on board as an expert navigator, but without 
necessarily being put in charge of the naviga- 
tion of the ship. The captain has a right to 
follow or reject, as he thinks fit, the advice 
given by this pilot. Legally, it makes no 
difference whether the pilot is a Government 
official or not. He is on board in a merely 
advisory capacity. At the same time the fact 
that a captain elects to disregard the advice 
given by the pilot does not justify the latter 
in abandoning his duty or in ceasing to give 
the captain such advice as he deems necessary. 
He must remain at his post on the bridge. 
In German law, therefore, the pilot is regarded 
as a member of the crew, and the captain 
and the owner are responsible for any mis- 
takes he may make; the pilot, in his turn, 
being responsible to the captain for any disas- 
trous advice he may give. 



23 



24 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1924 



LABOR NEWS 



The strike of longshoremen at Mobile, Ala., 
has been officially called off. 

Senator Brookhart of Iowa is urging sepa- 
rate Federal Reserve system banks for farmers 
and labor. 

The United States Railroad Labor Board 
has ordered $10 a 'month wage increase for 
sleeping-car conductors. 

The Union Pacific Railroad has had the 
heaviest business in its history and earnings 
have risen 12 per cent over the previous year. 

An ordinance requiring employes of Seattle's 
municipal street car system to take one day's 
rest in seven has been signed by the Mayor. 

The Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen 
and Enginemen celebrated its fiftieth an- 
niversary in meetings at fifteen large railroad 
terminals. 

Despite the depression in the oil industry, 
cash dividends paid by Standard Oil com- 
panies for 1923 have smashed all records with 
a total of $134,957,372. 

A study of wages earned by 60,000 women 
employed in New York State industries dis- 
closed the fact that approximately half receive 
less than $16 a week. 

The United States Railroad Labor Board 
declines to rule on what constitutes a living 
wage in the dispute between twenty-four 
railroads and the American Train Dispatchers' 
Association. 

A bill has been introduced in Congress 
providing that no Federal judge shall deter- 
mine the guilt or innocence of any person 
ordered up for contempt committed outside 
his courtroom. 

Frank Vanderlip, financier, does not join 
the pack in its cry against "high wages." 
"High wages mean increasing purchasing 
power," he said. "While wages of labor are 
high, workers today are more efficient." 

The minimum wage board of Alberta, 
Canada, has cut women's wages from $14 to 
$12.50 a week in the retail, manufacturing 
and laundering industries. The first minimum 
was only on paper, however, as it was estab- 
lished a year ago but never enforced. 

Because of a readjustment in the women's 



garment trade, the period of guaranteed em- 
ployment and the unemployment allowance of 
1924, have been reduced by the board of 
referees maintained by the International 
Ladies' Garment Workers' Union and the 
Cleveland Ladies' Garment Manufacturers As- 
sociation. 

An apparent increase of 38.6 per cent in 
child labor over the corresponding period last 
year was shown in statistics made public by 
the Children's Bureau of the Department of 
Labor. The survey was based on the number 
of minors between the ages of 14 and 16 years 
who received first working permits. Some 
Connecticut cities reported increases from 98 
to 178 per cent. 

A woman will serve as chairman of a com- 
mittee in Congress for the first time in history 
— Mrs. Mae Nolan of California, who has been 
elected to head the House committee on ex- 
penditures in the postoffice department. Her 
husband, the late John I. Nolan, was chair- 
man of the House labor committee and leader 
of the labor group in the House. When he 
died last year his widow was elected to serve 
his unfinished term, and was re-elected for a 
full term last fall. 

President Coolidge pardoned, on December 
15, the last of the war-time offenders, thirty 
in number, convicted for acts against the 
Government. The action was taken upon the 
recommendation of a special report prepared 
by former Secretary of War Baker, Bishop 
Charles H. Brent of Buffalo and General J. G. 
Harbord. All those released were convicted 
under the Espionage Act for speaking against 
the Government during the war and in in- 
citing sentiment against the Selective Draft 
Act. 

Newspaper printers of Detroit, Michigan, 
have secured a 20 per cent wage increase. 
The dispute was first referred to an arbitrator, 
but he "balled" matters up so that the printers 
asked its international union for strike sanc- 
tion. The executive council delegated Presi- 
dent Howard to adjust the matter. He secured 
an agreement for $1.04^2 an hour for day 
work and $1.10 for night work the first year, 
and $1.13 and $1.20 for second and third years, 
with $1.27 for the "lobster shift." The old 
rates were 95 cents and $1 an hour. 

The cost of the railroad shopmen's strike of 



24 



January, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



25 



1922, combined with the coal miners' strike of 
the same year, as they affected individual rail- 
roads, is strikingly shown in the comparative 
earning figures of the New York Central for 
the third quarter of 1922 and 1923. The 
company's surplus after charges for the three 
months in 1923 amounted to $14,187,955, 
against only $1,756,750 in the corresponding 
period a year ago. In 1923 there is a final 
net surplus for the quarter of approximately 
$9,500,000 after deducting a quarterly dividend 
of \y A per cent on the outstanding $268,000,000 
stock. 

"It's too bad that the labor banks seem to 
be making a success," said Professor John 
R. Commons, author of the History of Labor 
in the United States, during a recent inter- 
view. "Labor surely will fail if it competes 
with business in the field of business, for the 
psychologies of labor and business are funda- 
mentally different. Labor unions depend upon 
a spirit of sympathy and solidarity, while busi- 
ness depends upon an ability to say 'No' to 
one's best friend. The real business of labor 
is to lay down the rules for capitalism as it 
affects industry." Asked about company 
unions Professor Commons said with scorn, 
"Oh, company unions have nothing to do with 
trade unionism. They are just labor manage- 
ment." 

In the last few years foreigners have been 
swindled out of $12,000,000 by a gang of real 
estate sharks who sold undeveloped marsh 
lands within a 50-mile radius of New York, 
according to testimony before the State Leg- 
islative committee that is investigating im- 
migrant exploitation. The sharks would sup- 
ply free tickets for a Sunday inspection trip to 
a tract of land. Each guest would draw a 
lot, but was charged $49.50 to cover legal 
fees for transfer of property. The figure of 
$49.50 was set to keep within the petty larceny 
limit of $50. Miss Marion K. Clark, chief 
clerk of the alien division of the State labor 
department, testified that aliens in mines and 
labor camps in this State are living under 
conditions that amount almost to peonage. 
She stated that the victims are without legal 
protection because the State bureau of immi- 
gration, established in 1910 by the Hughes 
committee, was abolished by the Legislature 
in 1911. 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



Unemployment grows in Germany and mil- 
lions of people face winter of starvation, Ber- 
lin dispatches say. 

French Socialists have erected a tablet in 
honor of Jean Jaures, great Socialist leader 
assassinated on the eve of the World War. 

A Japanese gendarmerie officer has been 
sentenced to ten years' imprisonment for 
killing Sakaye Osugi, Socialist leader, and 
his wife and child. 

During October 6,172 Polish workers em- 
barked at Danzig for French ports. Of these 
4,134 disembarked at Dunkirk and 2,038 at 
Havre. In the first ten months of 1923 the 
number of workmen so departing reached 
50,000. The French Line enjoys a virtual 
monopoly of this emigrant traffic between 
Danzig and France. 

An agreement has been concluded for Ger- 
man deep sea fishermen, under which, when 
abroad, half of the wages is payable in the 
currency of the country concerned, and the 
remainder according to the dollar rate of ex- 
change. Seamen employed on chartered 
vessels (herring import trade) will receive 
wages as paid to seamen engaged in foreign 
trade. For discharging work in foreign ports 
an allowance of 15 shillings will be paid. 

During November in the- port of Hamburg 
the wages of an ordinary dock worker aver- 
aged 4.50 gold marks per day (before the war 
it was 5.40 gold marks). All other rates are 
fixed on the basis of and in proportion to 
the ordinary docker's wage. Job work is 
paid for at 5/6 of pre-war rates. Actual gold 
wages are not paid, but payment in stable 
currency is being introduced as it becomes 
possible, the remainder being still paid in the 
rapidly falling paper marks. 

Another smashing victory for the British 
Labor party was recorded at the election 
December 6. Representation in Parliament 
was increased from 144 members to 193. The 
Conservative party was cut down from 345 
to 249. The Liberals, united, increased from 
113 to 148. The gain in the Labor vote 



25 



26 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1924 



corresponded to the parliamentary increase. 
Among the successful labor candidates is 
Margaret Bondfield, the first woman to be 
president of a national labor union federation. 
She is president of the British Trades Union 
Congress, corresponding to our A. F. of L. 

The Government of the Irish Free State 
has recently promulgated legislation on unem- 
ployment insurance. This legislation adopted 
and amended in certain respects the Unem- 
ployment Acts of the United Kingdom of 
1920, 1921 and 1922. An interesting proposal 
which figures in the original text of the Irish 
Bill was subsequently excluded from the final 
text as adopted. This proposal authorized the 
Minister of Industry and Commerce, in the 
case of workers of public utility, to pay the 
unemployment benefit, under certain condi- 
tions, to the employer instead of the employe, 
thus enabling the employer to continue to en- 
gage the worker in question by paying him 
from his own funds only the difference be- 
tween the unemployment benefit and the 
wage. It is of interest to note that the Irish 
Free State was represented for the first time 
at the International Labor Conference, which 
convened at Geneva on October 22. 

A settlement of the long drawn out ship- 
yard dispute on the questions of overtime and 
the night shift agreement has been reached 
between representatives of the British Boiler- 
makers' Union and the Federation of En- 
gineering and Shipbuilding Trades. The 
lockout lasted thirty-two weeks and not only 
threw thousands of shipworkers out of em- 
ployment, but had a serious effect on the 
British engineering trade. The strike arose 
through the failure of the boilermakers to 
accept an agreement regarding wages and 
hours of labor negotiated by the Federation 
of Engineering and Shipbuilding Trades 
Unions, of which they form a part. As a 
result work of all kinds in the shipbuilding 
centers was held up, and it is calculated that 
at least 70,000 men, most of whom had no 
connection with boiler-making, found there 
was no work for them. The matter came be- 
fore the Trade Union Congress last summer, 
and a committee was appointed to mediate 
between the Federation and the revolting 
boilermakers. Its labors have now been 
brought to a successful conclusion. 

26 



SECRETARY NOLAN COMMENDED 



The following self-explanatory resolution 
has been received by the Journal: 

Whereas: It has been called to the attention of 
the Ferry boatmen's Union of California in special 
and regular meeting assembled December 4 and 5, 
1923, that Comrade Keeran B. Nolan, secretary- 
treasurer of the International Seamen's Union of 
America, rendered valuable aid to our representative, 
C. W. Deal, in the preparation and presentation of 
arguments in behalf of a wage increase before the 
United States Railroad Labor Board at Chicago, 
111., on October 9, 1923, and 

Whereas: As a result of the arguments pre- 
sented to said Board an increase of wages was 
obtained for our membership on San Francisco 
Bay, therefore be it, 

Resolved: That we by this means tender our 
sincere thanks and expression of appreciation to 
our Comrade Keeran B. Nolan; and be it further 

Resolved: That a copy of this resolution be 
furnished the Seamen's Journal. 



It is said a promise neglected is an untruth 
told. How about your promise to support 
the union label? 



Roster of International 
Seamen's Union of America 



(Continued from Page 2) 

Branches: 

SAN PEDRO, Cal...... 

Ill Sixth Street. P. O. Box 574 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 86 Commercial Street 

EUGENE STEIDLE, Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 6955 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash _ Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock 

P. O. Box 214 
SAN PEDRO. Cal P. O. Box 54 

ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal.„ ~ 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary 

Telephone Sutter 6452 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash.__ 84 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42 

ASTORIA. Ore P. O. Box 188 

DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SEATTLE, Wash — _ 84 Seneca Street 

Branches: 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C), Canada. ...P. O. Box 1675 

KETCHTKAN, Alaska..- _..P. O. Box 201 

UNITED FISHERMEN OF THE PACIFIC 
ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 138 

FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 69 Clay Street 

C. W. DEAL, Secretary 
Telephone Sutter 2205 

FISH TRAP, PILE DRIVERS AND WEB WORKER8 
OF PUGET SOUND AND ALASKA 
P. O. Box 371, Bellingham, Wash. 



January, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



27 



At Night 



Complete Banking Service from 
9 A. M. till 12 P. M. for Sailor- 



Liberty 



Market 
at Mason 



Bank 



San Francisco 



THE ONE PRICE STORE 

Sander Supply Co. 

SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

Furnishing Goods, Oilskins, 

Sea Boots 

Square Knot Material 

Uniform Caps 

93-95 Market, Cor. of Spear Street 
South. Pac. Bldg., San Francisco 



SHOES 

W. L. Douglas 

UNION MADE 
The Price is Stamped on the Bot- 
tom of Shoes and Is Standard in 
U. S. A. 

PRICE'S 

58 Third Street 

Bet. Market and Mission 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Why, of Course. — "With all due 
deference, my boy, I really think 
our English custom at the tele- 
phone is better than saying 'Hello!' 
as you do." 

"What do you say in England?" 

"We say: 'Are you there?' Then 

of course, if you are not there, 

there is no use in going on with 

the conversation."- 



PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



TAXI 



CALL UNION 9020 

Red Top Cab Co., of R. I., Inc. 
67 Chestnut St. Providence, R. !. 



Read How These Eight Men 
Increased Their Salaries 



Salary Increased 60% 
"Before I enrolled in the Inter- 
national Correspondence Schools I 
had nothing more than an ordinary- 
country school education and was 
employed as a quartermaster. I 
found the course was easy to learn, 
and when I had completed it I 
secured a license and was pro- 
moted to third mate at an increase 
in salary of ahout 60 per cent. 
The International Correspondence 
Schools have certainly done much 
for me." ROBERT J. BALL. 

Now Second Mate 
"My position at the time of en- 
rolment with the I. C. S. for a 
Coastwise Navigation Course was 
that of wheelman. 1 had received 
only a grammar school education. 
I found my course very interesting 
and the lessons easily mastered. I 
am now second mate of the steamer 
Brazil." H. E. CONROY. 

Income Doubled 

"When I enrolled with the I. C. S. 
for the Coastwise Navigation 
Course, I was working as ship's 
carpenter. I now hold a second 
mate's license, and my income is 
double what it was at the time of 
enrolment." 

GABRIEL TONNESEN. 

Became First Mate 

"When I enrolled with the Inter- 
national Correspondence Schools 
for a Coastwise Navigation Course 
I was employed as a fisherman. 
Previous to this I had been a sea- 
man or sailor before the mast. I 
had no trouble whatever to com- 
plete the course. I then obtained 
a position and started to sea as 
first mate of the Addie P. McFadden. 
Thanks to my course, I had no 
trouble filling this position. I con- 
sider that the work I have done 
with the I. C. S. has been of great 
benefit to me, enabling me to ob- 
tain a higher position and better 
wages." L. K. POLAND. 



Eleven Months Brought Promotion 

"I finished your Coastwise Navi- 
gation Course eleven months after 
the date of enrolment. Last winter, 
while making a trip to the West 
Indies' on the yacht Palestine, 
the owner happened to see me Lik- 
ing observations at noon. He was 
surprised that I could do this and 
when I told him about the I. C. S. 
and showed him my books he said 
there could not be any better books 
printed. On our return the mate 
left the yacht and I was promoted 
without asking for the job." 

H. HELLAPP. 

Climbing the Ladder 

"I received my diploma for the 
Lake Navigation Course before I 
became a naturaliz< d citizen of the 
United States. I Had practically 
no education at the time of enrol- 
ment, being a seafaring man. Four 
months ago I was up before the 
steamship inspectors in Baltimore, 
and passed examination as second 
officer of ocean steamers. I have 
also a first-class pilot's license for 
Chesapeake Bay, Charleston, and 
Georgetown, S. C. The I. C. S. 
has enabled me to climb the ladder 
of success." 

LAURITS W. NILSON. 

133% Larger 
"I was working as an oiler when 
I enrolled with the I. C. S. for the 
Marine Engineering Course. This 
enabled me to leave the naval 
collier service and to obtain a posi- 
tion with the Panama Line S. S. 
Company on board the U. S. Mail 
Steamship Panama. My employers 
are satisfied with my service, and 
my salary is 133 per cent larger 
than when I enrolled." 

THOS. ELLCOTT. 

Another Salary Doubled 
"I take great pleasure in inform- 
ing you that I am at present first 
officer in the Lighthouse Service, 
and serving as such on board the 
tender Madrono. My salary is just 
double what it was when 1 started 
taking my course in navigation." 
JOHN C. DAHLBECK. 



WRITE FOR FREE BOOKLET 

If the International Correspondence Schools can help men like these, they can help 
you. If they can help men like these to get out of the rut and win promotion and 
bigger salaries, they can help you, too. There is not the slightest doubrt about it. At 
least find out how by marking and mailing the coupon printed below. 

It doesn't cost you a penny or obligate you in any way to do this, but it may be the 
means of changing your entire life. 



Mail the coupon to-day 



INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS 
Box 8728, Scranton, Penna. 



Without cost or obligation, 
Ocean Navigation, Coastwi 
Engineering, and tell me how 

□ Captain 

□ First Officer 

□ Second Officer 

□ Third Officer 
G Fourth Officer 

□ Boatswain 

□ Master 

□ First Mate 



please ser.d me a copy of your 48-page booklet on 
>e Navigation, Lake Navigation, and Marine 
I can qualify for the position marked below : 



□ Second Mate 
D Third Mate 

□ Pilot 

□ Quartermaster 

□ Engineer 

□ First Assistant 

Engineer 
n Gas Engineer 



□ Refrigeration 

Engineer 

□ Electrical En- 

gineer 

□ Ship Drafting 

□ Radio Operator 

□ Ship Fitter 



I Name 

Address 

27 



28 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1924 



CONVENIENT 

This bank, just a few steps from the Embarcadero, 
provides a complete banking service for sea far- 
ing men. Special attention given to allotment 
accounts. 

Hours: 8 a. m. to 6 p. m. daily 

MARKET near FERRY OFFICE 

34 Market Street 

Mercantile Trust Company of California 

Since 1857 



To Seamen, Clients and Union Workers 

If my clients will keep me informed of the names of the 
vessels on which they are employed, while their cases are 
awaiting disposition, it will be of great assistance to me in 
preserving their rights and in securing early trials. 

Respectfully yours, 
S. B. AXTELL, 11 Moore Street, New York, N. Y. 



SAILORS ! ATTENTION ! 
When in Eureka, drop in at — 

BENJAMIN'S 

The old reliable Clothier and Shoe Man 

Fourteen years of square dealing with Seamen 

325-329 Second Street, EUREKA, California 



NORFOLK, VA. 



Navigation, Marine 
Engineering 

Instruction for All Licenses: 

Deck, Engine, Pilot 

Success Guaranteed or Fee Refunded 

U. S. Nautical College, 

Inc. 
"The School Without a Failure" 
119 Bank St. Norfolk, Va. 

Capt. Wm. J. Blue, Pres., Phone 41626 



Whence the "Kee-Wee." — Dur- 
ing the late war-, officers in the 
Army Air Service were classified 
as flying officers or ground offi- 
cers, the latter being used for 
administrative work and for all 
other duties not actually requir- 
ing flight. Much jealousy existed 



at some fields between the flyers 
and the non-flyers. 

It was a naturalist among the 
flyers who aptly expressed for his 
fellows a title fitting their mortal 
enemies. He dubbed the ground 
officers as "Kee-Wees." The name 
spread, yet few know the reason 
for the title. It was while look- 
ing up the word "aptitude" in the 
dictionary that an Air Service 
Officer stumbled on the right 
dope: "Apteryx" — A bird native 
of New Zealand without wings or 
tail. Cannot fly; called by natives, 
"Kee-wee." — Airco News. 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union ©f 
the Pacific since its organization 

H. W. HUTTON 

Will give the cases of seafaring men 

prompt attention 
527 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Market 

Streets, San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 315 



S-s-s-h-h!— "What is this Al- 
manac de Gotha? Any jokes in 
it?" 

'•Plenty, my boy." — Louisville 
Courier-Journal. 

28 



Albert Michelson 

Attorney-at-Law 
Attorney for Marine Firemen and 
Watertenders' Union of the Pacific. 

Admiralty Law a Specialty. 

676 Mills Building, San Francisco 

Telephone Douglas 1058 

Residence Phone Franklin 1781 



S. T. HogevolL Seamen's Law- 
yer; wages, salvage and damages. 
909 Pacific Building, 821 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Tel. Sutter 6900 



Notary Public — Typewriting 

ANNE F. HASTY 

SEABOARD BRANCH 
Anglo-California Trust Co. 

101 Market St. San Francisco 



Hours 10 a. m. to 5:30 p. m. 
Evenings 7 to 8 p. m. 

Dr. D. Eugene Harris 

Kidney, Bladder & Urinary Diseases 
Specific Blood & Nervous Diseases 

Phone Prospect 594 
966 Market Street San Francisco 



Dr. Evelyn Coleman Olsen 

CHIROPRACTIC PHYSICIAN 

889 Geary Street San Francisco 

Studio 1 California 

Phone Graystone 214 



SEAMEN 

Before sailing, sail up to our studio 
and have your Photograph taken 



^HirZk^, 



41 Grant Ave. 



San Francisco 



San Francisco Camera Exchange 

KODAKS AND CAMERAS 

Bought, Sold, Exchanged, Repaired 

and Rented — Developing — Printing 

88 THIRD STREET, AT MISSION 

San Francisco 

Mail Orders Given Special Attention 



Photos of Ships 

Bring your photos to us for print- 
ing and developing and let us supply 
you for your next voyage. 

Allen Photo Supply Co. 

Kodaks bought, sold, rented and ex- 
changed. 

246 Market St., San Francisco 



January, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



29 



938 Market 
(Near Mason) 
San Francisco 



Walk-Over 



844-850 Market 
San Francisco 



{SHOES FOR CMEN AND WOMEN) 

UNION MADE 



To Look Your Best 
ASHORE 

Crown Yourself 
With a 

Lundstrom 



DOREY & CUNNINGHAM 

Men's Furnishing Goods 

HATS AND CAPS 

Dependable Goods for Men 
Suits and Overcoats Made to Order 
11 Market St. San Francisco 



SMOKES ! ! 

Cigarettes and Cigars a Specialty at 

Wholesale Prices 

See Me Before You Load Up 

SYD MODLYN 

Ocean Market 
80 Market St. San Francisco 



BEN HARRIS 

No Relation to Joe Harris 

Patronize an Old Reliable Outfitter 

The Best Seamen's Outfitter on the 
Waterfront 



218 Embarcadero 



San Francisco 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 

— at — 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 5348 



HUMBOLDT BANK, 783 Market 
Street, near Fourth; Bush-Mont- 
gomery Branch, Mills Building. 
For the half-year ending December 
31, 1923, a dividend has been de- 
clared at the rate of four (4) per 
cent per annum on savings deposits, 
payable on and after January 2, 
1924. Dividends not called for bear 
interest from January 1, 1924. 
Money' deposited on or before 
January 10, 1924, will earn interest 
from January 1, 1924. H. C. KLE- 
VESAHL, Cashier. 



LACKING TIME 
SEAMEN SUFFER 

Many sailors are suffering to- 
day from decayed and neglected 
teeth because their time in port 
is limited. 

They know the average den- 
tist in his small office cannot 
finish their work properly 
"while they wait." 

The Parker offices with their 
large force of dentists, nurses 
and assistants can serve you 
promptly and successfully at 
short notice. 

Pacific Coast offices of dentists 
using 

tvviO E - R- Parker 
mm System 
.SYSTEM^ 

located at 

Vancouver, B. C, San Francisco, 
Portland, Seattle, Bellingham, Ta- 
coma, San Diego, Eureka, Oak- 
land, Santa Cruz. 



When a Father Is Not a Father. 

— Dispatch from Albion, Mich. — 
"'Father' Clancy dead at 91; 
left twelve children." The "Father 
Clancy mentioned was an Episco- 
palian minister. That brings to 
mind a "true" story told us by a 
Protestant pastor of a neighbor- 
ing town. He was rather new in 
the place, and his clerical dress 
resembled that of a priest. As he 
passed several little Catholic boys 
on the street, some of them tipped 
their hats and said in a chorus: 
"Good evenin', Fader." The min- 
ister had hardly passed when one 
of the youngsters who had not 
touched his hat turned on the 
others in disgust with: "Fader! 
he's no Fader; he's got tree 
kids. — The Witness. 



His Odd Idea. — First Steno — 
"The idea of your working steady 
eight hours a day! I would not 
think of such a thing!" 

Second Steno — "Neither would I. 
It was the boss that thought of 
it." — Town Topics. 

29 



J. MAHER'S 

RELIABLE HOOKS 

All Kinds Hand Made — Wholesale and 

Retail 

610A 3rd Street San Francisco 

Tel. Garfield 2340 



ABERDEEN, WASH. 



The "Red Front" 

CARRIES A FULL STOCK OF 
UNION MADE CLOTHING, HATS, 
SHOES, COLLARS, SUSPENDERS, 
GLOVES, OVERALLS, SHTRTS 

A. M. BENDETSON 

321 East Heron Street - Aberdeen 

Exclusive Owner of "The Red Front" 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings, Hickory Shirts, 

Hats, Oil Clothing. 

Home of the Union Made 

Co-operative Shoe. 

302 So. F Street, ABERDEEN, Wash. 

on the Water Front 



A. A. Star Transfer Co. 

QUICK SERVICE 

EXPRESS — BAGGAGE 

Phone 307 — Office by Union Depot 
ABERDEEN, WASH. 



HUOTARI & CO. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE 
and MEN'S FURNISHINGS 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Orders taken for 

Made-to-Measure Clothing 

Heron and F Sts., Aberdeen, Wash. 

Tickets to and from Europe 

NOTARY PUBLIC 



Phone 263 

"Niels and Charlie" 

"THE ROYAL" 
"THE SAILORS' REST" 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 
219 EIGHTH ST., HOQUIAM, WASH. 



EUREKA, CAL. 



— For — 

A GOOD CUP OF COFFEE 

— or — 

A SQUARE MEAL 

— Try — 
EUREKA CHOP HOUSE 

Cor. Second and D Sts., Eureka, Cal. 
A. R. ABRAHAMSEN, Prop. 



30 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1924 



Office Phone Main 5190 
Residence Phone Elliott 5825 



Established 1890 
COMPASSES ADJUSTED 



MARSHALL'S 

NAVIGATION SCHOOL 

WE GUARANTEE to teach you until you receive a LICENSE 
WE will save you TIME and MONEY 

203 Bay Building, First and University Sts. SEATTLE, WAS! 



,. V. WESTERMAN 

UNION LABEL, 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 
Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney- Watson Co. 

FUNERAL DIRECTORS 

AND EMBALMERS 

Private Ambulance Service 

Crematory and Columbarium in 

Connection 

Broadway at Olive St. Seattle 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 
MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS 

AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., Cor. University, 

SEATTLE, WASH. 



Union Store 

Best Line of Men's Suits 

Overcoats, Raincoats, Shoes, Hats 

and Men's Furnishings 

CARL SCHERMER 

103-107 First Avenue South 
Near Yesler Way SEATTLE 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim and Douglas Shoes 

And the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 Sixth Street, SAN PEDRO OPP. SAILORS' UNION HALL 



Martin's Navigation School 

128^ SIXTH STREET PHONE 1805 

SAN PEDRO, CALIF. 



Pious Hope — Superintendent of 
Sunday School (whose enthusiasm 
runs toward regular attendance) 
— "Out of the entire school, only 
one pupil is absent today — little 
Doris Smith — let us hope that she 
is ill." — London Opinion. 



I 'its 



Preliminaries. — " W hen 
man 'e remembers it." 

"When I 'its a man 'e don't." — 
Sydney Bulletin. 



NOTICE! 

The exclusive agency here for the 
only C. T. & M. Tailors in the U. S. 
A., affiliated with the American Fed- 
eration of Labor and employing only 
members of the Journeymen Tailors' 
Union, is held by the reliable tailoring 
man 

S. G. SWANSON 

Established 1904 
Upstairs, Room 4, Bank of San Pedro 

Building 
110 W. 6th Street San Pedro 



Show your faith in the products 
of your fellow workers by patroniz- 
ing the Union Label. 
30 



SEAMEN 

Visit 
Your Hatter 

FRED AMMANN 

UNION HATS 

at the right prices. I'll try and 
wait on you personally and show 
you a large assortment and give 
you your money's worth. 

JOHN B. STETSON hats, too 

If you want your Panama blocked 
right I'll do that. 

You'll find me at 

72 Market St., San Francisco 

next to Ocean Market 



MEAD'S 
RESTAURANT 

NO. 16 
EMBARCADERO 

NO. 3 
MARKET STREET 

"THE" Place to Eat 

in 

San Francisco 



Breaking the News. — "Your 
daughter has promised to marry 
me. Will you forgive me for 
taking her away from you?" 

"Forgive you! Why. that's 
what the party was for."— Lon- 
don Opinion. 



Real Appreciation. — ':I have just 
called in to say how much I ap- 
preciate your treatment, doctor." 

"But 1 am not your doctor, 
young man!" 

"Xo. But you were my old 
uncle's, and I am his heir!" — 
Karikaturen ( Christiania I. 



'Tis Better Thus.— Burroughs — 
'I asked you for a loan of $10. 
This is only five." 

Lenders — "I know it is. but 
that's the fairest way — you lose 
five and 1 lose five." 



January, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



31 



BOSS ™ TAILOR 

1120 MARKET STREET, SAN FRANCISCO 

OPPOSITE SEVENTH STREET 



SUITS AND 
OVERCOATS 

To Order at Popular 
Prices 




All Work Done 

Under Strictly Union 

Conditions 



We Furnish the 
Label 



Always Fair with Labor — Always Will Be! 



JENSEN & NELSEN 

Gent's Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 
Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 



110 EAST STREET 
Kearny 3863 



Near Mission 
San Francisco 



H. SAMUEL 

THE OLD UNION STORE 
Established 1874 

Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 

Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, Bags, 

Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and Oil 

Clothing. Watches and Jewelry. 

Phone Kearny 519 

676 THIRD STREET, near Townsend 

San Francisco 



THE 
James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

PRINTING 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "Tne Seamen's Journal" 



A chap was arrested for assault 
and battery and brought before 
the judge. 

Judge ( to prisoner) — What is 
your name, your occupation, and 
what are you charged with? 

Prisoner — My name is Sparks, I 
am an electrician, and I am charged 
with battery. 

Judge — Officer, put this guy in 
a dry cell. — The Inland Merchant. 



"ALL NIGHT IN" 

A Sailor's Dream of Bliss 

Good Beds, Baths, Fine Lounges 
Stop and Meet Shipmates at 

LINCOLN HOTEL 



115 MARKET 



SAN FRANCISCO 



Telephone Douglas 2494 

O. B. Olsen's Lunch 

Delicious Meals at Pre-War Prices 

Quick Service 

98 Embarcadero and 4 Mission St, 

San Francisco, Open 6 a. m. to 1 a. m. 



Seamen, when in port, 
deal with 

W. P. Shanahan & Co. 

MEN'S SHOES 

Expert Repairing 

254 Market Street San Francisco 



ALAMEDA CAFE 

JACOB PETERSEN & SON 

Proprietors 

Established 1880 

COFFEE AND LUNCH HOUSE 

7 Market Street and 17 Steuart Street 

San Francisco 



D. Edwards & Sons 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Fair Prices. Reliable Goods 

92 EAST STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

GUARANTEED OIL CLOTHING 



One Safe Bet. — Weather Ex- 
pert — "When I say it's going to 
be fine, it's wet; and when I say 
wet, it's fine! They'll sack me 
next!" 

Colleague — "Stick to local show- 
ers, old man; there must be some 
local showers somewhere." — The 
Passing Show (London). 
31 



TACOMA, WASH, 



SEAMEN — ATTENTION! 

When In TACOMA, Visit 

Brower & Thomas 

FOR YOUR 

CIGARS AND TOBACCO 

THREE STORES 

1103 Broadway 11th & A Streets 

930 Pacific Avenue 



Union Makers of 
Clothes 

Tailored to your measure at prices 

within the reach of all 

$27.50, $30.00 and $35.00 

Higher Grades If You Want Them 

Dundee 

Woolen Mills 

MERCHANT TAILORS 

Main 4437 

920 Pacific Ave., Tacoma Wash. 

Room 303, Bay Bldg., 1213 First Ave. 



Jewelers to Tacoma for 40 Years 

Mahncke & Co. 



919 Broadway 



When In Tacoma Visit 

P. VOSS' PLACE 

Cigars, Tobacco and Poolroom 

Lunches Served 

P. Voss Old Town Tacoma 

Next to Sailors' Union Hall 



A small native of this district 
was interestedly interrogating an 
eastern commercial salesman, a 
being from another world, as to 
his life, connections, etc. 

"You got a brother?" he inquired. 

"I had one, but he died." 

"Got shot?" 

"No, he wasn't shot." 

"Drink himself to death?" 

"Certainly not." 

"I knowed you was a liar," ex- 
claimed the boy. "There's only 
them two ways of dyin'." — Every- 
body's Magazine. 



Speeding Up. — Efficiency Ex- 
pert (to Central) — "Would you 
mind if I gave you the number 
all five times at once?" — Life. 



Teacher (to practical child) — 
Now, Mary how would you pre- 
vent milk from going sour? 

Practical Child — Drink it, ma'am. 



32 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1924 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 

and Battery Sts., Opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Cal. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL, is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
lany branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
fin the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation 
and Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law, and Is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and Its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




UNION-MADE 



A complete line of seamen's shirts and 
garments of all kinds, union made right 
Cf-flDTC here in California, sold direct from factory 
to wearer and every garment guaranteed. 



and UNDERWEAR Direct from Factory to You 



1118 Market Street, San Francisco 
112 South Spring Street, Los Angeles 
1141 J Street, Fresno 
717 K Street, Sacramento 



Since 1872 



Eagleson & Co. 



Established 1917 by U. S. S. B. 

School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 

FERRY BLDG., SAN FRANCISCO 



Puget Sound 
Nautical School 

Conducted by CAPT. H. S. SMITH, 
four years Assistant Inspector of 
Steamboats, Puget Sound District. 
Formerly Instructor in New York 
Nautical College. 

Room 303, Bay Bldg. 1213 First Ave. 
SEATTLE, WASH. 




James 31. Sorensen 

fres and Jreaa. 

Jewelers, Watchmakers 
Opticians 



The Best Time to Buy 
Christmas Gifts 

Is Now, Before the Rush. Christmas will be 

here before you know it. 

The Best Place Is Sorensen's 

Unusual Assortments 

Unusual Values 

Gifts laid aside without Deposit 

tScwmmta 

^*^ Established 1896 

715 Market Street, bet. 3rd and 4th Streets 
San Francisco 




A Good Place 
to Trade 

Courteous Service 

Broad Assortments 

Moderate Prices 



Market at Fifth 
San Francisco 



UNION LABEL 

IS IN EVERY ONE OF OUR 
Hard finished— Hard Wearing 

$QCt WORSTED 
OO SUITS 

— See Them in our Windows — 



efs 




152-868 MARKET ST. 
SAN FRANCISCO 



Joint Accounts 

This bank will open accounts in 
the name of two Individuals, for 
instance, man and wife, either of 
whom may deposit money for or 
draw against the account. 

HUMBOLDT 
BANK 

783 MARKET ST., Near Fourth 
SAN FRANCISCO 



32 



o^ 




Official Paper of the International Seamen's Union of America 

t^TIICSIIfSf Iff IliaC31lflIlf fill IC3fll[IIIIIIlIC3III]llIiIIllC:3IIfITII]IIIIC31IIIlflllIIIC3IIIlEIIMIfI^:3IlllIlli:]IIC:31!llI'rillI1IIIIllC3IIllflirilIIC3IITIIIlIllIIC3IIIIlllIirilC3IIIMflTEI]]C31 IIIIIIIIIIIC2IIIIIIllllllC3lf iiiimiiica II f I [ 1 1 1 1 1 J LJ 



A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR 


SEAMEN 




Sea power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's 


tools. 






The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use 


them. 






Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea Our Motto: Justice by 


Organization 


Contents 








THE SEAMEN'S CONVENTION 






...35 


EDITORIALS: 








LABOR IN THE ALASKA SALMON INDUSTRY... 

ATTEND UNION MEETINGS 

THE PROPER STUDY OF MANKIND IS MAN 

DO THE PEOPLE RULE? 

AIR DISARMAMENT? 

WORKING HOURS IN THE RUHR 

MUZZLING THE CHURCH 






... 38 

. .. 38 

... 39 • 

...40 

...40 

...41 

...41 


WORLD'S LARGEST MOTOR LINER 






...42 


"NO SCABS WANTED HERE" 






...42 


WORKERS' EDUCATION 






. .. 43 


U. S. PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE 






...44 


FINDING FAULT IS EASY 






. . . 45 


LABOR IS NOT A COMMODITY 






. .. 46 


MONEY WAGES VS. REAL WAGES 






. .. 47 


"LEGITIMATE" GAMBLING 






...48 


NEWSPAPER OWNERSHIP 






. .. 48 


BOOK REVIEWS 






. .. 50 


AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 


52, 


53, 


54, 55 


LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 


55, 


56, 


57, 58 


ttot yyvwttt "NT o Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice 

V\JL,. AAAVlll, J\0. 2 as second-class matter. Acceptance for 

,,,tt AT — , XT * n ~. mailing at special rate of postage provided 

VVtiULhj NO. 1921 for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 

authorized September 7, 1918. 


SAN FRANCISCO 
FEB. 1, 1924 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L. Bldg., Washington, D. C. 



K. B. NOLAN, Secretary- Treasurer 
355 North Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 



DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES: 

ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 

Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR Secretary 

1% Lewis Street 
Branches: 

NEW YORK, N. Y WILLIAM MILLER, Agent 

67-69 Front Street 

BALTIMORE. Md C. RASMUSSEN, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa S. HODGSON, Agent 

108 Walnut Street 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La : R. JACOBSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex LOUIS LARSEN, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RD7ERS, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 



MARINE FIREMEN'S, OILERS' AND WATERTEND- 
ERS' UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y —...70 South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 
Telephone John 0975 

Branches: 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa ERNEST MISSLAND, Agent 

108 Walnut Street 

BALTIMORE, Md PATRICK KEANE, Agent 

804 South Broadway 

GALVESTON, Tex JOHN CLAUSSEN, Agent 

32l Twentieth Street 

BOSTON, Mass TONY ASTE, Agent 

288 State Si 

NORFOLK, Va _ DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHAS. W. HANSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 



ATLANTIC AND GULF COOKS'. STEWARDS' AND 

WAITERS' UNION 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretary 

4 South Street. Phone John 0975 
Branches: 

N. Y., WEST SIDE BRANCH E. DOYLEY, Agent 

46 Renwick Street 

BOSTON, MASS _ JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

No. 6 Long Wharf 

PHILADELPHIA, PA O. CHRISTENSEN, Agent 

13 South Second Street 

BALTIMORE, MD CHRIS. RASMUSSEN, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

NORFOLK. VA DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, LA R. T. KAIZER, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

PROVIDENCE. R. I FRANK B. HAYWARD, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 

GALVESTON, TEX LOUIS LARSEN, Agent 

321 20th Street 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass 202 Atlantic Avenue 

WM. H. BROWN, Secretary 

Branches: 

GLOUCESTER, Mass NEWMAN SHEA, Agent 

209 Main Street 

NEW YORK, N, Y JAMES J. FAGAN, Agont 

6 Fulton Street 



GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

CHICAGO. Ill 357 North Clark Street 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary 

VAL. DUSTER. Treasurer 

Phone State 5175 

Branches: 

BUFFALO. N. Y PATRICK O'BRIEN 

55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1501 Columbus Road 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERING, Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Hanover 240 

DETROIT, Micr WM. DONNELLY, Agent 

410 Shelby Street. Phone Main 0044 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 
COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y _ 71 Main Street 

THOS. CONWAY. Secretary 
ED. HICKS. Treasurer. Phone Seneca 8048 

Branches: 

CLEVELAND, 819 Superior Avenue 

Phone Main 866 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

Phone South 598 

DETROIT. Mich 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO. ILL 357 North Clark Street 

Phone State 5175 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y ~ 35 West Eagle Street 

J. M. SECORD, Secretary 
Telephone Seneca 896 

Branches: 

CHICAGO, 111 357 North Clark Street 

CLEVELAND, 1501 Columbus Road 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

DETROIT, MICH 410 Shelby Street 

PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE C. LARSEN. Acting Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches: 

VANCOUVER, B. C G. CAMPBELL, Agent 

135 Cordova Street, West 
P. O. Box 571, Telephone Seymour 8703 

TACOMA, Wash - A. KLEMMSEN, Agent 

2115% North Thirtieth Street 
P. O. Box 102 

SEATTLE, Wash _ P. B. GILL, Agent 

84 Seneca Street. P. O. Box 65 

ABERDEEN, Wash CHAS. OLESEN, Agent 

P. O. Box 280 

PORTLAND, Ore D. W. PAUL, Agent 

sb Street 

SAN PEDRO. Cal.._ HARRY OHLSEN, Agent 

P. O. Box 67, Telephone 4:'1\V 

HONOLULU. T. H _ JOSEPH FALTUS. Agent 

P. » ». Box 314, Telephone 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO. Cal 58 Commercial Street 

PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 3699 
(Continued on Page 26) 



February, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



35 



THE SEAMEN'S CONVENTION 




URSUANT to the constitution the 
twenty-seventh annual convention of 
the International Seamen's Union of 
America was called to order by Presi- 
dent Furuseth in the Continental 
Hotel, New York City, on January 14, 1924, 
at 10 a. m. 

The committee on credentials submitted a 
detailed report on delegates entitled to seats 
in the convention and also recommended 
favorably on the seating of Edmund Cathery 
and Thomas Walsh as fraternal delegates 
from the National Sailors', Firemen's and 
Cooks' Union of Great Britain and Ireland. 
Robert F. Bell, New York representative of 
the before mentioned Union, was also seated 
as a fraternal delegate. 

The annual report of President Furuseth 
dealt at length with the progress made by 
the various district unions since the last 
convention. Referring to the abortive efforts 
of subsidized dual organizations President 
Furuseth said : 

If the propaganda of the I. W. W., of the Marine 
Relief Society and of the other organizations and 
company unions organized or fostered by American 
Ship Owners' Associations had been compelled to 
depend upon their own strength and such financial 
resources as they could get from the working 
people there is no doubt that their propaganda 
would have ceased sometime ago. The fact that 
these organizations have been able to continue 
and that they have been able to issue the pamphlets 
and papers and that they have been able to keep 
representatives and offices in several ports, should 
be sufficient proof to us that these organizations 
are receiving subsidies from those in whose interests 
they are specifically working. The amount of 
money that they have been able to collect from 
seamen in the last year has been utterly insufficient 
to continue the agitation and propaganda for the 
purpose of wiping out the International Seamen's 
Union of America. We know that the representa- 
tives of these organizations have had admission to 
the vessels, that they have distributed their propa- 
ganda — oral and printed — that the expenses con- 
nected therewith have been such that it could not 
have been continued without subsidies from some- 
body and it is reasonable and permissible to assume 
that those who permitted the distribution of the 
propaganda bore part of the expense. 

When the Unions on the Great Lakes, observing 
the favorable condition which seemed to give prom- 
ise of improvements during the summer, failed to 
enter into written agreements, men who claimed to 
be members of the I. W. W. and who carried on 
its propaganda came in great numbers to the dif- 
ferent Lake ports and by their presence and their 
propaganda made it inadvisable to make any move 
for any improvement, because it was perfectly well 
known that these new arrivals would take the places 
of those who might quit work in order to obtain 
better conditions or better wages. The Wobbly 



agents also endeavored to take advantage of the 
feeling among the seamen on the Pacific to the 
effect that a strike would be successful, when, not- 
withstanding their efforts, wages and conditions 
were improved, they claim the credit therefor, and 
when the longshoremen at New Orleans or any 
other place felt sufficiently aggrieved or hopeful to 
go on strike, the I. W. W. was sure to mix in it 
to the detriment of both the seamen and the long- 
shoremen. While they mixed in the strikes and 
very largely controlled the publicity, they made use 
r>f every opportunity to get the seamen to believe 
that our form of organization is ineffective, that the 
laws passed through our efforts are of no value, that 
the Able Seamen's certificate is a crime against 
labor and that the One Big Union, under their 
management, the only thing in which there was 
any hope and from which any improvement could 
come. Their disregard of law unquestionably ap- 
pealed to a good many of the younger men. es- 
pecially those whose experience at sea had been so 
short and uninstructive that they were ready to 
believe the promises and prophecies made in radical 
literature. These men had either absorbed the 
bitterness that comes from defeat or the hopes that 
come from glowing promises and have temporarily 
followed the lead of the disrupters. They found 
the laws disregarded and violated on every hand and 
it was not unreasonable that they should accept 
temporarily as truth such explanation and promises 
as the irresponsible propagandists were making. Of 
course the propaganda was met by our Journal and 
the pamphlets issued by the several District Unions, 
in which attention was called to what the seamen 
had accomplished while working within and re- 
specting the law, and what had been lost through 
following any other method. That we have not 
been wiped out, that we are stronger than we were 
last year, and that we have been able to improve 
conditions, both in wages and otherwise over what 
they were when we met last, notwithstanding the per- 
sistent efforts of the American Steamship Owners' 
Association and their allies, should to us be the 
best proof of the fact that whenever the truth can 
reach the seaman he will select the truth and follow 
it to the best of his powers and ability. 

From this experience we should acquire a realiz- 
ing sense of the importance of bringing the facts to 
the seamen afloat as well as on shore. If we can 
furnish the needed facts, orally and in writing — to 
the seaman, we shall have him come back to our 
organization after his travel in the wilderness, better 
equipped and stronger for the work that we have 
undertaken to do and at the same time proof against 
promises and misrepresentations that either have 
been used or are likely to be used in the future. 

The condition on shore, with the possibility of 
obtaining employment, at least equal wages and 
better conditions coupled with the condition on 
board of the vessels, has caused some 50 to 60 per 
cent of the most skilled men to quit the sea during 
this past year. The absolute disregard of the laws 
passed in the interest of safety and for the pro- 
tection of man and the men with whom the skilled 
seaman had to sail made the calling so distasteful 
and so onerous generally that he was willing to ac- 
cept any reasonable work that he could obtain 
on shore. To have the inefficient determine the 
wages and conditions on board of the vessels and 
then be compelled to do their work for them while 
on the vessels, was and is a condition holding out 
the strongest inducement for men to quit the call- 
ing. This seems to have been the shipowners' pur- 
pose. It has continued now for nearly three years. 
The shipowner cannot have failed to see and under- 



36 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1924 



stand the consequence of his policy of force and 
fear and if it was not his purpose to drive the most 
skilled and self-reliant men from the sea it would 
seem natural that he should have changed his policy 
by this time. There are reasons to believe that 
quite a number of shipowners are dissatisfied, that 
quite a number of them can and do see disastrous 
consequences of the policy and that they are dis- 
posed to change their policy. Whether this feeling 
shall take hold of the majority of the shipowners 
and so change their policy or whether it may be- 
come strong enough to cause the disintegration of 
the American Shipowners' Association is a matter 
for speculation, but our duty is to ascertain the facts 
as they are and to deal with them in the best way • 
we can. With the efficient and self-respecting sea- 
men, that are sailing, taking the full advantage of 
their opportunities while on the vessels, the feelings 
of the men on the vessels, the conditions on the 
vessels, and contrasting the condition now and 
when we were united, the policy of the shipowners 
will have to be changed. So that our clear and 
fundamental duty is to bring the facts, with such 
remedies as we propose, to the men that are sailing, 
and these men will not only change the condition 
and the wages but they will change the policy of 
the shipowner in such way as to make it reasonable 
to expect that at least some of those who have left 
the calling will return to it. 

Congress and the Seamen 

With regard to performances of the last 

Congress President Furuseth submitted the 

following : 

The last Congress, with its overwhelming Repub- 
lican majority and many of them coming to Wash- 
ington with the idea that all the ills of the American 
Merchant Marine were caused by the Seamen's Act 
did, when the facts were brought to the attention of 
the members, refuse to repeal or amend the Sea- 
men's Act. The only amendment to the Seamen's 
Act that passed the House — the Scott Bill — and 
which was in the Senate Committee when we met 
last, failed to become a law; in fact, none of the 
bills introduced either to amend, suspend or repeal 
were ever reported out of the committee, except 
the Scott Bill. 

The Subsidy Bill with its proposed amendments 
to the maritime laws which had passed the House 
when we met last failed in the Senate. 

Senate Bill 4708, aiming to provide compensation 
for seamen injured and the dependents of seamen 
killed in the course of employment, etc.. introduced 
by Senator Johnson of California, was given no con- 
sideration because of the objections which we had 
raised to any compensation bill under which we 
would have to sacrifice existing remedies. 

Information dealing with compensation laws of 
the different States, information dealing with the 
laws of Great Britain and a suggestion for an 
amendment to the Employers' Liability Act as deal- 
ing with seamen, the reasons for and an analysis of 
the same, are available. 

In two States of the union there is, on the part 
of the employe injured, an absolute choice as to 
whether he will accept compensation or go into 
court. In several other States there is a conditional 
choice. Subtantially the condition is that the in- 
jured person may have a choice if the employer 
has been negligent. It will be seen also that there 
is a choice in Great Britain. Section 33 of the 
Jones Act of 1920, being an amendment to Section 
20 of the Seamen's Act, gives tp the injured sea- 
man a choice after he has been injured. This choice 
is attacked in the case of Johnson vs. Panama Rail- 
road Company, and was argued in the Supreme 
Court on December 6. The case came from New 



York and was one for damages and had been de- 
cided in favor of the seaman in the District Court. 
It had been taken to the Court of Appeals and the 
Court of Appeals had been sustained and it came 
on appeal to the Supreme Court, where the pros- 
pects of its being sustained seemed very good. It 
would seem to be unwise on our part to make an 
unqualified decision as to what our policy is to be 
until the Supreme Court has acted. 

Our bill to transfer the departmental jurisdiction 
of the personnel of the merchant marine from the 
Department of Commerce to the Department of 
Labor received no consideration because a Com- 
mission was sitting and dealing with the question 
of reorganizing the Departments. 

The bill introduced by Senator La Follette to 
provide seamen on American vessels with a con- 
tinuous discharge book; to provide for improved 
efficiency and discipline, and for other purposes, 
and which was reported to you at the last conven- 
tion received no consideration because of lack of 
time. 

The Bernheimer arbitration bill, which we dealt 
with at our last convention, failed of any serious 
consideration in the Committee on Judiciary. When 
we met last the Committee on Immigration had 
before it a bill to strengthen the immigration laws. 
Into the proposed bill we sought to get some 
amendments that would prevent the Seamen's Act 
being used against the immigration laws and the 
immigration laws against the Seamen's Act. All 
legislation on the subject failed. And so the sea- 
iikii have, so far as the law is concerned, neither 
gained nor lost in the 67th Congress. 
The Present Congress 

What the present Congress may do or fail to do 
for the seamen becomes, under the circumstances 
that are now facing us, a matter of the greatest 
importance. The Immigration bills introduced tell 
us plainly that our fight for seamen's freedom is to 
be fought over again and the vehicle selected to 
accomplish the shipowners' purpose — the repeal of 
the freedom sections of the Seamen's Act — is a bill 
to meet the almost universal desire to so regulate 
immigration as to make it practically negligible. 
The present immigration law has been used together 
with the failure to enforce the Seamen's Act to 
carry into the public mind the idea that the freedom 
of seamen necessarily stands in the way of effective 
exclusion and regulation. The remedy proposed is 
to hold the seamen prisoners on their vessels while 
in ports of the United States. To prevent this and 
to get the Immigration law into such shape that will 
not repeal the most important sections of the Sea- 
men's Act is. therefore, our most important task in 
this Congress. To get a law passed that shall re- 
peal the Acts of 1874, so that all shipment of sea- 
men, except within the State or when going to an 
adjoining State, together with the repeal of Section 
20 of the Act of 1884, which permits seamen on 
American vessels to sign on in a foreign port, to be 
taken to a port in the United States and back to the 
port of shipment without being reshipped in the 
United States, is the next. These laws stand in the 
way of any real enforcement of the laws passed for 
the protection of the seamen and for safety at 
sea. 

This year has proven that the certificates of able 
seamen and of boatmen are so easily evaded, vio- 
lated and misused that their proper and effective en- 
forcement needs to be facilitated. The same is the 
case with reference to the language clause in Section 
13 of the Seamen's Act. Any violation of those 
sections of the Maritime Law that deals with safety 
at sea should be penalized by loss of the right to 
Limitation of Liability and thus make it more ex- 
pensive to disobey the law than to obey it. Limita- 
tion of Liability, ordinary Marine Insurance and the 



February, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



Protection and Indemnity Insurance has made the 
escape from the usual penalties so easy and in- 
expensive that those laws are as if they were not 
in the Statute Books at all. We should try to get 
the Employers Liability Act (Section 33 of the 
Jones Act — Section 20 of the Seamen's Act) 
amended and a Compensation Act passed that will 
give a free choice of "Rights and Remedies" after 
the injury. But it would not be wise to draft and 
cause the introduction of any such bill until the 
Supreme Court has handed down its decision in 
the case of Johnson vs. the Panama Steamship Co., 
where the question of choice is at issue. Besides 
these mentioned, there is the question of transfer- 
ring the Departmental jurisdiction over the seamen 
from the Department of Commerce to the Depart- 
ment of Labor. Here again it would be wise to 
wait until the bill to reorganize the departments 
has been introduced. 

According to the Philadelphia Public Ledger of 
December 11, the shipowners will urge upon Con- 
gress, among other things, such changes in the 
Navigation laws as will permit insertions in the 
article of riders, under which it is to be mutually 
agreed to submit questions arising between masters 
and the seamen to the Shipping Commissioners, 
Consuls, etc., for arbitration and decision. They 
will further recommend and urge that the laws be 
so changed that the master may, without authority 
from the Shipping Commissioner, complete his 
crew or sign substitutes for such men as may be 
found absent when the vessel is about to leave. 
They further intend to urge upon Congress the 
adoption of a continuous certificate of discharge 
book. I need not comment upon the importance of 
these proposals, the use made of the riders, the use 
that masters of vessels may make and are making of 
any permission to fill out or complete crews, and 
the continuous discharge book issued by the ship- 
owners with its effect upon the personnel, is too 
well-known to need any comment. 

These several questions must be acted upon by 
this convention. They are all of the greatest im- 
portance in the building of an efficient personnel as 
the basis for the sea-power of the United States 
in peace or war. On our peril we must be true to 
this, which is one of the promises which we made 
to ourselves when we organized this union. 

Secretary Nolan's Report 

Secretary-Treasurer Nolan's report con- 
tained an itemized statement of receipts and 
disbursements for "the" past year and showed 
the International Union to be in sound finan- 
cial condition. 

There was recorded an actual increase in 
the dues-paying membership notwithstanding 
the fact that there has been no increase 
in the number of ships in operation. This, 
of course, is indicative of the greater progress 
that would have been made had shipping 
been normal. 

The financial report of the Seamens' Journal 
also showed gratifying progress. 

Other subjects referred to in the Secre- 
tary-Treasurer's report dealt with the prob- 
lems of the Atlantic Cooks and Stewards ; 
conferences with the United States Ship- 
ping Board and the results thereof; pro- 



posed amendments to the Transportation 
Act ; People's Legislative Service ; a review 
of conditions in the various district organiza- 
tions together with copies of agreements em 
tered into by said organizations ; also a copy 
of the memorial resolution on the death of 
Thomas A. Hanson, late secretary-treasurer 
of the International Union. 

Convention's Decisions Summarized 

Space limitation forbids an extended re- 
view of the convention's work in the Journal. 
However, the published convention proceed- 
ings will be available very soon for all mem- 
bers who wish more detailed information. 
Herewith is a summary of the convention's 
work : 

Approved the agreement entered into be- 
tween the representatives of the Seamen and 
Longshoremen at the Portland, Ore., con- 
vention of the American Federation of 
Labor. This agreement was printed in the 
November, 1923, issue of the Journal. 

Decided to carry on an intensive campaign 
of organizing and planned for general cease- 
less activity to bring the truth to men who 
follow the sea for a livelihood. 

Analyzed and exposed the numerous abor- 
tive attempts of shipowners to establish 
and, whenever possible, to maintain dual 
unions of seamen. 

Pledged every possible assistance to the 
Alaska Fishermen's Union in combating of- 
fensive legislation as proposed in H. R. 
2714. Also agreed to help in every possible 
manner to further the enactment of H. R. 
4826, a measure acceptable to the fishermen 
because it will have a sweeping effect on 
trap fishing in Alaska and thus further pro- 
tect the valuable food fish of that region. 

Favored a reorganization of the North 
Atlantic fish industry by a system of co- 
operative marketing of fish as sponsored by 
the Fishermen's Union of the Atlantic. 

Called upon State Legislatures, particularly 
in coast States, to change the laws relating 
to the voting franchise so that seamen may 
cast their ballots when away from their 
registered voting, places. 

Petitioned State and Federal Judges to 
adopt rules that will permit a preference to 
meritorious cases of seamen upon the calen- 
(Continued on Page 49) 



38 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1924 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month in San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW FURUSETH, President 

A. F. of L.. Building, Washington, D. C. 

PATRICK FL.YNN. First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

V. A. OLANDER, Second Vice-President 

166 W. Washington Street, Chicago, 111. 

THOS. CONWAY, Third Vice-President 

71 Main Street. Buffalo, N. Y. 

P. B. GILL, Fourth Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street, Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR. Fifth Vice-President 

1% Lewis Street, Boston, Mass. 

WM. H. BROWN, Sixth Vice-President 

202 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Mass. 

OSCAR CARLSON, Seventh Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York, N. Y. 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary-Treasurer 

355-357 N. Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 

Office of Publication, 525 Market Street 
San Francisco, California 

Subscription price $1.50 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG Editor 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished in the JOURNAL, provided they are of general 
Interest, brief, legible, written on one side only of the 
paper, and accompanied by the writer's name and 
address. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the 
expressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscript. 



>0 



FEBRUARY 1, VJ24 



LABOR IN THE ALASKA SALMON 
INDUSTRY 

Two visitors to Alaska have returned with 
reports of inhuman hardships suffered by 
men employed in the salmon fishing indus- 
try. They were not traveling tog-ether, nor 
did they go for the same agency, but the 
missions of both were similar — to study 
labor conditions in the fisheries. IF. P. Ever- 
est made the trip for the Department of 
Labor and Industries of the State of Wash- 
ington, and Jose A. Valenzuela, .Mexican 
Consul in San Francisco, went to investigate 
tales of horror related by his countrymen, 
who form a large percentage of those em- 
ployed in the salmon trade. Both tell very 
similar stories. 

Mr. Everest's report particularly concerns 
the traffic conducted by Chinese contractors 
who, it is said, secure fat fees from the 
canneries for supplying cheap labor, and 



who also get most of the men's wages 
through the sale of dope and food, and the 
operation of gambling houses. It is believed 
that there are about 7000 men involved in 
the traffic, not more than 10 per cent of whom 
are white. 

The contract signed practically commits 
the men to slavery during the cannr 
which is supposed to last three month- but 
actually continues from five to six months. 
The salary is $170 for the season. No pro- 
tection is made for the health of the workers. 
Dope is everywhere, according to the two 
reports — opium, cocaine, bootleg, and mari- 
huana weed. The latter drug is said to 
drive men insane, but its sale is profitable. 

All this is an old story. Terrible as such 
exploitation is. it is bound to occur when- 
ever a new country is opened for develop- 
ment, until workers learn the necessity of 
organization. It is only by and through 
organization that the laborers in the Alaska 
salmon industry can secure for themselves 
decent living conditions and a fairer -hare in 
the profits of that industry. 



ATTEND UNION MEETINGS 



There is only one way in which you can be 
kept informed of the true conditions of your 
organization and that is by attending meet- 
ings. It is your duty to attend meetings to 
see that the business of your Union is prop- 
erly taken care of. The Union's busini 
your business. Don't depend upon someone 
else to take care of it for you. 

When you attend a meeting, either at head- 
quarters or any of the branches, do not just 
fill a chair, but take a part in the meeting. 
You may have some good ideas. They do the 
Union no good if you keep them to y« urself. 
These ideas may mean more to the organiza- 
tion than you realize, therefore do not hesi- 
tate to express them at the meeting. It is 
through the exchange of ideas and the fric- 
tion of mind upon mind that we make 
progi 

On the day of a meeting ask your ship- 
mates to go to the meeting with you. A hall 
filled with members is a good advertisement. 
It also encourages the officers and members 
to put forth additional effort. Every mem- 
ber's help is needed. 



February, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



39 



THE PROPER STUDY OF MANKIND 

IS MAN 



So Alexander Pope remarked, but it seems 
that many people do not agree with him. 
An Australian exchange tells how, at an in- 
ternational assemblage of distinguished sci- 
entists in Sydney, a motion to include social 
science and economics in the list of subjects 
for review was defeated by a vote of 44 to 
43. Did the 44 scientists know nothing of 
social science and economics? If that is so, 
their vote is understandable but hardly ex- 
cusable. 

These men represent the Science of Things, 
that is piling up knowledge faster than men 
are able to use it. Without the wisdom 
supplied by the other science — the Science of 
People, knowledge may do more harm than 
good. The story of the industrial revolu- 
tion is a familar one. Machine production 
began on a large scale, adding rapidly to 
the world's wealth, and adding incalculably 
to the world's misery. Men had suddenly 
discovered new tools which increased many 
times their earning capacity. They had not 
learned that unless those tools were used 
for the benefit of the whole people, social 
revolution and chaos would certainly follow. 

We still suffer the effects of that long 
period of adjustment to machine produc- 
tion. All the increased wealth made possible 
by it did not better the general economic 
level until men began to learn how to use 
it. And they are still learning. The most 
optimistic student of industrial conditions 
will admit that the present economic system 
is not sufficiently elastic and adjustable to 
meet the continuing industrial expansion. 

Every year millions of dollars are ex- 
pended in charities and reformation work. 
Much of this money is used simply in patch- 
ing up weak spots in the social fabric. That 
is an endless job, and a senseless one if the 
weak points can be practically eliminated 
through the discovery and destruction of the 
cause. To find the cause and point out 
how it can be destroyed is the function of 
the social scientist and economist. 

The tools of production are more compli- 
cated and efficient than ever before — and 
sharper. If men do not learn how to use 



these tools, they are bound to be injured. 
Means of increasing wealth do not benefit 
the world unless society as a whole profits by 
them. The social and economic scientists are 
trying to find a way by which the full 
fruits of scientific discoveries may be en- 
joyed by the greatest number. To stamp 
their work as a topic of discussion unworthy 
of a scientific body is not a high recommenda- 
tion for the 44 men who cast the dissenting 
vote. 

But our own government is about to do a 
thing much worse than did the scientists' 
meeting in Australia. The assistant director 
of the federal Bureau of Efficiency announced 
in a report to a congressional committee that 
sciences such as veterinary science or bio- 
logy would lose all dignity as a profession 
if they were classified with social economics 
or statistics. These last two subjects he 
includes in the list of studies which "have 
no professional or scientific status whatso- 
ever" ! Such an idea might be merely funny 
were it only a matter of speech-making. Un- 
fortunately the Federal Bureau of Efficiency 
has controlled much of the work of re- 
classification of civil service positions, af- 
fecting many salaries and the progress of 
much important work. The Federal Chil- 
dren's Bureau has done work of undeniable 
value, yet the "Survey" tells, as follows, what 
has happened to its staff under the new 
classification. 

"The director of the industrial division (of 
the Children's Bureau) is a college graduate 
with two years of graduate university work 
and ten years' professional experience. Dur- 
ing the past year she has been organizing 
and directing studies of State child labor 
laws, the trend of child labor, . . . the 
child on the farm, the child in street trades, 
and work opportunities for subnormal minors. 
And the official estimate of her status gives 
her the rank and pay of a chief clerk!" 

The Children's Bureau is "actually hand- 
ling more money than the Federal Trade 
Commission, the Bureau of Chemistry, or the 
Tariff Commission. Yet the chief executives 
of all these bodies are a full salary grade 
higher than the director of the Children's 
Bureau. The head of the Bureau ranks with 
the apiculturist in charge of bee culture in- 



40 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1924 



vestigations and the chief of the tick eradi- 
cation division in the Bureau of Animal 
Husbandry !" 

It would be interesting to be able to follow 
the reasoning which makes such classifica- 
tion possible. 



AIR DISARMAMENT? 



DO THE PEOPLE RULE 



Nobody disputes nowadays that the people rule. 
and the people who work for wages constitute a 
majority. The responsibility for social order and 
social progress rests upon them, and if they use 
their power unwisely they and their children will be 
the chief sufferers. 

Thus does a reactionary institution, the 
National City Bank of New York, appraise 
the strength of labor. And the statement is 
significant, first, because of its accuracy. Per- 
haps the most startling fact about the present 
unfortunate economic and political structure 
of society is that the remedy lies in the 
hands of those who toil. Legislation seems 
to be the simplest and quickest method of 
bringing the necessary adjustment in the so- 
cial order, and inasmuch as "the people who 
work for wages constitute a majority" of the 
electorate, they should in most cases be able 
to determine the character of legislators. 

But this unquestionable power, like the 
force that lies dormant in our water resources, 
is useless and even destructive of itself, un- 
less organized and wisely directed. And it 
is here that the second significant point in the 
statement quoted above becomes apparent. It 
is the enemy of labor that is most clearly 
aware of both the value and the danger of 
this force. He knows and appreciates full 
well that the only hope of maintaining his 
present strategic position lies in confusing 
the issues at stake and in causing antagonism 
and dissension within the ranks of labor. 

It is unthinkable that such a negligible 
per cent of mankind should dominate for 
their own selfish purposes the great body of 
society. And yet this condition is possible 
and will continue to be possible until labor 
has turned the light of searching analysis on 
the words of false prophets, has recognized 
the difference between emotional and con- 
structive leadership, and knows the value of 
unhesitating co-operation and community of 
purpose. 



Disarmament conferences matter little if 
the military and naval armaments affected 
are supplanted by other more deadly arms. 
With the advance of man's conquest of the 
air, the poet's vision of "airy navies battling 
in the central blue" is almost a realizable 
fact. The future battles of the nations will 
be fought in or from the air. 

Mastery of the air means that tin 
armies and the greatest naval force may be 
destroyed with ease. Hence the uselessness 
of building warships or training large armies. 
Great cities, too, will be at the mercy of air 
machines, and it follows that those who con- 
trol the air will write the next "peace" treaty. 

The men who know what war is have a 
right to speak on such a subject. Those who 
have suffered from war have also a right 
to speak on such a subject. And those who 
want war to be banished from the earth now 
join in the cry to bring about air disarma- 
ment. 

It is for this reason that the American 
Legion has taken action to have Pr< 
Coolidge call a conference to bring about 
air disarmament. Here are some facts fur- 
nished by the Legion: 

France has taken the lead in this conflict which 
threatens the peace of the world today. She has 
140 squadrons of military flying machines and in- 
tends to have 220 squadrons by the end of 1925. 
Included in the armament arc planes which carry 
75-millimeter cannon, planes which can transport 
six machine guns and their crews, enormous bomb- 
ers, special fightinsj: ships armored with battleship 
steel and actual troopships of the air. 

England is France's nearest competitor and in 
response to suggestions of its strategist s. has voted 
an extra $27,500,000 to enlarge its air armada. It 
has been estimated, however, that even by 1026 
England will he able to send aloft only 624 battle 
machines to meet 1530 that France will have ready. 
The creation of a separate air force by Italy, with 
extensive plans for its rapid development into a 
powerful fighting machine, indicates that Italy will 
enter the race. Russia is employing German tech- 
nicians and is using German machinery to advance 
toward its air goal, announced by Moscow as 
10,000 planes. 

With these developments taking place 
among the nations, the United States will be 
forced to spend millions on similar work. In 
order to preserve peace, and to prevent the 
squandering of those millions that might be 
spent to better purpose, the Legion is work- 
ing to bring about this conference. All of 
which would seem to indicate that "the war 
to end war" has not vet been fought! 



February! 1924 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

WORKING HOURS IN THE RUHR MUZZLING THE CHURCH 



41 



These few paragraphs are about the Ruhr. 
Likely enough when you read that first 
sentence you will read no more. "What," 
you will say, "more about the Ruhr! We 
are tired of that mess. Let Europe settle it 
as best it can." 

Yes, but have you noticed how Europe is 
settling it? As usual, at the cost of the 
workers. Such agreement as the German 
industrial lords, like Herr Stinnes, are reach- 
ing with .the French militarists is at the cost 
of the workers. Under pressure of starva- 
tion the miners and metal workers seem 
reluctantly to be agreeing to the nine or ten 
instead of eight-hour day. That means, in 
plain English, that by working overtime they, 
and not the big capitalists, are to pay repara- 
tion. 

If the German workers can be persuaded 
to adopt the longer working day and con- 
tinue to work at low wages, American 
workers who hate to read about the Ruhr 
will find that what happens in the Ruhr 
affects them very directly. Their own bosses 
will begin to say, "We cannot compete in 
the markets of the world with the forced 
labor of skilled German workers. We, too, 
must lower wages or lengthen hours, or 
both." 

The miserable part of this business is that 
there is enough scientific knowledge to 
shorten the worker's day, rather than 
lengthen it ; that at the very moment when 
men in the Ruhr mills and mines are being 
forced to adopt the longer day, many of their 
comrades in similar industries in their own 
country and throughout the world are out 
of work. It is a part of the madness of 
our profit-seeking system that the Germans 
who pay most dearly for the last year should' 
be the German workers who had the least 
of all their countrymen to do with bringing 
it about, and that they should pay in a way 
that makes more difficult in all lands the 
struggle of the workers for daily bread. 



The Pittsburgh conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church recently appointed a com- 
mission to consider some of the most urgent 
social and political problems. The commis- 
sion presented a report which was adopted. 
Without doubt its most remarkable passage, 
which deserves the widest possible publicity, 
runs as follows : 

We view with apprehension the conditions which 
exist in some of the mining and industrial towns of 
our State as illustrated by the inability of our 
Methodist Church to secure a clear and uncondi- 
tioned title to a site for the erection of a church 
building. The only available lease prohibits the use 
of the church building for any purpose not strictly 
religious and is subject to cancellation with the 
allowance of ninety days for the removal of the 
building. One of our pastors has been forced out 
of the field simply for having expressed himself as 
believing in the cause of the employes, and another 
is threatened with ejection for the same reason. 
This arbitrary position of the companies has re- 
sulted in closing towns to the preaching of the 
Gospel and is a serious evil to all who believe in 
the fundamentals of free government. 

Having eliminated the labor union as a 
factor for justice, some of the arrogant indus- 
trial overlords of America, who never could 
tolerate any back talk, are now engaged in 
stifling the voice of the church. Will they 
get away with it? 



The Navy bill, sponsored by the govern- 
ment of Holland, was rejected in the second 
chamber by 50 to 49 votes. The object of 
the bill being to provide for the construction 
of a fleet for the protection of the Dutch East 
Indies. For some months past a vigorous 
campaign has been waged against the bill 
by the socialist party and the trade unions 
affiliated with the I. F. T. U., a petition con- 
taining 1,130,000 signatures having been sub- 
mitted to the president of the second cham- 
ber for the rejection of the bill. The success 
of this campaign is a slap in the face of 
Dutch militarism, and an unexpected blow to 
the clerical government, which at once re- 
signed. Needless to say, the Dutch working 
classes are now rejoicing over their victory. 



If our cause is worth anything, it is worth 
striving and fighting for. The issues are too 
vital, the clouds are too menacing, for Labor 
men and women to sit idle. 



One of life's really glorious maxims runs as 
follows : "The unity of Labor is the Hope 
of the world." Food for reflection there ! 
Let every reader seize hold of the grandeur, 
of the splendor, of the hope. 



42 THESEAMEN'SJOURNAL February, 1924 

WORLD'S LARGEST MOTOR LINER "NO SCABS WANTED HERE" 



The Union Castle Mail Steamship Co. has 
decided to order a large twin-screw motor 
passenger liner of over 20,000 tons gross for 
their South African service. The new vessel 
will be built by Harland & Wolff (Ltd.) at 
Belfast and will be equipped with two sets 
of double-acting, eight-cylinder Diesel en- 
gines, developing a power of approximately 
20,000 indicated horsepower. The dimensions 
of the vessel will be 630 feet by 73 feet by 
46 feet, and luxurious accommodation will be 
provided for a large number of passengers. 

This will be by far the largest motor ship 
in the world and also the most powerful 
yet designed. The striking advance in marine 
Diesel-engine practice has been rendered pos- 
sible by the double-acting construction, with- 
out the necessity of increasing the diameter 
of the cylinders more than a few inches 
above the diameters in common use among 
the numerous single-acting Diesel engines 
which have been in service for several years. 

The pumps for circulating salt water, fresh 
water, and lubricating oil in the main engine 
room, and, in fact, all the auxiliaries in the 
machinery spaces as well as for deck pur- 
poses, will be electrically driven. Electrical 
power will be available also for fans, heating, 
and cooking, etc. The generator sets, pro- 
vided with their attendant auxiliary gear and 
switchboards, constitute a generating station 
comparing favorably as to size with that of 
many a fair-sized town. 



The final and permanent fruits of liberty 
are wisdom, moderation, and mercy. Its 
immediate effects are often atrocious crimes. 
conflicting errors, scepticism on points the 
most clear, dogmatism on points the most 
mysterious. It is just at this crisis that 
its enemies love to exhibit it. They pull 
down the scaffolding from the half-finished 
edifice; they point to the flying dust, the 
comfortless rooms, the frightful irregular- 
ity of the whole appearance, and then ask 
in scorn where the promised splendor and 
comfort is to be found. If such miserable 
sophisms were to prevail, there would never 
be a good house or a good government in 
the world. — Macaulav. 



Doesn't sound very criminal, does it? But 
it cost a barber, Taliaferro by name, a con- 
viction for contempt of court for displaying 
those words in the window of his own shop! 

The circumstances were these: Mr. Talia- 
ferro, proprietor of the Ideal Barber Shop 
in Clifton Forge, Va., sympathized with the 
striking railroad shopmen back in 1922 and 
stuck up a sign saying so. When the rail- 
roads won from complaisant courts their 
drastic injunctions forbidding the strikers to 
do anything but pray, each by himself, for 
success, Mr. Taliaferro kept his flag — beg 
pardon, his sign — flying. Promptly he was 
arrested for contempt of court and found 
guilty by the court. This conviction has' 
recently been upheld by the United States 
Court of Appeals which held that the sign 
constituted "intimidation by insult." The 
tender-hearted scab might have thrown down 
his tools when he learned that he couldn't get 
a shave in the Ideal Barber Shop! 

The -Court's decision is just another proof 
of what lawyers can do to ordinary men's 
rights when they get started. 



CHECKING UP 



Roy Simpson, negro laborer, was putting 
in his first day with a construction gang 
whose foreman was known for getting the 
maximum amount of labor out of his men. 
Simpson was helping in the task of moving 
the right-of-way and all day long he carried 
heavy timbers and ties until at tin 
the day he was completely tired out. Came 
quitting time. Before he went he approached 
the boss and said : 

"Mister, you sure you got me down on the 
payroll right?" 

The foreman looked over the list of names 
he held. "Yes," he said, finally, "here you 
are — Simpson — Roy Simpson. That's right, 
isn't it?'' 

"Yaas, suh, boss," said the negro, "dass 
right. I thought maybe you had me down as 
Sampson." — Forbes Magazine. 



The man who allows someone else to do 
his thinking becomes the thinker's meal ticket. 



10 



February, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



43 



WORKERS' EDUCATION 



In the movement for workers' education, 
labor has initiated a program the ultimate 
results of which are impossible to foretell. It 
is at least safe to say that the addition of 
the collected knowledge of past generations 
to the rich store of valuable, practical infor- 
mation already on hand will enable labor 
more easily to formulate and carry through 
its projects and policies. Mr. Spencer Miller, 
Jr., secretary of the Workers' Education Bu- 
reau, addressed the Portland convention of 
the American Federation of Labor on the 
aims, ideals, and anticipated accomplishments 
of workers' education. The speech forms a 
part of the published proceedings of the con- 
vention and answers clearly the "why"' and 
"how" of the movement. 

Concerning education, Mr. Miller said : 
Education is not information, it is not intelligence, 
though it uses it, nor is it training. It is emphati- 
cally not propaganda. . . . Education is not a quan- 
tity that is added to life, but a quality that comes 
out of life. There is the same relation between the 
various forms of knowledge — economics, sociology, 
history, languages — that there is between the parts 
of a tree — branches, twigs, leaves, roots, and trunk. 
All knowledge may be conceived of as an interpre- 
tation of man's experience and it is useful when 
applied to the problems of daily living — not kept a 
thing apart. 

In the workers' classes which have been 
formed, class work is conducted as a clear- 
ing house of knowledge, wherein each man 
exchanges his ideas and experiences for those 
of others. 

This is not the time nor the place to discuss in 
detail the methods of adult workers' education. But 
the technique that has been developed brings men 
together in a study class, not as teachers and stu- 
dents, but as friends in an adventure of learning. 
As Xenophon, the Greek historian, wrote many hun- 
dreds of years before the Christian era — "How shall 
a man learn save from one who is a friend." In a 
workers' study class of thirty students and one 
teacher, it is said there are, in fact, thirty-one stu- 
dents, or, if you will, thirty-one teachers. 

It is sometimes asked, Why workers' education? 
By others it is asserted that the interest of workers 
in education tends to narrow the concept of educa- 
tion to special and particular ends. If I understand 
the purposes that underlie this movement and the 
educational aspirations of working people, they 
want nothing less than the finest and fullest and 
most inclusive education. They believe* in the de- 
mocratization and extension of culture, in educa- 
tion for all. 

But the workers have a very special interest in 
education. They look out upon the world as crafts- 
men as well as citizens. And they see the world 
as craftsmen just as any other professional group, 
whether they be doctors, engineers, farmers, or the 
like. Furthermore, the average worker has long 
since recognized that organization does not exist 



for its own sake. It must enhance his life as a 
worker, as an individual, and as a member of the 
community. By its social function organization be- 
comes worthy of the loyalty of the worker. 

Labor's expanding policies, industrial proj- 
ects, and co-operative enterprises demand full 
understanding of the principles upon which 
they are based. Of collective bargaining, for 
example, Mr. Miller said : 

Collective bargaining does not exist in fact merely 
when an equal number of working men sit down 
with an equal number of employers to discuss prob- 
lems of wages and hours. An equality in numbers 
is not a real equality. Unless there is an equality 
or parity of intelligence and understanding of all 
the financial and industrial problems involved in 
a particular industry, there is no parity in fact. . . . 
It is a part of the promise of workers' education 
that men should be trained for negotiation and 
should know the structure of our modern industry 
and business, and should thus have an "equality" 
when they sit down at the conference table. 



REFLECTIONS ON SECURITY 



The misuse of terms goes very far in the 
complacent plutocratic press. "Civilization," 
says a writer, "is security." If we take world 
civilization in its common but perverted 
meaning as being the things which England, 
France and the United States have in con- 
trast to the things possessed by African blacks 
and Asiatic yellows the statement is simply 
not true. The vast majority of the workers 
in modern industry have no sort of decent 
security for their food for a single month 
ahead and no security for their jobs for more 
than a week ahead. The plain savage, trust- 
ing to his skill as a hunter, has better secur- 
ity in his bows and arrows. But if civiliza- 
tion meant a condition in which men and 
women were really citizens, then it would 
mean security, but not exclusively (as at 
present) for the wealth and property of a 
favored few. It is simply because our present 
civilization does not afford sufficient security 
against the power exerted through the grow- 
ing financial oligarchy that it must be re- 
placed by a more equitable system. At pres- 
ent, the financial security of the few is the 
insecurity of the many. 



If the first land owner got his title from 
the one who owned it, he was not the first 
land owner ; if he got it from the one who 
did not own it, he was not an owner at all. 
Where did the first title come from, any- 
way? 



11 



44 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1924 



U. S. PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE 



"To meet the growing demands of Ameri- 
can shipping and to reduce serious fire hazards 
due to antiquated buildings, new .Marine hos- 
pitals are urgently needed," says Surgeon 
General Hugh S. Gumming in the 52nd An- 
nual Report of the United States Public 
Health Service, for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1923. This report, covering the 125 
years of the existence of the public Health 
Service, has just come to hand. 

While stressing the need for new Marine 
hospitals and the difficulty of securing medi- 
cal officers for the regular corps of the Public 
Health Service, the Surgeon General states 
that "sanitary reports indicate that general 
health conditions throughout the United 
States have continued as satisfactory as in 
recent years. An increasing interest in Public 
Health improvement has been noted. In 
these reports, year after year, it is inter- 
esting to note the shifting of emphasis, 
which is due in part to progress in medical 
science." The present report for 1923 shows 
that the plague work, which has heretofore 
been the subject of much consideration in the 
annual reports, has, temporarily at least, prac- 
tically faded from the picture. P.oth human 
and rodent plague appears to have been era- 
dicated in the United States except for in- 
fected ground squirrels in California and all 
anti-plague measures in other States have 
been discontinued. 

We are warned, however, that owing to 
the difficulty of completely exterminating rats 
on board vessels and the present widespread 
dissemination of plague, geographically, there 
is constant danger of the introduction of this 
disease at all seaports engaged in foreign 
trade. 

While typhus, plague and yellow fever have 
been reported from countries with which the 
United States has been in constant com- 
munication, because of the enforcement of 
international sanitary agreements and the 
maintenance of National quarantine systems, 
no cases of major quarantinable diseases have 
gained access to this country within the year 
covered by the report. 

Twenty-five hospitals are now operated by 
the Public Health Service, including the Na- 



tional Leprosarium at Carville, Louisiana. 
Great advancement in the hospital standards 
of the Public Health Service is noted. At 
the same time there has been a reduction in 
the per diem cost. 

A novel feature of the present report is the 
section which deals with the use with which 
the Public Health is making of radio for the 
dissemination of popular health information 
and the stimulation of a wider interest in 
general health matters. 
. The United States Public Health S 
was the first National health agency to utilize 
radio for this purpose. The beginning of its 
radio activities dates from July 13, 1 ( >_? 1 . The 
actual cost to the Bureau for maintaining its 
radio information service has been insig- 
nificant. 



DEFINITIONS A LA MODE 



Longfellow could take a worthless piece of 
paper, write a poem on it, and make it worth 
$65,000. That's Genius. 

There are some men who can write a few 
words on a piece of paper and make it 
a million dollars. That's Capital. 

The United States can take an ounce and a 
quarter of gold and make it worth twenty 
dollars. That's Money. 

A mechanic can take material worth five 
dollars and make it into watch springs worth 
one thousand dollars. That's Skill. 

There is a man in Paris who can take a 
fifty-cent piece of canvas, paint a picture on 
it and make it worth one thousand dollars. 
That's Art. 

A man can take an article costing seventy- 
five cents and sell it for one dollar. That's 
Business. 

The quoter of this could write a check for 
ten thousand dollars, but it wouldn't be worth 
a cent. That's Tough. 

I know a man who is so absent-minded 
that he often thinks he forgot his watch ; 
then takers it out to see if he has time 
back and get it. That's Hell. 

I know some people who belong to the 
union, who want to get new members, but 
who are not willing to work hard or long 
enough to be successful. That's just plain 
Damphoolishness!— The Garment Worker. 



12 



February, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



45 



FINDING FAULT IS EASY 

(By Charles Edward Russell) 



The American labor organization is the best 
labor organization in the world. 

Whatever you may have heard about it, this 
is a fact. It has been my lot to see at close 
range the labor movements in many lands 
under many conditions. If I know the differ- 
ence between good and bad and hot and cold, 
this is the best. 

Criticism is the safest and easiest of all 
sports, outdoor or in. Everybody that cannot 
make a tool of American organized labor finds 
some fault with it. 

Some persons say it ought to be more 
radical and do a new sand dance every morn- 
ing. Some say it is too radical and a peril 
to the Republic and ought to be brought down 
to the functions of a pinocle party and dis- 
cuss nothing more alarming than chicken 
patties. 

It goes on its own way without bothering 
about either sand dancers or pink tea-ites, 
achieving results beyond any other labor 
organization anywhere. 

Many persons thing it ought to cut loose 
and be a political party and get control of 
the government and imitate labor parties else- 
where. 

It is evidence of the intelligence and good. 
sense of the American worker that he has no 
time for these kite flyings. 

He has stuck to the economic field as the 
right place for the operation of his organiza- 
tion, and behold him now, working on the 
economic field, far better situated than any 
other worker on earth. 

Better in every way. For while he has 
been securing a larger and more nearly just 
share of the fruits of industry, he has been 
steadily raising organized labor in the respect 
of the country and as steadily multiplying 
its power and influence for good. 

These are wonderful results. Reasoning 
men that know them may well give thanks 
as this year closes upon such manifestations. 

Parliamentarism is the fatal lure in other 
countries, the deadly trap, the rock on which 
labor goes smash, sooner or later. 

It has never fooled the labor movement in 
America. The American worker goes into poli- 
tics and uses his ballot according to his con- 



victions, but he does not tie his economic 
weapon into a bundle with his political power 
and then find he has made a slap-stick at 
which in the end everybody laughs. 

The last four years have proved his wisdom 
about this. They have seen the fiercest and 
best generated attack ever made on his labor 
organization and his labor organization comes 
from the ordeal stronger than ever. 

At this again men of any faith in the race 
and its destiny rejoice and are glad. The 
new year opens with clearing prospects and 
a better hope because of it. The great and 
beneficent part that organized labor plays in 
human progress was never so sure. It is to 
win for the worker always the chance of 
richer, fuller and nobler life, to gain for him 
always a better recognition of his place in 
society and to bring men always closer to- 
gether with more tolerance and wider vision. 
The new year will see along this line of march 
the best progress we have ever made. 



HIGHEST AND LOWEST POINTS 



The maximum difference in elevation of 
land in the United States is 14,777 feet, ac- 
cording to the Geological Survey, of the 
Department of the Interior. Mount Whitney, 
the highest point, is 14,501 feet above sea 
level, and a point in Death Valley is 276 feet 
below sea level. These two points which 
are both in California, are less than ninety 
miles apart. This difference is small, how- 
ever, as compared with the figures for Asia. 
Mount Everest rises 29,002 feet above sea 
level, whereas the shores of the Dead Sea are 
1290 feet below sea level, a total difference 
in land heights of 30,292 feet. Mount Everest 
has never been climbed. 

The greatest ocean depth yet found is 
32,088 feet, at a point about forty miles north 
of the island of Mindanao, in the Philippine 
Islands. The ocean bottom at this point is 
therefore more than eleven and one-half miles 
below the summit of Mount Everest. 



In my early days I constantly made the 
foolish supposition that conclusive proofs 
would change beliefs, but experience dissi- 
pated my faith in man's rationality. — Herbert 
Spencer. 



13 



46 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1924 



LABOR IS NOT A COMMODITY 

( By John R. Ford, 
Justice, New York State Supreme Court) 



The labor question presents new problems 
unknown to the courts of equity when our 
government was founded. Equitable rules 
appertain for the most to property rights — 
the rights of capital, and courts of today 
persist in stretching those rules to crush labor 
organizations on the theory that labor is a 
commodity without the slightest recognition 
of the human souls and the American homes 
which the term labor connotes. By legis- 
lative acts labor has been declared not to be 
a commodity or article of commerce. Yet 
the courts refuse to give recognition to this 
obvious truth. 

The fact is that the labor question is in a 
class by itself and should be so treated by 
the law because of the human elements com- 
posing it. That this is so is indicated by the 
employers in numberless establishments 
where all differences with the workers are 
settled peaceably because justly and where 
strikes are therefore unknown. It has been 
recognized by Congress and by the state 
legislatures generally in the countless special 
laws passed to regulate child labor and that 
of women; the hours of labor and working 
conditions, minimum wage laws and work- 
men's compensation acts. Human rights, in- 
terests and aspirations may not be treated by 
the law as on a par with billets of steel and 
bales of hay. 

I have in mind the Daugherty injunc- 
tion so-called. Do not forget that the United 
States of America itself was the complainant 
in that suit. And bear in mind that the con- 
stitution forbids Congress to make any law 
abridging the freedom of speech or of the 
press. Also remember that the injunction 
I have mentioned was granted upon the 
government's prayer, the application of the 
attorney general, without notice to the labor 
unions or their members. There was noth- 
ing before the judge except such papers 
as the attorney-general saw fit to submit. 
Yet this injunction was so issued which, by 
a stroke of the pen. turned into crimes acts 
which before that had been innocent and 
unpunishable. 

I sav it turned innocent acts into crimes. 



It may be said that they were not made 
crimes but only contempt of court. To that 
I answer that to the citizen who finds him- 
self in jail, it makes little difference what the 
act is called for which he is being punished. 
Furthermore, he would be better off if it 
were called a crime because then his rights 
would be protected by the ample safeguards 
provided by the ordinary criminal procedure 
which with exceeding care protects the rights 
and liberties of the humblest. Call his offence 
a contempt and he is haled before the judge 
and without trial by jury summarily con- 
demned to fine or imprisonment or both. 



EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION 



A few weeks ago what was described as 
"a remarkable navigation announcement" was 
issued at Washington to the effect that a 
ship traveling eastward is lighter than when 
going westward as a result of the earth's 
rotation. Why this is so was recently ex- 
plained in "The Engineer," which points ou1 
that there is nothing novel in this .-(.-called 
discovery. Since a vessel traveling at 25 
knots has a speed of 42 feet per second and 
since the peripheral speed of the earth at 
the equator is 1 5f jO feet, it is clear that when 
steaming westward, with the two speeds 
opposing each other, the true lineal velocity 
of the ship is 1518 feet per second, while on 
an eastward course it is 1602 feet. The 
surface speed of the earth diminishes accord- 
ing to the degree of latitude, being, for exam- 
ple, only 1213 feet per second in latitude 30 
degrees, which is the latitude of Baltimore. 

At the equator the centrifugal force on a 
1100-ton destroyer, traveling at 25 knots, is 
8410 pounds on a westward and 9366 pounds 
on an eastward course, indicating a differ- 
ence of 950 pounds between the two con- 
ditions. 



REASSURING HIS PATIENT 



"Doctor," said the sick man. "the other 
physicians who have been in consultation over 
my ease seem to differ with you in the diag- 
nosis." "I know they do," replied the doctor, 
who had a great opinion of his own wisdom, 
"but the autopsy will show who was right." 



14 



February, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



47 



MONEY WAGES VS. REAL WAGES 



The Sailors' Union of the Pacific recently 
authorized the Labor Bureau, Inc., to pre- 
pare a set of blue print charts showing in 
a graphic manner the real purchasing power 
of sailors' wages from 1914 to date. 

In order to have a thorough understand- 
ing of the interesting points raised by com- 
parative statistical data it is necessary to 
distinguish between money wages and real 
wages. 

The Labor Bureau Economic News Letter 
for the current month makes an earnest ef- 
fort to explain the difference between money 
wages and real wages. To quote : 

The money wage is the number of dollars in 
the pay envelope. The real wage is what _ those 
dollars will buy. When money wages remain the 
same, real wages may change from time to time 
because the prices of food, clothing, rent, etc., rise 
or fall. And, on the other hand, to maintain a 
given real wage in a period of changing prices, it 
is necessary to alter the money wage as the prices 
change. 

When unions demand that money wages be raised 
because the cost of living has gone up, they are 
not, in reality, asking for a wage increase at all. 
They are merely asking that real wages be kept 
up to the former level. If money wages were con- 
stantly raised or lowered in accordance with changes 
in the cost of living, there never would be any 
changes in real wages. The purchasing power and 
standard of living of the wage-earners would remain 
exactly the same year after year, decade after decade, 
century after century. It is therefore incorrect, in 
any real sense, to speak of such changes as wage 
changes at all. The method of adjusting money wages 
according to changes in the cost of living is a device 
to keep real wages at a fixed level, wherever they 
happened to be when the process started. It has 
no bearing whatever on the question of whether 
that level is high enough or whether it could, con- 
sidering everything, be raised. 

Different Kinds of Prices 

When considering changes in prices, or changes 
in the purchasing power of the dollar, it is im- 
portant to know what prices we are dealing with. 
Some series of numbers showing changes refer only 
to wholesale prices. Others show retail prices. 
Wholesale prices usually rise faster and further than 
retail prices, and they also fall faster and further. 
They may indicate the purchasing power of the 
wholesale buyer's dollar, but they do not show 
accurately the purchasing power of the wage-earners' 
dollar. The wage-earner buys things at retail. In 
discussing this subject, therefore, it is important to 
use an index of retail prices, and to use the 
particular kind of retail price index known as the 
cost of living index. In case this is not available, 
the best substitute is an index of retail food prices, 
since food takes up about 40 per cent of the wage- 
earners' expenses. 

Price indexes are not absolutely accurate. They 
are merely approximations to the truth, and should 
not be regarded with as much confidence as are 
exact weights and measures. All general price 
indexes are averages, which cover a number of 
different articles. The cost of living index of the 
United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, which is 



usually the best for wage discussions, covers tin; 
prices of many things. The Bureau first priced a 
list of a large number of articles which wage- 
earners buy. It also found out what proportion of 
the family income went for food, what proportion 
for clothing, what for rent, and so on. Four times 
a year it gets new increases or decreases together in 
the given proportions. The result is the new index 
number. It is clear that the process is open to 
mistakes or variations. The pricing may not be 
entirely accurate. One group of articles may go up 
much faster than another group, and so the propor- 
tion of the income actually spent for it may become 
larger than that used in the calculations. Or the 
buying habits of wage-earners may change. In spite 
of these possible variations, however, index numbers 
do give a very fair idea of the general nature of 
price changes. 

Abuses of Index Numbers 

Above all, remember that the cost-of-living index 
does not show how much it costs to live. It merely 
shows how much the retail prices of common 
necessities have changed from the base year. To 
change money wages according to changes in the 
cost of living index does not give any guarantee 
whatever that the worker is getting a proper living 
wage. If he was not getting enough when this 
process began, he will not be getting enough when 
it finishes, because his real wage or purchasing 
power remains the same. The cost of living doubled 
between 1914 and 1920. Suppose you were receiving 
$10 a week in 1914. It was not enough then. 
Suppose you were raised as much as the cost of 
living and so received $20 a week in 1920. You 
would still not be getting enough, for with your 
$20 in 1920 you could buy no more than with your 
$10 in 1914. 

The best index of changes in the cost of living 
is that published by the United States Bureau of 
Labor Statistics for various cities, which may be 
obtained from Washington. It is better than others, 
such as that issued by the National Industrial Con- 
ference Board, which is an employers' organization. 

The blue prints are available for inspection 
at the headquarters of the union and mem- 
bers are urged to avail themselves of this 
opportunity to see a scientific analysis of 
"money wages versus real wages." 



CHANGE OF OCCUPATION 



From army general to commander of a 
department store mop and broom squad is 
the biography of Gen. Apollo Levantouyeff, 
who led a brigade of the Russian czar's army 
against the Germans at the Polish front in 
1916. 

Levantouyeff makes his local headquarters 
at a San Francisco department store where 
he is janitor-in-chief. 

His staff is composed of three former 
privates in his Russian brigade. All three, 
Eugene Dedanko, John and Alex Shubin, 
still are loyal to the army regulations and 
frequently are caught in the act of saluting 
their "chief." This illustrates how difficult it 
is to break away from "force of habit." 



15 



48 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL February, 1924 

'LEGITIMATE" GAMBLING NEWSPAPER OWNERSHIP 



When a young army lieutenant away off 
in Manila explains that he made $800,000 
trading in Wall Street, solely on the basis 
of market tips cabled him by an obscure 
tipster, even the most hardened defenders 
of the propriety of speculation on the stock 
market take the explanation of such good 
fortune with several pinches of salt. Such a 
thing can't be done. When this army lieuten- 
ant happens to be the son and aide of the 
Governor General of the Philippines, even 
staunch defenders of Leonard Wood's ad- 
ministration of affairs agree that an investi- 
gation of his son's activities is in order. That 
investigation might properly inquire why 
General Wood was so ignorant of his son's 
affairs that he had to be told of them by 
outsiders. 

Of course it is highly improper that any 
army lieutenant in young Wood's position 
should have done what he did, and there 
is a certain satisfaction in finding that this 
point is agreed to almost unanimously. 

But suppose the lieutenant's explanation is 
correct; suppose that he did win by "legiti- 
mate" trading — what then? Is it ever right 
for any man to make $800,000 in a few 
months by any form of gambling at the race 
track or on the stock exchange? For this 
$800,000 Lieutenant Wood has rendered no 
service to society. He has done no useful 
manual work, administered no great produc- 
tive enterprise, made no invention or scien- 
tific discovery, written no book, composed 
no music, created no work of art to uplift the 
soul of man, conquered no new realm for the 
mind and spirit of his brothers. Yet he has 
$800,000, and that $800,000 means an enor- 
mous claim on the labor of thousands upon 
thousands of inadequately paid workers. He 
who has done nothing will draw from the 
stores of wealth created by labor an amount 
greater than thousands of men could earn 
by honest toil in a long and laborious life- 
time. Supposing that he has done it "legiti- 
mately." Is the system that encourages 
this form of speculation itself legitimate or 
reasonable? 



One more newspaper has become part of 
a chain. Cyrus Curtis, owner of the Satur- 
day Evening Post, Ladies' Home Journal 
and the Morning and Evening Ledger of 
Philadelphia, has bought the New York 
Evening Post. That fact itself may be no 
great calamity. The Post was living on its 
past. It was no longer a great newspaper, 
nor a great champion of noble causes. It 
was merely "respectable" and as a respect- 
able paper it was losing hundreds of thous- 
ands of dollars for its wealthy backers. Mr. 
Curtis may make a better paper out of the 
Post. Nevertheless, its purchase calls at- 
tention once more to the fact that the 
business of running newspapers is more and 
more passing into the hands of millionaire 
owners who run them like chain stores. Such 
monopolization of the press in behalf of 
millionaire seekers for profit and power 
menaces democracy. Standardization in Ford 
cars may be a good thing. Standardization 
in news features and editorials is a bad thing. 
It is a particularly bad thing when it is 
carried on in the interest of profit. 

To some extent this commercialization of 
our daily papers can be offset by independent 
weeklies and by the weekly or monthly or- 
gans of trade unions and working class politi- 
cal parties, but valuable as are these papers, 
they cannot wholly counteract the influence 
of a daily press which pervasively and con- 
tinually through its news, its editorials, and 
even its comics, upholds the standards of 
the acquisitive society. The danger that 
labor has to fear is not so much hostile 
anti-labor editorials — these it can answer. 
It has to fear the whole tone and subtle 
influence of the commercial press. Labor 
cannot counteract this influence on it and 
on its children simply by propaganda organs. 
It needs to found and encourage at strategic 
points its own press which will run "regular"' 
newspapers with news features in the interest 
of the working class instead of the bosses. 
Labor has the numbers and the strength to 
do this if it will. 



Humanity and honesty cannot grow out of 
a system based on fraud and force. 



The greatest marvel of the age is the fact 
that one man will do for another what that 
other is able to do for himself. 



16 



February, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



49 



THE SEAMEN'S CONVENTION 

(Continued from Page 37) 



dars of their respective Courts. "This request 
is made because witnesses in seamen's cases 
frequently disappear when too much time 
intervenes. 

Ordered printed a striking resume of 
achievements by the International Seamen's 
Union of America. This material was com- 
piled by President Furuseth upon request of 
the American Federation of Labor. 

Provided 4or a permanent committee on 
education to co-operate with the Workers' 
Education Bureau • of America in getting 
worthwhile books and libraries on all Ameri- 
can ships and, in general, to prepare plans 
for better educational facilities for seamen. 
The convention also voted to formally affili- 
ate with the Workers' Education Bureau. 

Condemned the shipowners labor crushing 
activities and decided to appeal to the Su- 
preme Court of the United States if the test 
case known as Street vs. Shipowners Associa- 
tion, involving the legality of the shipowners 
employment system, should be decided 
against the seamen in the U. S. Circuit Court. 

Directed the Legislative committee to 
frame an amendment to the present law re- 
lating to sea watches, providing that division 
in watches must be made in equal numbers, 
as far as possible. 

Urged the Legislative committee to be on 
the lookout and oppose any measure de- 
signed to fasten compulsory arbitration upon 
any group of workers in America. 

Extended sincere appreciation to Messrs. 
Arthur Emil Albrecht and Paul S. Taylor for 
their valuable literary contributions to the 
American seamen's movement. Both of these 
gentlemen have written books on the history 
of the Seamen's Union. 

Insisted that any proposed seamen's com- 
pensation law must preserve for seamen the 
existing right to bring suit for damages if 
the seaman should prefer such procedure 
rather than fixed compensation. A Supreme 
Court decision defining seamen's rights under 
present statutes is expected shortly. The 
case in question is known as "Johnson vs. 
Panama Railroad Co." 

Ordered that Andrew Furuseth's letter to 
President Coolidge, outlining the present 



shipping situation and in particular stressing 
the importance of American seamen in the 
struggle for mastery of the sea, be made a 
part of the published proceedings. 

Endorsed the attitude of the committee on 
Legislation who have opposed any changes 
in the immigration law that will again tie 
foreign seamen to their ships when in Ameri- 
can ports. 

Amended the constitution by providing for 
the election of the editor of the Journal 
at each annual convention and making the 
editor responsible for the editorial and busi- 
ness management of the Journal subject to 
the control of the Executive Board. 

Appointed a committee to meet with the 
United States Shipping Board of January 
22. as per arrangement with Mr. Jenkins, di- 
rector of Industrial Relations. 

The Fraternal Delegates 
One of the most pleasing features of this 
year's convention were the addresses of the 
Fraternal Delegates Cathery and Walsh. 
Both of these men are practical seamen who 
have spent their whole lives in the seamen's 
movement and the information furnished 
by them on seamen's conditions in Great 
Britain and Europe generally was highly in- 
structive as well as keenly interesting. In 
closing his talk Delegate Cathery spoke of 
the hard uphill fighting years ago in England 
when the Shipping Federation was all power- 
ful and seemingly -invincible. He drew a 
striking analogy between that contest and 
the present struggle of American seamen 
against heavy odds and closed his talk by 
reciting from memory this old refrain : 
The Shipping Federation 

How sweet that name does sound. 
Tis a trap to catch our seamen 

And to grind them to the ground. 
'Tis only a conspiracy 

To break the Union down. 
Oh, shun those offices my boys 

In every seaport town. 

They boast of eighty millions 

They have gathered now in store. 
Whence came those eighty millions? 

From the sweating of the poor 
Working on the Sabbath day 

And drowning men at sea. 
O God above with all thy love 

Let not such things to be. 

Election of Officers 
The officers elected for the ensuing term 
are as follows : 

President. Andrew Furuseth ; first vice- 



17 



50 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1924 



president, Patrick Flynn; second vice-presi- 
dent, Victor A. Olander; third vice-president, 
Thomas Conway; fourth vice-president, P. B. 
Gill; fifth vice-president, Percy J. Pryor; 
sixth vice-president, W. H. Brown; seventh 
vice-president, Oscar Carlson; secretary- 
treasurer, K. B. Nolan; Editor Seamen's 
Journal, Paul Scharrenberg. 

Legislative Committee — Andrew Furuseth, 
Victor A. Olander, Patrick Flynn, Thomas 
Conway and Percy J. Pryor. 

Committee on Education — Paul Scharren- 
berg, Victor A. Olander and Percy J. Pryor. 

Delegate to annual conference of Inter- 
national Seafarers' Federation — Andrew 
Furuseth; alternate William H. Brown. 

Delegates to American Federation of Labor 
convention — Andrew Furuseth .and Paul 
Scharrenberg. 

Buffalo was elected as the convention citv 
for 1925. 



BOOK REVIEWS 



A CRITIC CORRECTED! 



In the course of an article drawing an un- 
favorable comparison between the British and 

the United States Navies, the Liverpool Jour- 
nal of Commerce says that "the U. S. Navy is 
cursed with the prohibition craze," and as 
"it is notorious that total abstainers are slow 
thinkers'" it follows that the U. S. N. is not 
in the running! Poor and misinformed rea- 
soning that! If the writer of the effusion 
about the two services had enjoyed the privi- 
lege of an invitation to a social function on 
board a ship of the U. S. Navy, he might have 
changed his opinion about total abstinence. — 
"Xauticus." 



QUOTING SCRIPTURE 

Mr. R.'s little granddaughter lives in Los 
Angeles. Recently her parents have been 
looking for an apartment, and became quite 
discouraged in their quest because no one 
wanted little children. They were quite in 
the mood, therefore, to appreciate Helen's 
version of the Golden Text, when she re- 
turned from Sunday-school the other day. 
"It was a very queer verse, mother," she 
said ; "it was, 'Suffocate your little children 
and come unto Me.' " 



Chinese Migrations — A study of the over- 
seas migrations of the Chinese, viewed espe- 
cially from the standpoint of labor conditions, 
has been published by the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics of the U. S. Department of Labor 
as Bulletin No. 340. The countries covered 
by the inquiry are those in which the maxi- 
mum number of Chinese have at some time 
reached at least 50,000, with the exception of 
some of the far-eastern countries and islands 
for which sufficient data was not available. 

The study covers the historic, social, and 
economic phases of the migrations and takes 
up the most important periods during which 
they took place, beginning with those of the 
seventh and fifteenth centuries and following 
those of the nineteenth century down to the 
present time, special emphasis being laid on 
the modern period. 

From a historical point of view the im- 
portant conflicts and the political and civil 
relation between China and each of the 
countries which have been important points 
of immigration are traced to the last sig- 
nificant clash through which the Chinese 
have either gained or lost socio-economic im- 
portance. The study of economic conditions 
includes the main occupations of the Chinese 
and their activities in different branch* 
industry and the discussion of social condi- 
tions deals with education, government, social 
organizations, racial discrimination-, customs 
and manners, and interracial marriage and 
fusion. 

The conclusions reached are that these mi- 
grations which have been caused by the 
pressure of population have resulted, under 
favorable social conditions, in the successful 
maintenance of business and trade, but thai 
the immigrants have been handicapped by 
social and legal discriminations and they have 
frequently been a source of complications in 
international relations. 



The Ship's Baker, by Richard Bond. James 
Munro & Co., publishers, 37 Washington 
street, Glasgow, Scotland. Price 15s net. 
This is a book of practical instruction on 
the making of bread, confectionery, etc.. on 
board ship. Mr. Bond is chief instructor to 
the Nautical Training School for Stewards 



18 



February, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



51 



and Cooks, Liverpool ; he is also the author 
of The Ship's Steward's Handbook. In pre- 
senting his new book, Mr. Bond states that 
the variety of methods of making up materials 
which are much of the same nature to give 
distinctly different results is almost as wide 
as the use of the alphabet in the production 
of words. Therefore, a book on bread and 
confectionery is practically as great a neces- 
sity for the guidance of the ship's baker as 
a dictionary is for professional men in other 
spheres. For many years Mr. Bond has been 
training and equipping with the necessary 
knowledge of the particular branch in which 
they wish to excel men who have had more 
or less experience in the several branches of 
the culinary department and during that 
period he has come to the conclusion that a 
really reliable book on this subject has be- 
come an essential requirement. The present 
volume is the outcome of that conclusion. 
There are chapters on colors, essences, spices, 
fruits, nuts, ovens, different kinds of bread, 
flour, dough, milk and its uses, chemical aera- 
tion, baking powders, buns and cakes of all 
descriptions, icing, cake decoration, pastry, 
puddings, biscuits, cold sweets, ice cream, etc. 
It will be seen, therefore, that the range of 
subjects is wide and varied, every phase of 
the art of baking and confectionery making 
being adequately covered. All the recipes 
are set out in a very clear and concise man- 
ner, and the value of the book is further 
enhanced by illustrations. 



A NEW VOLUME FOR THE WORKERS' 
BOOKSHELF* 



"Every man and woman should know 
how and why our present society and in- 
dustrial organization in America came to be 
what it is. We should endeavor to under- 
stand why we have industrial classes ; why 
American capital is centered in the hands 
of a minority of the population; why we have 
a railroad problem; why the majority of the 
people of this country are concentrated in 

*An Outline of the Social and Political History 
of the United States, by H. J. Carman, Assistant 
Professor of History. Columbia University, In- 
structor, Workers' University, International Ladies 
Garment Workers' Union. Published by the Work- 
ers' Education Bureau of America, 476 West 
Twenty-fourth street, New York City. Price 10 
cents. 



citfes, and why many of these are without 
landed property; why we have great indus- 
trial organizations, combinations, and pro- 
tective tariffs ; why in recent years there 
has been a growing tendency in the United 
States toward industrial democracy, and why 
America has manifested added interest in 
economic imperialism. ... It is of pri- 
mary importance that we explain the present 
in terms of the past. Once having done 
this, we shall be in a better position to 
comprehend the present day political, social, 
and industrial problems, and to do our share 
in intelligently working out their solution. 

This extract from the Foreword shows 
better than anything else, perhaps, Mr. Car- 
man's attitude toward history as a study. 
While the Outline of United States History, 
which he has just published, does not pre- 
tend to cover completely the field of Ameri- 
can history, it affords an excellent back- 
ground for study. Mr. Carman brings to 
the writing of this outline, not only histori- 
cal knowledge, but practical understanding 
of the needs of adult classes. 

The Making of the Constitution, its de- 
fenders and opponents and their arguments, 
from the Eighteenth Century to the present 
day ; the Industrial Revolution ; the chacter- 
istics of Eastern, Western and Southern 
sections and the causes of these characteris- 
tics ; the exploitation of our natural resources : 
growing demands for governmental reform ; 
the organization of labor ; and problems aris- 
ing out of, and after, the World War, are 
among the topics of greatest importance. 

The above very brief summary of subjects 
treated is sufficient to show that the Sylla- 
bus is, as its title implies, an outline of the 
Social and Political History of the United 
States. Wars, campaigns, dates, and events, 
are subordinated in order to secure a broader 
view. Not that a certain thing occurred 
on a certain day, but why it occurred, and 
what effect it has had upon present day 
happenings, are most important. 

General references are given throughout 
the Syllabus for supplementary reading. 
Reading as suggested, using the Outline for 
a guide, it would not be difficult to make a 
quite thorough study of American History 
even without the added inspiration of class 
work. 



19 



52 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1924 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The steamer Dakotan sailed for New York, 
Philadelphia and Boston. 

Captain George A. Harris is to continue in 
command of the Dorothy Alexander when 
she is diverted to the Portland-California 
service, it is announced. 

In the Shipping Board's active fleet of 412 
vessels, only one unit is driven by Diesel 
engines. The others, 411, are steam-driven. 
Of the latter, 61 are coal burners and 350 oil 
burners. 

The steamer Johan Poulsen was towed into 
San Francisco by the steamer Daisy Putnam. 
The Poulsen lost her propeller off Point 
Reyes. She brings a cargo of 90,000 feet of 
lumber. 

Heavier movements of the 1924 crop of 
Hawaiian raw sugar are reported by the Mat- 
son Navigation Company, whose liner Maui, 
Captain Peter Johnson, brought in 101,760 
bags recently from Hilo and Honolulu. 

The coastwise liner Yale of the Los An- 
geles Steamship Company resumed her run 
January 28. The Harvard, sister ship of the 
Yale, took her turn in the shipyard for ap- 
proximately two weeks of overhauling and 
painting. 

The Bureau of Lighthouses announces that 
among aids to navigation now established are 
range lights, Martin Island to Willamette 
River mouth; also the Tyee shoal buoy, which 
went adrift January 15, is to be replaced as 
soon as practicable. 

The Matson freighter Makena left San 
Francisco for Humboldt Bay and Puget 
Sound to load lumber for Hawaiian ports. 
Her sister ship, the Makaweli, will follow in 
February to load box shook at Astoria and 
lumber at Puget Sound for Hawaii. 

The army transport Rotarian arrived in San 
Francisco with thirty-two refugees from Man- 
zanillo, Mexico, aboard. The greater share of 
the refugees were from Guadalajara. They 
had been unable to go either north or west, 
so they came to Manzanillo seeking aid. 

The steamship Ohioan. American-Hawaiian 
line, has gone to Hunter's Point, where she is 



in drydock to have her bottom cleaned. She 
will be ready for her regular sailing date 
to Seattle and Portland, where she will load 
and be back in San Francisco in about three 
weeks. 

The city of New York will soon be in the 
market for six additional ferry boats for 
the East River, application for a credit of 
$1,530,000 to cover their cost having been 
made to the Board of Fstimate by Com- 
missioner Whalen of the Department of Plant 
& Structures. 

The work of reloading the reverse turbine 
of the Leviathan will be done by the machine 
shop of the Brooklyn Navy Yard. It 
pected that the ship will be laid up until next 
March. Great secrecy is observed a- t" the 
reasons for doing this work SO soon after the 
liner was completely reconditioned. 

The Kroonland. International Mercantile 
Marine line, left New York January 24 with 
passenger accommodations sold out. The 
ship is testing out portable radio loud sound- 
ers. On her recent trip the Kroonland dis- 
covered her radio was receiving music from 
Schenectady, X. Y.. when the vessel was 500 
miles from Los Angeles. 

The number of ships arriving and d< 
ing from the port of San Francisco in 1923 
was 13.572, as .against 11.472 in 1922, a gain 
of 2100 vessels. The gain in tonnage over 
1922 was 2,464,920 tons. The gain in ton- 
nage in foreign trade was — arrivals 421,068 
and in departures 4o().422. It was a high 
record peacetime year in the business of the 
port. 

When the new Admiral liner Emma Alex- 
ander, formerly the Wanking, make- her ap- 
pearance in the coastwise service shortly she 
will be commanded by Captain 11. E. ITalvor- 
son. This announcement comes from Cap- 
tain K. C. Brennan, operating manager of the 
company. Captain Halvorson has been in the 
employ of the company 10 years, having com- 
manded at various times the Queen. Admiral 
Evans and Admiral Dewey. 

Desertion from the United States navy is 
increasing at an alarming rate, it became 
known with the issuance of a bulletin at the 
Twelfth Naval District headquarters. Seven- 
teen reasons were given why men "go over 
the side." Discontent, misrepresentation of 



20 



February, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



o3 



navy life, homesickness, and insufficient cruis- 
ing are the main reasons. During a recent 
five month's period of 4123 men deserted. Of 
these 1978 are still at large. 

In the annual report of the Shipping Board 
mention is made of the fact that the first ad- 
vance from the construction loan fund, which 
was authorized by the Jones Law as far back 
as June, 1920, was not approved until last 
April, when the sum of $400,000 was prom- 
ised to the Minnesota Atlantic Transit Com- 
pany in aid of the construction of the motor- 
ships Twin Cities and Twin Ports designed 
for service in the coastwise and Great Lakes- 
New York State Barge Canal trades. 

The number of persons saved or rescued 
from positions of peril during the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1923, through the instrumen- 
tality of the vessels and stations of the Coast 
Guard was 2792, only 162 less than during 
the fiscal year 1922, when a record of 2954 
persons, never before attained in any one 
year, was credited to the service. The value 
of vessels (including their cargoes) assisted 
amounted to $51,436,095, exceeding in this 
line of endeavor the figures of the preceding 
fiscal year by $16,089,330. The number of 
persons on board vessels assisted was 16,253. 

The Navy Department, through its Bureau 
of Construction and Repair, has just made 
public an official progress report which shows 
that the three remaining cruisers of the five 
previously contracted for at the Cramp ship- 
yards will be completed on scheduled time 
during 1924. Rapid progress is being made 
on these vessels, and the probable dates of 
completion are given by navy officials as 
March, July, and November for the Trenton, 
Marblehead, and Memphis, respectively. The 
Richmond and Concord, the first two vessels 
of the same type built by Cramp & Sons, are 
now in commission, the latter having been 
delivered last month two weeks ahead of 
schedule. 

According to figures compiled by the 
Shipping Board's Bureau of Research, 45.5 
per cent of our total waterborne foreign com- 
merce during the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1923, was moved in vessels of American 
registry. This represents a slight falling of! 
from the figures for the calendar year 1922, 
when American ships carried 51 per cent of 



our total water-borne foreign commerce. 
Measured in terms of long tons of 2240 pounds 
the waterborne foreign commerce for the year 
reached the total of 93,000,000 tons, almost 
exactly dividend between imports and exports. 
American ships carried 55 per cent of the 
total import trade of 46,151,790 tons and 36 
per cent of the total export trade of 46,805,784 
tons. 

Pursuant to an agreement made with the 
Columbian Steamship Company, the Panama 
Railroad Steamship Company, controlled by 
the War Department, has been withdrawn 
from the Haitian outport service. It will re- 
tire the steamships General O. H. Ernst and 
General George W. Goethals, and will oper- 
ate only three ships in the East coast and 
one in the West coast trade, with calls both 
ways at Port-au-Prince. The Colombian Line 
is now having sailings every two weeks from 
New York to the Leeward Islands, every two 
weeks to Haiti, Jamaica and Colombia, every 
two weeks to Haitian outports and every 
three weeks to Trinidad and British, French 
and Dutch Guiana. Its service will include 
twenty-eight ports of call which are under 
six different flags — American, British, Dutch, 
French, Colombian, and Haitian. 

"Owing to the increased amount of ship- 
ping on the Pacific Coast, the Marine hospi- 
tals at San Francisco and Port Townsend, 
operated by the U. S. Public Health Service, 
are now overcrowded," Surgeon General Hugh 
S. dimming announced, recently. So great 
has been the influx of patients, due to the 
increased activity in American shipping in 
San Francisco, that the Public Health Serv- 
ice has found it necessary to place many 
patients in contract hospitals. To increase the 
capacity at San Francisco, the service now 
plans to remove attendants from their quar- 
ters to furnished lodgings in the downtown 
section of the city. By doing this, thirty- 
eight beds will be added to the capacity ot 
this hospital. Surgeon General dimming also 
announced that "plans for the enlargement of 
the Marine hospital at San Francisco and for 
a new Marine hospital to be constructed at 
Seattle, Washington, are now receiving seri- 
ous consideration but that appropriations for 
these projects will be necessary before they 
can be undertaken. 



21 



54. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1924 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



The steamship King Alfred arrived at Hull 
recently with the first consignment of grain 
received in the United Kingdom from Russia 
since the war. The consignment comprises 
2500 quarters of wheat, and an equal quan- 
tity tii barley. Further cargoes are expected. 

The White Star Line announces that the 
steamers Tropic and Cufic, which have for 
many years been employed in their Austra- 
lian service, have been sold to the Italians for 
breaking-up purposes. They will sail from 
Liverpool to Genoa shortly. They are ves- 
sels of 8262 and 8304 tons gross, respectively. 
The Tropic was built in 1896, and the Cufic 
in 1895. 

The former British cruiser Charybdis, which 
was converted into a passenger vessel during 
the war to maintain communications between 
Xew York and Bermuda, recently arrived at 
Copenhagen to be broken up. after a voyage 
from Bermuda in tow of a Dutch tug. This 
antique of the sea was built at Sheerness 
Dockyard in 1893, under the Naval Defense 
Act of 1889, which was directed against 
France. 

At the recent annual meeting of the Copen- 
hagen Harbor Board it was stated that in the 
first nine months of this year 14,200 ships of 
3,500,000 net tons called at the port as com- 
pared with 11,200 ships of 2,698.000 net tons 
in the corresponding period of 1922. Cargoes 
imported and exported in the first six months 
of this year totaled 2,337,000 tons or 653,000 
more than in the first half of 1922. The 
increase in goods traffic figures out 38.8 per 
cent. 

This being the slack season of the year 
for traffic between Europe and South America, 
the Hamburg South American Line has de- 
cided to repeat the experiment first inaugu- 
rated last year of dispatching its crack liner 
Cap Polonio on pleasure cruises to Tierra del 
Fuego and round Cape Horn. The vessel is 
now being overhauled at the Blohm & Voss 
yard in Hamburg and is scheduled to leave 
Buenos Aires for the southern regions on 
January 5. 

A bill has been passed through both Houses 



of the Australian Parliament which provides 
that the board of the Australian Common- 
wealth Line shall be a body corporate, under 
the name of the Australian Commonwealth 
Shipping Board, "with perpetual succession 
and a common seal, with power to hold prop- 
erty and capable of suing and being sued in its 
corporate name." The bill would appear to 
legalize, beyond question, the commercial 
status of the Commonwealth Government 
Line. 

The latest American millionaire to place an 
order for a yacht in a foreign yard is Fred- 
erick Vanderbilt, who has commissioned Bur- 
meister & Wain, of Copenhagen, for a Diesel- 
engined craft of a speed of fifteen knots. The 
yacht will have no rigging for wind-propul- 
sion, being dependent on her motors alone, 
and will be ready for delivery next summer. 
She is the second such craft to be orderd on 
American account, the same builders having 
delivered the Hussar, which crossed the At- 
lantic last summer. 

The U. S. Shipping Board has won its ap- 
peal to the House of Lords in connection 
with the collision between the steamship 
West Camak and the British steamship Rowan 
off Scotland October 8, 1921, in which the 
Rowan was sunk and the American vessel 
damaged. The Scottish High Court held the 
American ship blameless, but the Court of 
Sessions held her to be one-third at fault. 
Against this decision the Shipping Board ap- 
pealed to the House of Lords, which reversed 
the decision of the Court of Sessions and re- 
stored the lower court holding the Rowan 
entirely at fault. 

A company has been formed in Spain 
with an authorized capital of 100,000,000 
pesetas for the purpose of carrying on a 
semi-weekly airship service between Serville 
and Buenos Aires. It is proposed to con- 
struct airships of the Zeppelin type, each 
equipped with nine engines of 400 h. p. and 
capable of carrying eleven tons of mail and 
merchandise and 40 passengers. Not more 
than seven of the engines are t<> run at one 
time, the others being kept in reserve. Three 
days and sixteen hours are allowed for the 
outward flight to Argentina, and four days 
and six hours for the return journey. 

The popularity of American manufactures 
on the other side of the globe is evidence 1 



22 



February, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



by the persistent growth of our exports to 
Australia and New Zealand. The distance 
from New York, the chief port through which 
our manufactures are exported, to Melbourne, 
the chief port of Australia, is 10,000 miles by 
the shortest all-water route, the Panama 
Canal, or 12,670 miles by way of the Suez 
Canal, yet according to the Trade Record of 
The National City Bank of New York our 
exports to Australia in the calendar year 1923 
will approximate $120,000,000 against $80,000,- 
000 in 1922, and $44,000,000 in the year pre- 
ceding the war. 

The producing capacity of British ship- 
yards was extended in ten years — by federated 
firms alone — from 454 berths in May, 1912, to 
about 600 in 1923, and at present only about 
one-third of the berths are occupied, while 
of the occupied berths fifty-six contain vessels 
on which no work is being done. British 
shipyards are capable of doing much more 
work than can possibly be called for, even 
when shipping returns to normal. At present, 
not only is there practically no demand for 
ships of any kind, but Continental competi- 
tion in construction and repair is keener than 
ever. So far as can be seen at present British 
shipyards will have to depend in future almost 
wholly on work for British owners, and this 
must necessarily be less in extent for a good 
many years than it was before the war. Hence 
the prospects are not bright for the future of 
British shipbuilding. 

The Dutch ocean-going tugs Humber and 
Poolzee, belonging to the International Tug 
Co., of Rotterdam, have just arrived at 
Tandjong Priok (Dutch East Indies) with a 
large floating dry dock in tow. The dock, 
which is 450 feet long and 92 feet wide, has 
a lifting capacity of 8000 tons, and was built 
at Rotterdam for the Tandjong Priok Dry- 
dock Co. The towage was successfully 
accomplished to the satisfaction of all parties 
concerned, and no damage of any kind was 
sustained by the dock during the voyage. 
The distance of 8700 miles was covered in 
four months and three days. During the 
whole voyage, with the exception of Port 
Said, the dock never entered any bay or port, 
but steadily continued her voyage. This 
was made possible by the tugs calling at the 
various bunker depots in turn, while one 
tug was always going ahead with the dock. 



LABOR NEWS 



Senator Wheeler of Montana has intro- 
duced a resolution calling for a Senate in- 
vestigation of the use of spies in industry. 

A conference of organized labor represen- 
tatives is to be held in Washington, D. C, 
February 13, to plan a fight against contract 
convict labor. 

The vote recently cast in the State of 
Ohio on the old age pension bill was 1,167,- 
950, of which 390,599 were for it. The propo- 
sition carried in only two counties — Athens 
and Lawrence. 

The Brotherhood of Railway Clerks has 
opened its bank in a new seven-story head- 
quarters' building, located in the center of 
Cincinnati's business district. On the open- 
ing day the bank was visited by 12,000 people, 
who deposited $311,000. Among the large 
deposits was one of $50,000, made by the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. 

The International Railway Co. of Buffalo, 
New York, is planning to have its strike- 
breaking motormen and conductors buy stock 
in this concern, which lost more than $1,000,- 
000 the past year. The concern is owned by 
the same parties who own the Philadelphia 
street car system. In the latter city a com- 
pany "union" has operated. Its wages are 
based on the rates paid in union cities. 

Nineteen hundred and twenty-four was a 
happy new year for upward of 100,000 share- 
holders in sixteen leading Standard Oil Com- 
panies, whose market price has increased 25 
per cent over the lowest selling price of 1923. 
These increases total $779,473,200. One-half 
of this gain is represented by increased value 
in three stocks — Standard Oil of New Jersey, 
Indiana, and California, with a total gain of 
more than $404,000,000. 

The exemption of taxes on new buildings 
will encourage the building of houses and thus 
relieve the housing shortage, is the opinion 
of the united neighboring houses, comprising 
fifty of the larger settlement organizations in 
New York. It is declared that the minimum 
standards of health and sanitation in the 
maintenance of existing low-priced tenements 
have been shockingly reduced to a standard 
wholly inconsistent with decency and public 



23 



56 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1924 



safety. Such standards require redefinition 
and the imposition of severe penalties for 
violation, it is stated. 

United States Senator Curtis of Kansas has 
introduced a resolution proposing an "equal 
rights" amendment to the constitution. It is 
sponsored by the National Woman's party and 
is intended to abolish the term ''male" in the 
Federal organic act, thereby putting men and 
women on the same basis. Foes of the 
proposal show that it will wipe out all legis- 
lation designed to improve the condition of 
women wage workers. 

Officials of the Brotherhood of Main- 
tenance of Way Employes announce that 
Canadian members are voting on a strike 
proposition. More than 30,000 employes are 
affected. Certain Canadian railroads refuse 
to accept a conciliation board award granting 
certain classes of these workers a wage in- 
crease of 2 cents an hour. The men are 
now voting on whether they will enforce their 
orginal demand of 5 cents an hour. 

While efforts will be made during Congress 
to curb Federal judges in contempt cases, the 
power of these judges in receiverships will 
also be given consideration. These two issues 
were joined in the Craig case that has prac- 
tically ended by the president's "remission of 
sentence." From every section of the country 
strong protests are registered on the policy 
of Federal judges aiding corporations to re- 
lease themselves from local and State fran- 
chises, the terms of which they find unsatis- 
factory. Citizens are strongly objecting to the 
practice of these courts aiding corporations in 
their contests with States and municipalities. 

A study of the 48-hour week by the United 
States Bureau of Labor Statistics is an an- 
swer to any "doubting Thomas" on the value 
of trade-unionism. I hiring the last few years 
the eight-hour day has spread so rapidly that 
there is now scarcely an industry or trade 
which has not, to a greater or less extent, 
adopted either the 48 or 44-hour week, it is 
stated. "This is particularly true of trades 
that are thoroughly organized. A recent 
survey of union scales of wages and hours of 
labor showed that of 860,000 union members, 
89 per cent had agreements providing for an 
eight-hour day, and 68 per cent worked 44 
hours or less per week." 



The Government failed in the United States 
Supreme Court to prove that a wage agree- 
ment between the principal glass manufactur- 
ing establishments in this country and their 
employes violates the Sherman anti-trust law. 
The case was that of the National Associa- 
tion of Window Glass Manufacturers and the 
National Window Glass Workers. The agree- 
ment restricted the periods of time hand- 
blown glass factories shall operate. The 
employers favored it because of trade condi- 
tions and the workers favored it because it 
stabilized industry. The Supreme Court re- 
fused to accept the Government's point that 
the agreement, curtailed production and was, 
therefore, a violation of the anti-trust act. 

The growth of co-operative banking and 
the A. F. of L.'s statement that industrial 
democracy is "labor's manifest destiny" are 
among the most important events of 1923 in 
the ranks of labor, according to a statement 
by the National Catholic Welfare Council. 
"In various ways and to various degrees they 
all point to the growing desire of labor to 
occupy a more responsible position in indus- 
try and in the community," the churchmen 
say. "These events indicate that, while labor 
is no less insistent upon fair wages and an 
eight-hour day, there is a reaching out, first, 
toward sounder relations between employers 
and employes, and, second, toward independ- 
ent labor accomplishments and the establish- 
ment of labor as a recognized factor in the 
conduct of industry." 

The United States Supreme Court has held 
that under workmen's compensation laws em- 
ployers are liable for injury or death of em- 
ployes while en route to and from work. The 
fact that such injury may take place a few 
minutes before or after the fixed hours of 
employment does not relieve the employer 
of responsibility, the court said. The case 
came from Utah. That Supreme Court and 
the Utah Industrial Commission upheld com- 
pensation to the widow of a packing plant 
employe who was killed while on his way to 
work. The company contested the award, 
claiming lack of responsibility on the ground 
that the employe was killed in a crossing 
accident, neither the conveyance, the locomo- 
tive nor the premises being the property or 
under the control of the company. 



24 



February, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



According to the latest official statistics, 
the total number of Denmark's unemployed 
continues to fluctuate around 20,000. 

Sweden's unemployed persons are declin- 
ing steadily, in number, according to the 
latest reports ; and those given relief work 
by the Government decreased from 9918 to 
6911 in one month. 

Representatives of the French sugar in- 
dustry are said to have visited Prague for 
the purpose of engaging 2000 Czechoslovakian 
workers for the French sugar factories and 
refineries. It is reported that the Central 
Labor Bureau of Prague will raise no 
opposition to the migration of these workers. 

In the year 1924 ten years will have elapsed 
since the outbreak of the World War. For 
this reason, the management committee of 
the International Federation of Trade Unions 
has resolved that the third Sunday in Sep- 
tember, 1924, shall be set aside in every 
country for the organization of great demon- 
strations against war and militarism. 

The International Federation of Trade 
Unions has resolved to organize two summer 
schools in the year 1924, one of which will be 
held at Schonbrunn Castle, near Vienna, from 
July 21 to August 2, and the other at Ruskin 
College, Oxford, from August 18 to 30. Both 
schools are primarily intended for young 
men and women who are active workers in the 
labor movement. Intending students may 
send in their applications now. Further in- 
formation will be given by the bureau of the 
International Federation of Trade Unions. 

The railwaymen's wages in Germany are 
fixed anew every Thursday. On November 
13 they were for the first time paid in stable 
currency, to the extent of 30 per cent. The 
clerks and supervisory staff only received 15 
. per cent. The railwaymen's unions unsuc- 
cessfully demanded a larger percentage. The 
total amount of the wages is also regarded 
as unsatisfactory. A Berlin railwayman of the 
third grade (which includes : permanent way 
foremen, foreman shunters and locomotive 
firemen) receives the equivalent of 18 gold- 
marks per week. 



A Nation of a million co-operators — that is 
the achievement celebrated by Swedish co- 
operators at the 1923 congress of the Whole- 
sale Co-operative Society. This vigorous coun- 
try of the Far North, stretching into frigid 
Arctic circles, can now boast of being among 
the largest, most powerful co-operative coun- 
tries of the world. Of her 6,000,000 inhabitants, 
one million carries on its daily business by 
co-operative methods and has built up a busi- 
ness which is second to none in the whole 
Swedish kingdom. Few European countries 
have so creditable a record. 

The London Midland and Scottish Railway 
recently announced that for the purpose of 
fighting unemployment it had resolved to in- 
crease from four million to fourteen million 
pounds sterling the sum set aside for exten- 
sions of their system. The work will include 
the building of locomotives, rolling stockj 
steamers and motor vehicles. Several sections 
of the line will be extended, bridges will be 
built, and warehouses and stations will be 
reconstructed. Certain sections of the line 
will be electrified and thirty bridges are to 
be partially rebuilt. It is also proposed to 
build some hundreds of houses for their em- 
ployes. 

The National Labor Council of Brazil, set 
up by a decree of April 30, 1923, held its 
formal opening recently. The Council con- 
sists of twelve members nominated by the 
President of the Republic, viz., two workers' 
and two employers' representatives, two of- 
ficials of the Ministry of Agriculture, Industry 
and Commerce and six specialists in labor 
questions. The questions to be dealt with by 
the Council will include hours of work, wages, 
collective agreements, conciliation and arbitra- 
tion, protection of women and young persons, 
apprenticeship and technical education, in- 
dustrial accidents, social insurance, pensions 
and agricultural credit. 

In France the organization of working 
women is receiving increasing attention, espe- 
cially in view of the fact that the number of 
war widows, which exceeds 700,000, is being 
steadily augmented by the death of many ex- 
soldiers suffering from tuberculosis or gas- 
poisoning. Moreover, only some 25 per cent 
of these war widows have yet been able to 
re-marry. The intensification of the struggle 



25 



58 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1924 



for existence has also helped to break down 
the prejudices which many trades have had 
in the past against the work of women. 
Not only modistes, but women shop assistants, 
opera dancers, and variety artists are no 
longer slow to give emphasis to their demands 
for an increased wage by means of large 
scale action, street demonstrations, etc. 

Movie fans in Finland do not have to 
depend upon Hollywood pictures for their 
amusement since the co-operative societies 
have tackled the movie business. Not con- 
tent with operating thousands of successful 
stores and a network of factories, the 
co-operators have now produced their own 
moving pictures. The first film "shot" by 
one of the federations of co-operative soci- 
eties was an educational picture of the largest 
distributive society in Helsingfors, the 
"Elanto." The film shows the interior and 
exterior of the stores of the co-operative 
society, as well as the buzzing life of its 
cafes and restaurants. No less than 23,000 
of the members of the Elanto Society saw 
the film exhibited in Helsingfors alone, where 
twenty-five performances were given. The 
film is just now being shown in Sweden, 
while other copies are circulating J n Finland 
and even in England. 

Dissatisfaction is reported among the cleri- 
cal staffs of the Nippon Yusen Kaisha, who 
feel aggrieved because of the new manage- 
ment system under which the floating staffs 
participate in the management to a greater 
extent than heretofore. The company was 
practically compelled by the threat of a strike 
on the part of its seagoing personnel to in- 
troduce reforms which put an end to the 
hegemony of the counting-house force. Now 
there are rumors that the clerical force may 
also declare a counter-strike, unless the new 
regime is modified in some respects. All of 
which is symptomatic of the industrial unrest 
now gripping Japan. The earthquake is said 
to have exposed the inefficiency of present 
administrative methods, and there is reason 
to believe that in the very near future the 
dynasty will be compelled to submit to 
social reforms as radical as was the change 
from the feudal order to the present era of 
industrialism. 

A striking example of the far-reaching in- 
fluence of the International Labor Organiza- 



tion as a factor of progress in the sphere of 
industrial life and labor is furnished by the 
factory regulations recently issued by the 
Chinese Minister of Agriculture and Com- 
merce. It was hoped at the time of the estab- 
lishment of the International Labor Organiza- 
tion that particularly beneficent results would 
be secured through its work in countries rela- 
tively undeveloped from the standpoint of fac- 
tory legislation. Experience has shown that 
this hope was fully justified. Great progress 
has been made in Japan and India, and now 
China has announced the promulgation of a 
system of factory regulations. The field of 
application of these regulations extends not 
only to Chinese factories but also to foreign 
factories established in the territory of China, 
irrespective of the number of persons em- 
ployed, in which conditions exist which are 
dangerous to the life or injurious to the 
health of the workers. 



Roster of International 
Seamen's Union of America 



(Continued from Page 2) 



Branches: 

SAN PEDRO, Cal 

Ill Sixth Street. P. O. Box 574 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO. Cal 86 Commercial Street 

EUGENE STEIDLE, Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 6955 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock 

P. O. Box 214 
SAN PEDRO, Cal _ P. O. Box 54 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary 

Telephone Sutter 6452 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42 

ASTORIA. Ore _ P. O. Box 138 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SEATTLE, Wash.__ 84 Seneca Street 

Branches: 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C), Canada P. O. Box 1675 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska P. O. Box 201 



UNITED FISHERMEN OF THE PACIFIC 
ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 138 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal._ 59 Clay Street 

C. W. DEAL, Secretary 
Telephone Sutter 2205 



FISH TRAP, PILE DRIVERS AND WEB WORKERS 
OF PUGET SOUND AND ALASKA 
P. O. Box 371, Bellingham. Wash. 



26 



February, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



59 



At Night— 



Complete Banking Service from 
9 A. M. till 12 P. M. for Sailor- 



Liberty 



Market 
at Mason 



Bank 



San Francisco 



THE ONE PRICE STORE 

Sander Supply Co. 

SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

Furnishing Goods, Oilskins, 

Sea Boots 

Square Knot Material 

Uniform Caps 

93-95 Market, Cor. of Spear Street 
South. Pac. Bldg., San Francisco 



SHOES 

W. L. Douglas 

UNION MADE 
The Price is Stamped on the Bot- 
tom of Shoes and Is Standard in 
U. S. A. 

PRICE'S 

58 Third Street 
Bet. Market and Mission 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



One Good Turn Deserves An- 
other, — Maude — "What a beautiful 
new gown Helfen is wearing. Says 
it's imported, doesn't she?" 

Marie — "Not exactly in those 
words. It's her last season's 
dress. The dressmaker has turned 
it inside out and now she says 
it's from the other side." — Boston 
Transcript. 



PROVIDENCE, R. L 



TAXI 

CALL UNION 9020 
Red Top Cab Co., of R. I., Inc. 



67 Chestnut St. 



Providence, R. I. 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Eddie Johnson, fireman, some- 
times sails as messman; left San 
Francisco, 1918, for New York 
City. Last heard of was on Stand- 
ard Oil tanker on East Coast. 
Reward for information as to his 
whereabouts to his sister, Mrs. 
Alice Bruno, 139 Seventh Street, 
San Francisco, Calif., or Marine 
Firemen's Union, San Francisco, 
California. 



Somewhat the Same. — "Been able 
to get any coal?" 

"No; but I've subscribed to an- 
other Sunday newspaper." — Life. 



The Shining Exception. — "Did 
any of your family ever make a 
brilliant marriage?" 

"Only my wife." — Boston Even- 
ing Transcript. 



Bribery in the Pantry. — Grace — 
"Oh! Stealing jam! I'm going to 
tell mama!" 

Freddy — "Wouldn't you rather 
have some jam?" 



Two Minds with a Single 
Thought. — "It's a shame," cried 
the young wife, "not a thing in 
the house fit to eat. I'm going 
straight home to mama." 

"If you don't mind, dear," said 
the husband, reaching for his hat, 
"I'll go with you." — Pathfinder. 



The Higher the Fewer. — Conver- 
sation between husbands when 
wages for wives take effect: 
"What do you pay your wife?" 
"A hundred dollars a month, but 
you've no idea how hard it is to 
keep a good one." — Spokane Spokes- 
man-Review. 



Breaking the News. — A Scotch- 
man woke up one morning to find 
that in the night his wife had 
passed away. He leaped from his 
bed and ran horror-stricken into 
the hall. 

"Mary," he called down-stairs to 
the general servant in the kitchen, 
"come to the foot of the stairs, 
quick." 

"Yes, yes," she cried, "What is 
it? What is it?" 

"Boil only one egg for break- 
fast this morning!" he said. — Bison. 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Will any of the men who were 
on the steamship Honolulu, be- 
tween the dates of April 1. 1922 
and May 18, 1922, kindly commu- 
nicate with Silas Blake Axtcll, 11 
Moore Street, New York. 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Missing 17 years. Chris E. John- 
son, 41 years old, six feet tall, 
dark brown hair, born in Sawyer, 
Wisconsin. Last heard from he 
was in State of Washington. His 
mother wants to hear from him. 
Any information will be appre- 
ciated by Mrs. Anna Johnson, 
3740 Twenty-fourth Street, San 
Francisco, California. 




SOME BOOK FOR 
A DOLLAR! 

324 PAGES 
110 ILLUSTRATIONS 

No matter what branch of the 
Merchant Marine you are in — this 
is SOME book for you! 324 pages 
brimful and running over with just 
the things that every seaman needs 
to know — and can't possibly remem- 
ber! 

This 1. C. S. Mariner's Handbook 
is the most complete and convenient 
naval reference book of its size ever 
published — a veritable encyclopaedia 
of nautical terms and their applica- 
tion. No matter how long or short a 
time you've been in the service — no 
matter how much or little schooling 
you've had — this book will help you. 
It begins with the fundamentals and 
takes you step by step through the 
most approved and practical meth- 
ods of lake and deep-sea navigation. 

Simply send $1 with a letter or 
the handy coupon below and the 
I. C. S. Mariner's Handbook will come 
to you by return mail. 



r 



International Correspondence Schools 
Box 8729 , Scranton, Penna. 
I enclose One Dollar. Please send me — post- 
paid — the 324-page I. C. S. Mariner's Hand- 
book. It is understood that if I am not en- 
tirely satisfied I may return this book within 
five days and you will refund my money. 



Name.. 



Street Address 



27 



60 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL February, 1924 

Professional Cards 



CONVENIENT 






This bank, 


just a few steps from the 


Embarcadero, 


provides a 


complete banking service for sea far- 


ing men. 


Special attention given 


to allotment 


accounts. 






Hours: 8 


a. m. to 6 p. m. daily 




MARKET 


near FERRY OFFICE 




34 


Market Street 




Mercantile Trust Company of California 




Since 1857 





To Seamen, Clients and Union Workers 

If my clients will keep me informed of the names of the 
vessels on which they are employed, while their cases are 
awaiting disposition, it will be of great assistance to me in 
preserving their rights and in securing early trials. 

Respectfully yours, 
S. B. AXTELL, 1 1 Moore Street, New York, N. Y. 



SAILORS ! ATTENTION ! 
When in Eureka, drop in at — 

BENJAMIN'S 

The old reliable Clothier and Shoe Man 

Fourteen years of square dealing with Seamen 

325-329 Second Street, EUREKA, California 



NORFOLK, VA. 



Navigation, Marine 
Engineering 

Instruction for All Licenses: 

Deck, Engine, Pilot 

Success Guaranteed or Fee Refunded 

U. S. Nautical College, 

Inc. 

"The School Without a Failure" 
119 Bank St. Norfolk, Va. 

Capt. Wm. J. Blue, Pres., Phone 41626 



Long Time on the Road. — He 

(during the interval) — "What did 
you say your age was?" 

She (smartly)— "Well, I didn't 
say; but I've just reached twenty- 
one." 

"Is that so? What detained 
you?*' — London Answers. 



All a Mistake. — "What are you 

so indignant about?" 

"They lined me for selling whis- 
ky," replied the bootlegger, "when 
it wasn't whisky at all." — Life. 



Not So Good. — "Good news," 
said the office-boy. "I can hear 
the art editor laughing." 

"But that was not a comic draw- 
ing," sighed the artist-in-waiting. 
— Louisville Courier-Journal. 



New Species. — "Thcr e," said 
Jones, "there is a woman in a 
million." 

"So?" queried Smith. "Femin- 
ist? Politics?" 

"Nothing like it, but she will 
tell you or any one that she has 
more clothes than she needs and 
that she is satisfied with her hus- 
band." 

28 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union «f 
the Pacific since its organization 

H. W. HUTTON 

Will give the cases of seafaring men 

prompt attention 
527 Pacific Bldg. r Fourth and Mark«« 

Streets, San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 315 



Albert Michelson 

Attorney-at-Law 
Attorney for Marine Firemen and 
Watertenders* Union of the Pacific. 

Admiralty Law a Specialty. 

676 Mills Building, San Francisco 

Telephone Douglas 1058 

Residence Phone Franklin 1781 



S. T. Hogevoll, Seamen's Law- 
yer; wages, salvage and damages. 
909 Pacific Building, 821 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Tel. Sutter 6900 



Notary Public — Typewriting 

ANNE F. HASTY 

SEABOARD BRANCH 
Anglo-California Trust Co. 



101 Market St. 



San Francisco 



Hours 10 a. m. to 5:30 p. m. 
Evenings 7 to 8 p. m. 

Dr. D. Eugene Harris 

Kidney, Bladder & Urinary Diseases 
Specific Blood & Nervous Diseases 

Phone Prospect 594 
966 Market Street San Francisco 



The 
Scandinavian Club 

Dansk Smoppebrod 

Oblikage Scandinavian Paper 

Best Coffee 

42 Market St. San Francisco 

Alfred Petersen Phone Sutter 5361 



SEAMEN 

Before sailing 1 , sail up to our studio 
and have your Photograph taken 



4nM%ktoA 



41 Grant Ave. 



San Francisco 



San Francisco Camera Exchange 

KODAKS AND CAMERAS 

Bought, Sold, Exchanged, Repaired 

and Rented — Developing — Printing 

88 THIRD STREET, AT MISSION 

San Francisco 

Mail Orders Given Special Attention 



Photos of Ships 

Bring your photos to us for print- 
ing and developing and let us supply 
you for your next voyage. 

Allen Photo Supply Co. 

Kodaks bought, sold, rented and ex- 
changed. 

246 Market St., San Francisco 



February, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



61 



Walk-Over 



938 Market 
(Near Mason) 
San Francisco 

{SHOES FOR <JMENAND WOMEN) 

UNION MADE 



844-850 Market 
San Francisco 



Style — Quality and Sensible 
Prices make these good 
Hats popular with sailormen 



HATS 

Stores at 

26 Third St. 605 Kearny 1082 Market 

3242 Mission 720 Market 2640 Mission 

226 W. 5th St., Los Angeles 



DOREY & CUNNINGHAM 

Men's Furnishing Goods 

HATS AND CAPS 

Dependable Goods for Men 
Suits and Overcoats Made to Order 
11 Market St. San Francisco 



SMOKES ! ! 

Cigarettes and Cigars a Specialty at 

Wholesale Prices 

See Me Before You Load Up 

SYD MODLYN 

Ocean Market 
80 Market St. San Francisco 



LACKING TIME 
SEAMEN SUFFER 

Many sailors are suffering to- 
day from decayed and neglected 
teeth because their time in port 
is limited. 

They know the average den- 
tist in his small office cannot 
finish their work properly 
"while they wait." 

The Parker offices with their 
large force of dentists, nurses 
and assistants can serve you 
promptly and successfully at 
short notice. 

Pacific Coast offices of dentists 
using 

, K (§T>E. R. Parker 

located at 

Vancouver, B. C, San Francisco, 
Portland, Seattle, Bellingham, Ta- 
coma, San Diego, Eureka, Oak- 
land, Santa Cruz. 



BEN HARRIS 

No Relation to Joe Harris 

Patronize an Old Reliable Outfitter 

The Best Seamen's Outfitter on the 
Waterfront 



218 Embarcadero 



San Francisco 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 

— at — 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 5343 



Bandit — Prohibition. — China has 
a three-mile Bandit Limit, paral- 
leling main railway lines. This is 
observed as religiously as is the 
rum-runners' limit in America. — 
Korea. 



Another Educational Danger. — 
The star cheer leader in an East- 
ern college was awarded the var- 
sity letter. If this keeps up the 
varsity letter will be almost as 
easy to get as the regular college 
degree. — Life. 



Literally True. — Hyman — "At 
least once in my life I was glad 
to be down and out." 

Lowe — "And when was that?" 
"After my first trip in an air- 
plane." — Yorkshire Post. 



The Other Way Round.— "Was 
your landlady indignant when you 

asked her for another month's 
rent?" 

"On the contrary, old man, it 

was I who was put out." — Chap- 
parral. 



A boy entered a chemist's shop 
the other day and asked if he could 
use the 'phone. This is what the 
chemist heard: 

"Is Mr. Jones there? Mr. Jones, 
I hear you're looking for a boy to 
help in your shop and run errands. 
You say you already have a boy? 
Is he giving you satisfaction? He 
is. Thank you! Good-by!" 

29 



T. MAHER'S 

RELIABLE HOOKS 

All Kinds Hand Made — Wholesale and 

Retail 

610A 3rd Street San Francisco 

Tel. Garfield 2340 



ABERDEEN, WASH. 



The "Red Front" 

CARRIES A FULL STOCK OF 
UNION MADE CLOTHING, HATS, 
SHOES, COLLARS, SUSPENDERS, 
GLOVES, OVERALLS, SHIRTS 

A. M. BENDETSON 

321 East Heron Street - Aberdeen 

Exclusive Owner of "The Red Front" 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings, Hickory Shirts, 

Hats, Oil Clothing. 

Home of the Union Made 

Co-operative Shoe. 

302 So. F Street, ABERDEEN, Wash. 

on the Water Front 



A. A. Star Transfer Co. 

QUICK SERVICE 

EXPRESS — BAGGAGE 

Phone 307 — Office by Union Depot 
ABERDEEN, WASH. 



HUOTARI & CO. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE 
and MEN'S FURNISHINGS 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Orders taken for 

Made-to-Measure Clothing 

Heron and F Sts., Aberdeen, Wash. 

Tickets to and from Europe 

NOTARY PUBLIC 



>> 



Phone 263 

"Niels and Charlie 5 

"THE ROYAL" 
"THE SAILORS' REST" 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 
219 EIGHTH ST., HOQUIAM, WASH. 



EUREKA, CAL. 



— For — 

A GOOD CUP OF COFFEE 

— or — 

A SQUARE MEAL 

— Try — 
EUREKA CHOP HOUSE 

Cor. Second and D Sts., Eureka, Cal. 
A. R. ABRAHAMSEN, Prop. 



62 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1924 



Office Phone Main 5190 
Residence Phone Elliott 5825 



Established 1890 
COMPASSES ADJUSTED 



MARSHALL'S 

NAVIGATION SCHOOL 

WE GUARANTEE to teach you until you receive a LICENSE 

WE will save you TIME and MONEY 

203 Bay Building, First and University Sts. SEATTLE, WASH. 



L. V. WESTERMAN 

UNION LABEL 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 
Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1— Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2— Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney- Watson Co. 

FUNERAL DIRECTORS 
AND EMBALMERS 

Private Ambulance Service 

Crematory and Columbarium in 

Connect i- >n 
Broadway at Olive St. Seattle 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 
MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS 

AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., Cor. University, 

SEATTLE, WASH. 



Union Store 

Best Line of Men's Suits 

Overcoats, Raincoats, Shoes, Hats 

and Men's Furnishings 

CARL SCHERMER 

103-107 First Avenue South 
Near Yesler Way SEATTLE 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim and Douglas Shoes 

And the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 Sixth Street, SAN PEDRO OPP. SAILORS' UNION HALL 



Martin's Navigation School 



128!% SIXTH STREET 



PHONE 1805 



SAN PEDRO, CALIF. 



SEAMEN 

Visit 
Your Hatter 

FRED AMMANN 

UNION HATS 

at the right prices. I'll try and 
wait on you personally and show 
you a large assortment and give 
you your money's worth. 



JOHN 



STETSON hats, too 



If you want your Panama blocked 
right I'll do that. 

You'll find me at 

72 Market St., San Francisco 

next to Ocean Market 



MEAD'S 
RESTAURANT 

NO. 16 
EMBARCADERO 

NO. 3 
MARKET STREET 

"THE" Place to Eat 

in 

San Francisco 



An Exception. — "Nothing in this 
world is done as well as it can he 
done," says Air. Gordon Selfridge. 
What about the British taxpayer? 
— The Humorist (London). 



Screened Humor. — Many British 
playwrights are said to be turning 
to the American film versions of 
their old dramas to glean new 
ideas for future comedies. — Punch 
(London). 



NOTICE! 

The exclusive agency here for the 
only C. T. & M. Tailors in the U. S. 
A., affiliated with the American Fed- 
eration of Labor and employing only 
members of the Journeymen Tailors' 
Union, is held by the reliable tailoring 
man 

S. G. SWANSON 

Established l'J04 
Upstairs, Room 4, Bank of San Pedro 

Building 
110 W. 6th Street San Pedro 



Show your faith in the products 
of your fellow workers by patroniz- 
ing the Union Label. 
30 



Simple Mathematics. — To get 
the exact value of 100 German 
marks write down the figures 
"100," then erase the one an rub 
the rim off both zeros. — Danville 
Commercial News. 



Bill Still to Come.— "1 saw you 
taking home a nice-looking lobster 
last night. How much did it cost 
you?" 

"I don't know yet. The doctor 
is Up at the house now." — The 
Passing Show (London.) 



Diplomacy. — Hubby — "Really. 
Ethel, seven pounds for a hat is 
the height of extravagance!" 

Wife- -"Well, my dear, I simply 
have to look nice when I am with 
you; you're so distinguished- 
looking." — The Passing Show 
( London). 



February, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



63 



BOSS ™ TAILOR 

1120 MARKET STREET, SAN FRANCISCO 

OPPOSITE SEVENTH STREET 



SUITS AND 
OVERCOATS 

To Order at Popular 
Prices 




All Work Done 

Under Strictly Union 

Conditions 



We Furnish the 
Label 



Always Fair with Labor — Always Will Be! 



TACOMA, WASH. 



JENSEN & NELSEN 

Gent's Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 

Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 

110 EAST STREET Near Mission 

Kearny 3863 San Francisco 



H. SAMUEL 

THE OLD UNION STORE 
Established 1874 

Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 

Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, Bags, 

Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and Oil 

Clothing, Watches and Jewelry. 

Phone Kearny 519 

676 THIRD STREET, near Townsend 

San Francisco 



THE 
James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

PRINTING 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "Tne Seamen's Journal" 



So Mortality Statistics Indicate. 
— The locomotive not only has the 
right of way, but can always prove 
it. — Detroit Motor Xews. 



Several, in Fact— Ike — "What do 
you think of Ford as a Presiden- 
tial possibility?" 

Mike — '"Fine! He has the mak- 
ings of another Lincoln." — Pitt 
Panther. 



"ALL NIGHT IN" 

A Sailer's Dream of Bliss 

Good Beds, Baths, Fine Lounges 
Stop and Meet Shipmates at 

LINCOLN HOTEL 



115 MARKET 



SAN FRANCISCO 



Telephone Douglas 2494 

O. B. Olsen's Lunch 

Delicious Meals at Pre-War Prices 

Quick Service 

98 Embarcadero and 4 Mission St. 

San Francisco, Open 6 a. m. to 1 a. m. 



Seamen, when in port, 
deal with 

W. P. Shanahan & Co. 

MEN'S SHOES 

Expert Repairing 

254 Market Street San Francisco 



ALAMEDA CAFE 

JACOB PETERSEN & SON 

Proprietors 

Established 1880 

COFFEE AND LUNCH HOUSE 

7 Market Street and 17 Steuart Street 

San Francisco 



D. Edwards & Sons 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Fair Prices. Reliable Goods 

92 EAST STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

GUARANTEED OIL CLOTHING 



Now's the Time to S-bscr-be! — 
"Dear Doctor — My pet billy goat 
is seriously ill from eating a com- 
plete leather-bound set of Shakes- 
peare. What do you prescribe?" 

Answer — "Am sending Literary 
Digest by return mail." — The 
Leader (Kansas State Teachers' 
College). 

31 



SEAMEN — ATTENTION! 

When In TACOMA, Visit 

Brower & Thomas 

FOR YOUR 

CIGARS AND TOBACCO 

THREE STORES 

1103 Broadway 11th & A Streets 

930 Pacific Avenue 



Always with the 
Union Label 

DUNDEE 

Woolen Mills 
Popular Priced Tailors 

Tacoma, 920 Pacific Avenue 

Seattle, 312 Fike Street 

Bellingham, 1306 Dock Street 

Aberdeen, 204 E. Heron Street 



When In Tacoma Visit 

P. VOSS' PLACE 

Cigars, Tobacco and Poolroom 

Lunches Served 

P. Voss Old Town Tacoma 

Next to Sailors' Union Hall 



Slight Misunderstanding. — Visitor 
— ''Can you tell me if Bill Jones 
is up in his room?" 

Frosh — "Sorry, there's nobody 
home in the top story." 

Visitor — "Oh, excuse me. I'll 
ask someone else." — Purple Par- 
rot. 



A New Spoke in the Hub. — The 
first day of school a little girl pre- 
sented herself who looked very 
much like a true daughter of Italy. 

"You're an Italian?" asked the 
teacher. 

"Xo'm," was the astonishing 
reply. 

"But wasn't your father born in 
Italy?" 

"Yes'm." 

"And wasn't your mother born 
in Italy?" 

"Yes'm." 

"Well, you must be an Italian." 

"Xo'm," she answered. "I'm 
Irish. I was born in Boston." 



64 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1924 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 

and Battery Sts., Opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Cal. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL, is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
i any branch of Navigation. 
] The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation 
and Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law, and is now, 
In addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




UNION-MADE 



A complete line of seamen's shirts and 



garments of all kinds, union made right 
CLJIDTC here in California, sold direct from factory 
to wearer and every garment guaranteed. 

and UNDERWEAR Direct from Factory to You 



1118 Market Street, San Francisco 
112 South Spring Street, Los Angeles 
1141 J Street, Fresno 
717 K Street, Sacramento 



Since 1872 



Eagleson & Co. 



Established 1917 by U. S. S. B. 

School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 

FERRY BLDG., SAN FRANCISCO 



Puget Sound 
Nautical School 

Conducted by CAPT. H. S. SMITH, 
four years Assistant Inspector of 
Steamboats, Puget Sound District. 
Formerly Instructor in New York 
Nautical College. 

Room 303, Bay Bldg. 1213 First Ave. 
SEATTLE, WASH. 




James <t> Corensen 



Gifts That Last 

Watches, Diamonds, Jewelry, 
Clocks and Silverware 

Largest Assortment, Right Prices 
ah Watch Repairing Guaranteed 



fr«* .<■ Jreaa. 715 Market Street, bet. Third and Fourth Sts. 

Jewelers, atchmakers San Francisco, Cal. 

Opticians Established 18!*6 Phone Kearny SOI' 




A Good Place 
to Trade 

Courteous Service 

Broad Assortments 

Moderate Prices 



Market at Fifth 
San Francisco 



UNION LABEL 

IS IN EVERY ONE OF OUR 
Hard finished — Hard wearing 



$ 



35 



WORSTED 
SUITS 

See Them in our Windows — 

efs 




I5P-868 MARKET ST. 
SAN FRANCISCO 



Joint Accounts 

This bank will open accounts in 
the name of two individuals, for 
instance, man and wife, either of 
whom may deposit money for or 
draw against the account. 

HUMBOLDT 
BANK 

783 MARKET ST., Near Fourth 
SAN FRANCISCO 



32 




f 

§ 
I 



Official Paper of the International Seamen's Union of America 

□IIHIIIIllllUliniMMIOMIIUIIIOIIIIIIIIIN 



A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 

Sea power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's tools. 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use them. 

Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



Contents 

ALASKA SALMON TRUST CHALLENGED 67 

GERMAN SEAMEN STRIKE IN BRITISH PORTS 69 

EDITORIALS 

THE BROTHERHOOD OF THE SEA 70 

FAKE UNIONS 71 

MARKETING OF FISH 71 

BRITISH LABOR'S POWER 72 

WOODROW WILSON 73 

SUPPRESSED NEWS! 75 

WHY STUDY ECONOMICS? 75 

THE COST OF BRUTALITY (Barkentine Puako) 76 

A GOOD CREED . . . . 76 

ELECTRIFIED SHIP'S GALLEYS 77 

UNITED STATES STEAMBOAT INSPECTION 78 

PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC IN 1923 78 

CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 79 

A JUDGE WHO UNDERSTANDS 80 

NO SUBSTITUTE FOR UNION 8. 

OUR WASHINGTON LETTER 81 

YESTERDAY AND TOMORROW (By Samentu) 83 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 84, 85, 86, 87 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 88,89,90,91 



\Tf\l YYYWTTT KT o Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice 

V KJLi. A.AA V 111, iMO. o as second-class matter. Acceptance for 

ttttt/m tt> at -in™ mailing at special rate of postage provided 

WhULJl JNO. 1922 for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 

authorized September 7, 1918. 



SAN" FRANCISCO 
MARCH 1, 1924 



^iiiiiiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiiiEaiiiiiiiiMiicaMiiiiiiiiticsiiiiiiiiiiiicsiiiiiiiiMfic^iiii iiriiiiicj3iiiiii[iiiii>4iiif c-jiitf iiiiiiiicsiiiiiitiiiiic^iitiiiiiiiiiraiiiiiiiiiitf C3iiii^r(iiinc:3iiiifiiiiiiic3iiiiiiiiiif 1C3II1UI] n e n csiiiiF^ 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L. Bldg., Washington, D. C. 



K. B. NOLAN, Secretary-Treasurer 
355 North Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 



DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES: 

ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass..._ PERCY J. PRYOR Secretary 

1% Lewis Street 
Branches: 

NEW YORK, N. Y WILLIAM MILLER, Agent 

67-69 Front Street 

BALTIMORE. Md _ C. RASMUSSEN, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa S. HODGSON, Agent 

108 Walnut Street 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM. Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. JACOBSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex LOUIS LARSEN, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PROVIDENCE R- I RALPH RJVERS, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 



MARINE FIREMEN'S, OILERS' AND WATERTEND- 
ERS' UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y _....70 South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 
Telephone John 0975 

Branches: 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa ERNEST MISSLAND, Agent 

108 Walnut Street 

BALTIMORE, Md JAMES ANDERSON, Agent 

804 South Broadway 

GALVESTON, Tex JOHN CLAUSSEN, Agent 

32l Twentieth Street 

BOSTON, Mass TONY ASTE, Agent 

288 State Street 

NORFOLK, Va _ DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I „ RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 



ATLANTIC AND GULF COOKS', STEWARDS* AND 

WAITERS' UNION 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretary 

4 South Street. Phone John 0975 
Branches: 

N. Y., WEST SIDE BRANCH E. DOYLEY, Agent 

46 Renwick Street 

BOSTON, MASS _ JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

No. 6 Long Wharf 

PHILADELPHIA, PA O. CHRISTENSEN, Agent 

13 South Second Street 

BALTIMORE, MD CHRIS. RASMUSSEN, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

NORFOLK. VA DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, LA R. T. KAIZER, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

PROVIDENCE. R. I FRANK B. HAYWARD, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 

GALVESTON, TEX LOUIS LARSEN, Agent 

321 20th Street 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass WM. H. BROWN, Secretary 

228 State Street 

Branches: 

GLOUCESTER, Mass NEWMAN SHEA, Agent 

209 Main Street 
NEW YORK, N. Y JAMES J. FAQAN, Agont 

6 Fulton Street 



GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

CHICAGO. Ill 357 North Clark Street 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary 

VAL. DUSTER. Treasurer 

Phone State 5175 

Branches: 

BUFFALO, N. Y PATRICK O'BRIEN 

65 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1501 Columbus Road 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERING, Agent 

162 Reed Street Phone Hanover 240 

DETROIT. Mich WM. DONNELLY, Agent 

410 Shelby Street. Phone Main 0044 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 
COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 71 Main Street 

THOS. CONWAY, Secretary 
ED. HICKS. Treasurer. Phone Seneca 8048 

Branches: 

CLEVELAND, 819 Superior Avenue 

Phone Main 866 

MILWAUKEE. Wis 162 Reed Street 

Phone South 598 

DETROIT, Mich 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO. ILL 357 North Clark Street 

Phone State 5175 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters: 

BUFFALO. N. Y 35 West Eagle Street 

J. M. SECORD, Secretary 
Telephone Seneca 896 

Branches: 

CHICAGO, 111 357 North Clark Street 

CLEVELAND, 1501 Columbus Road 

MILWAUKEE, Wis _..162 Reed Street 

DETROIT, MICH 410 Shelby Street 

PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal _ 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE C. LARSEN, Acting Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches: 

VANCOUVER, B. C G. CAMPBELL, Agent 

305 Cambie Street 
I' O. Box ",,i, Telephone Seymour 8708 

TACOMA, Wash A. KLEMMSEN, Agent 

2207 North Thirtieth Street 
1". I ). Box 102, Telephone Main 3984 

SEATTLE, Wash P. I:. GILL, Agenl 

84 Seneca Street 
P. O. Box 65, Telephone Elliot 6 

ABERDEEN, Wash CHAS. uLESEX. Auenl 

P. O. Box 280 

PORTLAND, Ore D. W. PAUL, Agent 

243 Ash Street, Telephone Broadway 1639 

SAN PEDRO, Cal HARRY OHLSEN, Agent 

P. O. Box 67, Telephone 491W 

HONOLULU, T. H JOSEPH I'ALTUS, Agent 

P. O. Box 314, Telephone 1 196 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 58 Commercial Street 

PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 8699 
(Continued on Page 26) 



March, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



67 



ALASKA SALMON TRUST CHALLENGED 




FIERCE struggle against the monop- 
olization of Alaska salmon has been 
quietly waged in a committee room 
of the House of Representatives. 
The cannery corporations are arrayed 
against Delegate Sutherland, representing the 
territory of Alaska, and officers of the In- 
ternational Seamen's Union of America. 

The fight is over a bill that would legalize 
a decision by Secretary of Commerce 
Hoover, who set aside fish reserves in the 
Alaskan waters. The rule provided how 
many fish could be caught, by what method, 
and, most important of all, who could catch 
the fish. Defenders of the decision said it 
was the only way salmon could be conserved. 
Opponents insist it is a denial of every Eng- 
lish-speaking right from the time of the 
Magna Charta and that the alleged conserva- 
tion of salmon is in the interest of the can- 
nery trust. 

President Furuseth of the International 
Seamen's Union said it was as reasonable to 
set the fox to guard the geese as to set the 
cannery men to guard the salmon. Furuseth 
urged that all Alaskan waters within the 
three mile limit be set aside as a fish pre- 
serve with regulations that would apply to 
all fishers. 

Peter E. Olsen and I. N. Hylen, as repre- 
sentatives of the Alaska Fishermen's Union, 
also presented telling arguments. The eluci- 
dating address delivered by I. N. Hylen fol- 
lows : 

Gentlemen — Representing the members of the 
Alaska Fishermen's Union, a body composed of 
about 3000 Alaska salmon fishermen, I submit here- 
with, for your kind and careful consideration, a few 
facts and reasons why the fishermen believe certain 
Alaskan salmon regulations issued by the Secretary 
of Commerce, Herbert Hoover, December 14-16, 
1922, are, in our opinion, contrary to the principle 
of common law and to the principle practiced by 
our form of government, and, therefore, we also 
protest against the adoption of a bill introduced in 
the House of Representatives on December 6, 1923, 
by Honorable Wallace H. White Jr. of Maine, 
known as H. R. 2714. 

We find that, under an "Act for the Protection 
and Regulation of the Fisheries of Alaska" approved 
June 26, 1906, the Secretary of Commerce, under 
Section 6 of said Act has been granted the power 
to set aside any streams or lakes as preserves for 
spawning grounds in which fishing may be limited 
or entirely prohibited, etc., etc. 

We may further say that some of the regula- 
tions now issued by the said Secretary of Commerce 



will unquestionably prove beneficial to the conserva- 
tion of the great Alaska salmon industry, and we 
are pleased indeed to note from same that trap- 
fishing is thereunder absolutely abolished in the 
Bristol Bay, District of Alaska, thereby practically 
admitting that said method of fishing is a most de- 
structive agencjr. 

As early as 1907 the fishermen in those waters 
recommended the abolishment of fish-traps in said 
District of Alaska, and during a three-day hearing 
on this question before the then Secretary of Com- 
merce and Labor, Honorable Oscar Straus, they 
would (except for a Russian chart later brought up 
showing the Nushagak River ending at the conflu- 
ence of the Wood River) then have succeeded in 
their efforts to abolish all traps in those waters, as 
the fishermen proved conclusively at said hearing, 
the necessity for abolishment of the traps if the 
salmon was to be conserved for future generations, 
and succeeded at that time in the removal of all 
fish-traps from the Wood River, a stream in said 
Bristol Bay, District of Alaska, exceptionally favor- 
able to trap-fishing, and also conceded by the best 
authorities to be the main highway to the spawning 
ground of the so-called Alaska red salmon. 

With your kind permission, I shall be pleased to 
refer to recorded authentic facts regarding the de- 
structiveness of trap-fishing, as follows: 

Jefferson F. Moser, Commander United States 
Navy, in command of U. S. S. Albatross, investi- 
gating Alaskan fisheries in report printed in 1902, 
says: 

"Traps used extensively in the Bristol Bay dis- 
trict are a subject for criticism throughout Alaska. 
They are expensive to build and maintain, but have 
many advantages to the canner. The great benefit 
of a trap is not only that it fishes night and day, 
but if the run is heavy for a few days and the can- 
nery fully supplied by the gill-netters, the fish in 
the trap can be held for a time until the catch of 
the gill-netters is slack. These advantages have fre- 
quently led the trapmen beyond the limits of the 
law, and the time has come when the use of traps 
must be regulated and the law enforced, or else they 
must be abolished. 

"Having in mind now the whole of Alaska, it is 
my opinion that if this be not done it will work a 
great injury to the fisheries. 

"Fish were plentiful this year, and the gill-netters 
were able to supply most of the fish used. It was 
said on this account that traps took more fish than 
were wanted, and that they were frequently opened 
to let the impounded fish escape. This statement 
may be true, but there never was a cat that held a 
mouse with more tenacity than a canneryman holds 
a salmon, and it is doubted if a salmon of choice 
species is ever allowed to escape as long as it is 
fit to put inside of a tin can. 

"Traps catch not only all the salmon wanted, but 
all other species of salmon and other fish not 
wanted. Practically all fish taken in the traps ex- 
cept red fish, are waste, and until one sees the tons 
of this waste product, one cannot realize the magni- 
tude of this giant octopus that grasps everything 
in its tentacles. 

"My opinion of traps has been expressed and the 
waste from them referred to, but as a further illus- 
tration of this trap waste a single occurrence re- 
lated to me may be given: A lighter having a 
capacity of 45 tons, and having nearly that amount 
of fish aboard, was towed to a cannery, where the 
species desired for canning amounting to about six 
tons, was removed; the rest, consisting of cod, torn- 



68 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March. 1924 



cod, halibut, flounders, sculpins, dog salmon, trout, 
etc., were waste." 

John McNab, Inspector of Fisheries for British 
Columbia, in a letter to Sofus Jensen, Secretary of 
the Columbia Fishermen's Union, dated December 
18, 1896, at New Westminster, B. C: 

'"Why do the laws prohibit fishing for salmon 
with traps and wheels? Because they are so destruc- 
tive to young or immature fish, and also to varie- 
ties of fish which are valuable, but are not to any 
great extent utilized by the canneries or salmon 
fishermen, and are thus a very destructive agency." 

Mr. L. O. Belland, who built the first fish-trap in 
Wood River in 1890, stated in 1907, as follows: 

"As contracts with gill-nettcrs call for a limit of 
1200 fish per day per boat, fish are retained in traps 
for emergency, often dying by the tens of thou- 
sands. A good run, as a rule, continues for two 
weeks. When fish commence to die in the traps 
they are thrown out, giving opportunity to the traps 
to fill up with fresh fish. When fish are held in 
the traps for four days they are so injured that 
they never reach the lake, hence are useless for 
spawning purposes. 

"Where, during storms, gill-net boats cannot fish 
(at Coffee Point on Nushagak if traps were not 
permitted in the Nushagak, many fish would have 
opportunity to pass the danger point and reach the 
spawning lakes. Traps now located in this vicinity 
fish in all kinds of weather. If the storm lasts sev- 
eral days, the heavy surf, especially at low tide, kills 
the fish in the trap and they are wasted, because in 
about twelve hours fish kept in water cannot be 
canned." 

From brief submitted to Senate Committee on 
Fisheries, December 17, 1916, by the Alaska Fisher- 
men's Union: 

"The red salmon of Alaska in every instance, 
when striking the shores or entering a river, imme- 
diately seek the shallow waters. With traps at every 
point of vantage, leads of such traps covering the 
entire flats, there is no possible escape for the 
salmon. 

"The leads, including pots of these traps, being 
made of very small mesh, catch not only all salmon 
along the shores, but every other kind of fish that 
mix and mingle with the salmon, such as codfish, 
tomcod, halibut, soles, smelt, trout, etc. This other 
fish is as valuable for food as salmon, but owing to 
the fact that no provision is made for preservation 
or canning of same, they are destroyed and cast 
away as waste upon the waters. Thousands of tons 
of such valuable food fish are destroyed annually 
by this method of fishing." 

We could continue with similar references, but 
deem this sufficient for men that have the interest 
of their country at heart, to see with the eyes of 
those whom the Government from time to time has 
sent to investigate this question and which findings 
the practical fishermen also agree with. 

We also fully approve of regulation of size of 
mesh in gill-nets, which, I am pleased to state, is 
also an adoption of recommendation by the Alaska 
fishermen from years past. 

The certain dates set for beginning and ending 
of fishing season in Bristol Bay, Alaska, are also a 
former recommendation of the fishermen, hence we 
are pleased to note that, while Government action 
in these respects has not been as speedy as we 
would want it to be, it is nevertheless very en- 
couraging to know that, after due consideration, the 
Government can be relied upon to move in the 
right direction. 

We may also say that the regulations providing 
for allotments of so many fishing boats to be oper- 
ated by each of the present salmon-packing com- 
panies in Bristol Bay, Alaska, will be welcome to 



the actual fishermen in these waters, as through 
their selfish interest they will consider themselves 
granted a better opportunity for earnings, which 
said limitation of boats will unquestionably give 
them, and they may even feel that the companies 
will now pay first-class fishermen a special bonus 
to go with them, as the only chance for competition 
in the fishing end of it, with such regulations, will 
be the securing of the best fishermen. In other 
words, the company that gets the best fishermen 
will get the most fish, and hence the fishermen will 
be in better position than ever, and as a keen com- 
petition among the packers in this respect is certain 
to arise, we say again that this part of the regu- 
lations will be welcome by the real fishermen. 

However, on the other hand, we feel, as stated in 
the beginning of this brief, that a ruling or regula- 
tion of this kind is contrary to the principles of 
common law and the principles practiced by our 
Government, and will, in our opinion, if permitted 
and accepted, in due time prove a road to absolute 
monopoly by a few large corporations of all these 
vast natural resources, something which this coun- 
try, even with its wonderful abundance of natural 
resources, could not long endure. 

We are further convinced that if there is ever a 
hope of getting the coast of Alaska settled by real 
American citizens, opportunity of living must be 
given to such settlers. Fishing being the main in- 
centive to settlement of the Alaskan coast, equal 
rights to fish in all waters, with proper restrictions, 
must be granted. 

Granting of special permits to the few corpora- 
tions now operating in Bristol Bay is evidently done 
in the interest of protecting investments made by 
said corporations. Question then arises: Shall prop- 
erty rights be considered in preference to common 
law and usage which guarantee every citizen the 
common right of fishery in said waters as a part of 
their common heritage as citizens of a free coun- 
try? Or, shall the common law and freedom of the 
sea prevail 

We fear that if the White bill, H. R. 2714. as 
referred to in the beginning of our brief, be adopted 
conferring upon the President the present power of 
Congress, with relation to conservation of the 
Alaskan fisheries, is but to add another unnecessary 
burden upon our already overburdened President. 

Believing in our present form of government, we 
feel this power will be best preserved by resting 
the responsibility where it now remains, being fully 
convinced that Congress, in the long run, will best 
safeguard our destinies. 

If time be now ripe for drastic action relating to 
the perpetuation and preservation of the Alaska 
salmon, and knowing that the time is not only ripe 
for such action, but overripe, if I so may term it, 
it would seem a wise move to us for Congress now 
to exert its power in this direction, and with this in 
view we would strongly recommend adoption of a 
bill introduced in the House of Representatives on 
Tanuary 7, 1924. by Delegate Dan Sutherland of 
Alaska (H. R. 4826), which, in our opinion, will go 
further in the conservation of these vast Alaskan 
fisheries than any previous measure adopted in this 
respect. This bill, practically speaking, has for its 
purpose the abolishment of fish-traps in all waters 
where their operation will be found most destructive. 

Having previously stated our reasons for object- 
ing to trap-fishing, and feeling that we have per- 
haps indulged in too lengthy remarks on the same, 
I respectfully submit the foregoing explanations and 
recommendations to your best judgment. 

Members of the committee exhibited keen 
interest in the arguments presented and showed 
a lively sentiment for fish conservation. 



March, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



69 



GERMAN SEAMEN'S STRIKE 

(By C. Damm, General Secretary International 
Seafarers' Federation 



At the beginning of January a number of 
seamen in German ships arriving in 
English ports went on strike for an increase 
of wages, their wages being £3 per month. 

They sent a deputation to Mr. Havelock 
Wilson, president of the International Sea- 
farers' Federation, and laid their case before 
him, stating that there was no agreement be- 
tween the German Seamen's Union and the 
German shipowners as to wages, and that the 
amount paid to them was inadequate, as the 
cost of living in Germany had risen tre- 
mendously, and when a seaman had to buy 
any necessities they would be charged the 
same for such necessities as a man serving in 
an English ship and obtaining £9 per month. 

The President at once called the Finance 
Committee of the National Sailors and Fire- 
men's Union and put the case before them, 
and it was decided to tender all assistance 
possible to the German seamen. According- 
ly, I wired for F. Kohler of the seamen's sec- 
tion of the German Transport Workers' 
Union and Mr. A. Valtor of the Deutscher 
Schiffartsverband. 

In the meantime I addressed meetings of 
seamen at Hull, Methil, Burnt Island, Leith, 
Newcastle and London. On my return to 
London, Mr. Kohler and Mr. Valtor had ar- 
rived. A conference was then held at St. 
George's Hall, where Mr. Robert Williams 
and Mr. Fimmen, President and Secretary of 
the International Transport Workers' Fed- 
eration, were present ; also Mr. E. Bevan 
and Mr. Milford of the General Workers' 
Union. Mr. Kohler and Mr. Valtor repre- 
senting Germany, Mr. T. Chambers and Mr. 
Henson representing the National Sailors and 
Firemen's Union of Great Britain and Ire- 
land. Mr. Havelock Wilson and myself rep- 
resenting the International Seafarers' Fed- 
eration. 

It was unanimously agreed that the de- 
mand of the German seamen was a just one 
and that assistance should be given them in 
every port. The representatives of the Gen- 
eral Workers and the Transport Workers 
promised to assist as far as possible and it 



was agreed the Messrs. Kohler and Valtor 
and myself should address meetings in all 
the principal ports. We spoke to large num- 
bers of men in London, Swansea, Llanelly, 
Port Talbot, Cardiff, Barry, Hull Middles- 
borough, Sunderland, South Shields, North 
Shields and Blyth, and at all these meetings 
\ve found an excellent spirit prevailing 
among the seamen on strike. The striking 
German seamen were well looked after by 
the National Sailors and Firemen's Union, 
board and lodgings was provided for them 
in the different ports and financial assistance 
was given by the National Sailors and Fire- 
men's Union so as to enable the men to send 
funds to their dependents in Germany. 

The German ship owners thought at first 
that the seamen would be left on their own 
resources and that it would be an easy mat- 
ter to force them back to their ships at the 
rate of wages paid by the ship owners. 

The strike has now lasted three weeks and 
very few ships have got away with black- 
legs. Reports have been received at the 
Head Office stating that some Scandinavian 
and colored men have taken the places of a 
few strikers at English rates of wages but 
even that has not disheartened the men on 
strike. Mr. Kohler and Mr. Valtor have 
returned to Germany to induce German ship 
owners to enter into negotiations, and there 
is the best of hopes that this fight, origi- 
nated by the men themselves, will bring about 
much better conditions in German ships. 

It will, without a doubt, be the means of 
amalgamating the two existing unions in Ger- 
many, and the ship owners of Germany will 
most likely find that they are up against a 
similar proposition as the ship owners in 
Great Britain in 1911. 

Over 2,000 German seamen are on strike in 
England and even if the officers of the Ger- 
man ship are prepared to assist the ship 
owners, the fight is bound to cause a lot of 
inconvenience which will not easily be for- 
gotten. 

And last but not least, it will most likely 
be decided by the International Seafarers' 
Federation that similar steps be taken in 
ships belonging to other countries where 
wages are far below those paid in English 
and Scandinavian ships. 



70 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1924 



Seamen's Journal 

Established In 1887 
Published on the first day of each month In San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW FURUSETH, President 

A. F. of L. Building, Washington. D. C. 

PATRICK FLYNN, First -Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

V. A. OLANDER, Second Vice-President 

166 W. Washington Street. Chicago. 111. 

THOS. CONWAY. Third Vice-President 

71 Main Street. Buffalo, N. Y. 

P. B. GILL. Fourth Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street. Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR. Fifth Vice-President 

1% Lewis Street, Boston, Mass. 

WM. H. BROWN. Sixth Vice-President 

202 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Mass. 

OSCAR CARLSON. Seventh Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York, N. Y. 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary-Treasurer 

355-357 N. Clark Street. Chicago, 111. 

Office of Publication. 525 Market Street 
San Francisco. California 

Subscription price $1.50 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG Editor 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished in the JOURNAL, provided they are of general 
Interest, brief, legible, written on one side only of the 
paper, and accompanied by the writer's name and 
address. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the 
expressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscript. 



>© 



MARCH 1. 1924 



Till'; BROTHERHOOD OF THE SEA 



Certain radical elements in Europe have 

from time to time expressed themselves as 
dissatisfied with the general policy of the 
International Seafarers' Federation. Spokes- 
men for the International Transportworkers 
Federation, in particular, have made it known 
that a seafarers' federation cannot function 
"properly" unless it is controlled and man- 
aged by shore workers. 

The idea that a seamen's union or a sea- 
farers' federation can be successfully con- 
ducted by seamen exclusively has always 
seemed rather preposterous to self-st3'led In- 
ternational revolutionists. 

Of course, facts always speak louder and 
more convincing than mere words. The In- 
ternational Seafarers' Federation does not 
seek to claim credit for every ray of sun- 
shine that hits this little planet but it does 
claim that the trials, hopes and aspirations 



of the world's seafarers have always received 
first consideration in its councils. This is 
more than can be said for a recently estab- 
lished sideshow to the International Trans- 
portworkers' Federation, claiming especially 
to represent seamen. 

The sideshow in question, called the Sea- 
men's Section of the I. T. F., met in confer- 
ence recently and "resoluted" on nearly every 
subject under the sun but. strange to say, 
did not "resolve" that the world'.- seamen 
must be made freemen as a basic condition 
for enduring progress. This particular con- 
ference was conducted by men who were not 
seamen, never had been seamen, and there- 
fore could not comprehend the disadvantages 
of a legal status that tie seamen to their 
ships like galley slaves of old. 

Years ago, the International Seafarers' 
Federation decided to work in all countries 
for the right of seamen to quit their ships 
when in a safe harbor and for the abolition 
of penalties for so-called desertion. Tin tea- 
men's section of the I. T. F. evidently still 
favors imprisonment for "desertion." At any 
rate, its silence on this all important subject 
is a sad but significant commentary on the 
use (or misuse) of seamen's union- by of- 
ficials of shore organizations. 

Elsewhere in this issue, under the caption 
"German Seamen's Strike" is an interesting 
report by Secretary Damm of the Interna- 
tional Seafarers' Federation. A careful perusal 
of said report should convince anyone of the 
intensely practical policy of the International 
Seafarers' Federation. Germen seamen in 
British ports went on strike against starva- 
tion wages. The British unit of the In- 
ternational Seafarers' Federation did not 
deliberate at length about the adoption of a 
weighty resolution extending sympathy to 
the striking German seamen. Acting with 
the full approval of Havelock Wilson, president 
of the International Seafarers' Federation, the 
National Sailors and Firemen's Union of 
Great Britain and Ireland came to the rescue 
promptly and effectively. The striking Ger- 
man seamen were given ready assistance, 
financial and otherwise, even to the extent oi 
funds for their dependents in Germany. 

It may be possible that certain ultra-radical 
folks in the labor movement of the world 



March, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



71 



think more of high sounding resolutions an- 
nouncing the early arrival of the millenium 
via the one big union, but so far as the 
German seamen are concerned, who received 
immediate and generous help when help was 
needed in the land of their late enemies, 
the Journal is quite willing to rest the case 
on their verdict. 

Real international action can be expressed 
by appropriate deeds much better than by 
beautiful words. Good resolution writers are 
useful enough in certain places but the 
Brotherhood of the Sea is likely to remain an 
unattainable ideal if men without knowledge 
of the sea are given control of the interna- 
tional seamen's movement. 

Let us be thankful that the executive of- 
ficers of the International Seafarers' Federa- 
tion are practical idealists rather than revolu- 
tionary phrase mongers. 



FAKE UNIONS 



The New York Times of January 22 con- 
tains the following news item regarding the 
demise of another dual union carrying the 
endorsement of prominent shipowners : 

Representatives of the Marine Relief Society, No. 
57 Whitehall Street, which claims United States 
Senators, the Spanish Ambassador and prominent 
shipping men as honorary members, agreed yester- 
day under threat of prosecution to close up their 
offices at once and disband. 

The promise marks another victory for the Dis- 
trict Attorney's office in the campaign instituted 
at the request of Welfare Commissioner Coler to 
end fake welfare bodies. 

This society and two of its officers were indicted 
last summer on charges of forging certificates which 
enabled foreigners to get jobs on American ships, 
but it continued in business and it is claimed its 
receipts during the year were in excess of $45,000, 

Samuel Solomon of No. 120 Patchen Avenue, 
Brooklyn, the secretary, admitted agents who 
brought in new members at $5 per head in the form 
of annual dues were allowed to keep 50 per cent. 

The sad and early death of this fake so- 
ciety, which throughout its short life posed 
as a substitute for a real union, has not pre- 
vented another enterprising schemer to launch 
a new benevolent society to fleece the sea- 
men. 

"Mr." Peter McKillop, late agent for the 
Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders at 
Norfolk, and who aspired to become secre- 
tary to that union but failed because he did 
not get enough votes to beat Oscar Carlson, 
has launched a brand new organization of 



sailors and firemen, of which the said Peter 
is to be secretary-treasurer. 

According to the literature distributed by 
this new union (?) there is to be a burial 
benefit of $125.00; a sick benefit of $7.00 per 
week for eight weeks and $3.00 per week for 
the next succeeding eight weeks. In addition 
it is to pay $50.00 shipwreck benefit. And 
all of this to be paid from an income of $5.00 
initiation fee, $1.00 dues per month and no 
assessments whatever. 

The use of just a little common sense 
should convince anyone that something is 
rotten with Peter's scheme. Financially, it 
is impossible to pay $125.00 burial benefit, 
$50.00 shipwreck benefit, $7.00 per week sick 
benefit for eight weeks and $3.00 per week 
sick benefit for another eight weeks out of 
an income of $5.00 initiation fee and $1.00 
dues a month. The income would not cover 
the benefits, and those who work for the 
union have to live, they must eat, there must 
be offices and assembly rooms, and there 
will be no money with which to pay for 
those things if benefits are to be paid as ad- 
vertised. Of course, Peter's salary may come 
direct from the shipowners but this is denied. 
Where, then, is the money coming from? 
Who is it that is so deeply concerned in 
preventing the legitimate unions to recover 
sufficient strength to function as wage rais- 
ing organizations? 

The echo does not shout "McKillop" be- 
cause it is well known that Peter always 
was a poor man. True, he may have fallen 
into some big inheritance, but that is not 
likely and if he had, it is less likely that he 
would spend that money on the seamen. The 
money is coming from somewhere. Let Mc- 
Killop and those who favor his new benevo- 
lent (?) society explain! 



MARKETING OF FISH 



The Fishermen's Union of the Atlantic, 
after an intensive study of the New England 
fish industry, has become convinced that 
nothing short of a complete reorganization 
of the present fish marketing system will 
bring substantial relief to the members of 
the Union. 

Some of the pertinent facts cited show 
clearly that a large potential market exists. 



72 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1924 



It has also been shown that the fish receipts 

coming on the market could be doubled 

within less than a year's time, provided it 

could be disposed of at a profit. To quote 

from the Union's digest of statistics : 

About 90 per cent of the American people never 
see ocean fish. About 85 per cent of the fish landed 
in Boston is consumed within a 200-mile radius. 
Fifty-six 'per cent is consumed in Massachusetts. 
It should be noted, in this connection, that the 
population of Greater New York is more than 
double that of Massachusetts. Had New York the 
same rate of consumption as Massachusetts — that 
is, about 57,000,000 pounds per year or a per capita 
consumption of about 18 pounds, it would have 
required 114,000,000 pounds of groundfish to sup- 
ply the needs of New York City. Actually, about 
9.000,000 pounds were landed in 1922 at that port. 
Things are as they are because most of the dealers 
are satisfied to do business on margin — not on 
volume. The prosperity of the industry, and hence 
of New England, is not a consideration. 

To repeat, the potential market exists and 
an even greater supply of fish than at pres- 
ent received could easily be provided. All 
that is lacking is a properly developed .sys- 
tem of distribution. When this is established 
the public will have tasty and nutritious 
food, at present unobtainable, and the fisher- 
men will have a stabilized industry — a con- 
dition that is bound to have a most favor- 
able reflex upon every related industry and 
upon the people of the New England States 
in general. 

More power to the Fishermen's Union of 
the Atlantic! 



BRITISH LABOR'S POWER 



The Joint Maritime Commission, which 
was set up by the second session of the In- 
ternational Labor Conference (Genoa, 1920) 
to assist the International Labor Office 
(League of Nations) in dealing with ques- 
tions affecting life and labor in the mer- 
cantile marine, met for the third time on 
December 17-19 in London. Mr. Arthur 
Fontaine, chairman of the governing body, 
presided, and there were present two other 
representatives of the governing body, in 
addition to six representatives of shipowners 
and six representatives of seamen. The text 
of the decisions of the Commission, which 
covered such matters as conditions of labor 
in the fishing industry, the protection of 
seamen against venereal diseases, the inter- 
national codification of laws concerning sea- 
farers, accidents at sea, and deck cargoes is 
not yet available. 



That Ramsey Mac Donald and his cabinet 
have come to power as the first labor gov- 
ernment in Great Britain, without violence or 
confusion, is a tribute not only to the Labor 
party but to the British people, and an in- 
spiration to the labor movement everywhere. 
Of course, it is to be understood that there 
are severe limitations upon what this labor 
government can accomplish. It is still in a 
minority and exists more or less on the 
sufference of the Liberals. It cannot put 
through a capital levy. Even if it had a 
larger vote in Parliament, it could not auto- 
matically restore prosperity to a country which 
depends for prosperity upon foreign trade 
in a time when foreign trade is at the mercy 
of the confusion and chaotic conditions of 
Europe. But if Mr. MacDonald's govern- 
ment cannot work miracles, it can make sub- 
stantial progress. It can acquire for itself 
and for the workers administrative experi- 
ence. It can bring more effective pressure 
than its predecessor to bear upon Poincare's 
disastrous attempt to make France imperial 
mistress of Europe. It can establish new 
standards in housing and in the care of the 
unemployed. These things emphatically are 
worth doing. The good wishes of friends of 
orderly progress everywhere will go out to 
the men who are entrusted to the task of 
steering the British ship of state. 



Special attention is directed to the opinion 
of Federal Judge Rudkin published in this 
issue.' There is every reason to believe that 
resort to brutality at sea will be very un- 
popular hereafter in shipowning circles. 
When brutal treatment of seamen is reason- 
ably certain to become a matter of heavy 
expense to the ship then the master will re- 
ceive his instructions accordingly. Aside 
from this we should not lose sight of the un- 
disputed fact that there could have been no 
redress and no favorable court decisions if it 
had not been for the existence of the Sea- 
men's Union. It would have been utterly 
impossible to prosecute these cases without 
the backing of the Union. Non-union nun 
please take notice ! 



March, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



73 



WOODROW WILSON 



The passage of the Seamen's Bill in 1915 
brought to a successful conclusion a struggle 
which had lasted continuously for 15 years. 
But the final victory was not yet assured. 
To make effective the will of Congress one 
thing still remained to be done. A single 
stroke of the pen would make the Seamen's 
Bill a law of the land. Lacking the signa- 
ture of the President, the work of Congress 
would go for nothing. 

As matters stood at the close of the Sixty- 
third Congress history had merely repeated 
itself. More than once in the past victory 
had been almost within the seamen's grasp, 
only to result in disappointment. On the 
closing day of the previous Congress the 
Seamen's Bill, having weathered the storms 
of many sessions, was submitted to the 
President for his approval. It then appeared 
that the seamen's hopes of liberty were about 
to be realized. The President, however, with- 
held his signature. The cup was dashed 
from the seamen's Hps. Another battle had 
been lost. It still remained to win the war. 

Two year's elapsed. The Seamen's Bill 
had been passed by another Congress and 
submitted to another President. Again the 
crucial hour had arrived which would decide 
the issue of victory or defeat. Would his- 
tory repeat itself in the last detail? Or, 
would the President make new history by 
signing the bill and thus consummate the 
work of Congress? 

If judged alone by the record of the man 
then in the White House the question would 
have carried its own answer. But the con- 
ditions which at the time confronted the 
President of the United States were without 
precedent. Only a few months previously 
the Great War had burst upon the world. 
Human liberty, even civilization itself, was 
imperilled. In the stroke of the President's 
pen was involved a question, not merely of 
extending to the American seamen the bless- 
ing of personal freedom assured by the Con- 
stitution to all citizens, but also of maintain- 
ing the liberty of the Nation itself. 

The issue was big with implications of 
tremendous character. Fortunatelv for the 



American seamen, and for the peoples of 
the world, the issue was met by a big man, 
whose vision pierced the gloom that shrouded 
the world and whose courage was equal to 
the responsibility which Destiny had placed 
in his hands. President Wilson signed the 
Seamen's Bill, and by so doing proved him- 
self a man entirely great. 

By that act the last vestige of involuntary 
servitude among American seamen was abol- 
ished. More than that, the new law gave 
freedom to the seamen of all nations in the 
ports of the United States. The laws and 
treaties under which the seaman could be 
held to service, practically as a chattel of the 
ship owner, became a thing of the past. 
Henceforth the seaman is a free man — free to 
quit, free to work, free to do that which in 
his own judgment and conscience may be 
calculated to promote his own well-being. 
The Seamen's Act is the charter that estab- 
lishes the seaman's equality among free men 
everywhere. 

The opposition to the bill was largely 
based upon the ground that the "right to 
quit" would be abused, and that, lacking the 
power to hold the seaman in bondage, the 
ships would be left to "rot in their neglected 
brine." In other words, American ships 
could only be successfully operated by sea- 
men bound to conditions of virtual slavery ! 
This reasoning was supported by immemorial 
usage and affirmed by a long line of prece- 
dent, including the decisions of the highest 
courts. The bogy of "wholesale desertion" 
had served to frighten Congress. When at 
last that device failed in House and Senate, 
it had still served to stay the hand of the 
Chief Executive. 

Whatever merit might previously have been 
claimed for these views was greatly enhanced 
by the conditions that existed when, in March, 
1915, the Seamen's Bill was again submitted 
to the President. The war had been raging 
for more than six months. Even at that 
early stage the cry was raised for "ships, 
more ships, and still more ships !" In our 
own time, as truly as in the time of the great 
Alexander, the maxim held good : "Control 
of the sea gives possession of the land." The 
construction of ships was a simple matter — 
a matter of money, material and mechanics. 
But of what use were ships without seamen 



74 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1924 



to man them? Of what avail that seamen 
were procurable, if they were granted free- 
dom to "desert?" In such case the ships 
would be unable to sail. In this view the 
issue was no longer a question of justice or 
injustice to the seamen. It had become a 
question of winning or Losing the war. To 
sign the Seamen's Bill would be a violation 
of neutrality and in effect seal the doom of 
the Allied cause ! 

President Wilson gave careful consideration 
to the arguments of the opposition. No 
doubt these views weighed heavily, the more 
so because they were shared, if only upon 
grounds of expediency, by many sincere 
friends of the measure. Here was a case in 
which a fine-weather friend might have been 
excused, if not actually justified, in hanging 
back. Considerations of common prudence 
might alone have determined the President to 
withhold his approval. Evert the seamen 
themselves, dearly as they had fought for 
personal liberty, would have accepted such 
result as in the nature of things. They would 
have laid their disappointment to the war, as 
a circumstance that controlled the actions of 
men even in the highest place- and indeed 
dominated the whole course of human events. 

The act of President Wilson in signing 
the Seamen's Bill stamps him as a man of 
discernment, conviction and courage. In the 
measure placed before him he saw one thing 
— Justice — and that overshadowed everything 
else. To the argument based upon fear that 
the seamen would abuse the "right to quit," 
and thus hamper the operation of ships, the 
President made a simple reply. He did not 
share the fears of the opposition ; rather, he 
shared the confidence of those who believed 
that the seamen could safely be trusted with 
the gift of liberty. In any case, the seamen 
were entitled to personal freedom, and, come 
what might, they should have it. 

From the viewpoint of public interest the 
issue was clear. Granted the importance of 
the seamen's services in the war, it was the 
more important that these services should 
be rendered willingly. So long as the sea- 
man remained a bondman, the outcome of 
the war would imply nothing more than a 
change of masters. The seaman's only con- 
cern would be that of a mercenary. Given 
freedom in his own person, the seaman 



would become a partner on equal terms with 
all other classes in the war for the freedom^ 
of the world. He would have a persona] 
interest in the outcome. Having at stake a 
tiling worth fighting for, he would fight the 
better to preserve it. At any rate, the country 
could then with consistency and a clear 
conscience call upon the seamen for a full 
measure of devotion to the common cause. 

The Presidents words went to the bed- 
rock of the matter. The fearsome structure 
erected in the minds of the seamen's oppo- 
nents, buttressed as it was by "patriotism" 
and "public policy," collapsed utterly. A new 
light was shed upon the status of the Ameri- 
can seaman and in it stood revealed a newly 
enfranchised body of free men. For the 
first time in the history of the Nation per- 
sonal liberty became a fact of universal ap- 
plication. 

The stroke of the pen which freed the 
men sent a thrill throughout the country. 
Instinctively the people sensed in that act 
an evidence of statesmanship equal to the 
highest traditions of the Executive office. 
The proof, of course, remained with the fu- 
ture. The proof of the President's wisdom 
was speedily manifested, and that by the 
response of the seamen themselves. At the 
President's call tin- seamen rallied to the 
country's service. In the war for freedom 
the American seamen distinguished them- 
selves equally with any other class. Being 
themselves free, they worked and fought for 
the preservation of freedom in the spirit of 
endurance and the confidence of victory that 
only free men know. 

The "one-track mind" was amply justified 
by events. As in so many other instances. 
the President's pen proved mightier than the 
sword. 

The fame of Woodrow Wilson will reach 
t«» the heavens and endure with the stars. 
History will proclaim him the leader and 
spokesman of humanity in a time of severe 
trial. The piercing shaft, the flashing dome, 
and the monumental pile will bear witness 
to the gratitude of mankind in all ages and 
climes. But he who would envisage the true 
memorial of that great American need but 
look around him. If he would know* the 
place that Woodrow Wilson holds in the 
hearts of his countrvmen he must look, not 



10 



March, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



to the pinnacles where glory beckons but to 
the lowly places where men work and women 
weep. He must listen, not to the edicts of 
fate issued to the mighty amid the thunders 
of cannon but to the words of justice and 
eternal truth uttered in the counsels of peace. 
He must plumb the hearts of the people and 
therefrom receive the vibrant impulses of 
love and veneration for a man who, while 
marching at the head of legions, yet paused 
to embrace the lowly and the outcast and 
invest them with the panoply of full man- 
hood. 

The memory of Woodrow Wilson will en- 
dure as the priceless heritage of liberty en- 
larged by faith in the true destiny of man- 
kind and confirmed by the supreme sacrifice. 
Not least among the elements that proclaim 
the leader and lover of his kind will be 
counted that act by which he made the 
American seaman forever free. 



WHY STUDY ECONOMICS? 

(By Professor Lloyd M. Cosgrave, Former Lecturer 
on Economics, Indiana University, and Instructor, 
Pittsburgh Trade Union College.) 



SUPPRESSED NEWS! 



"Truth Crushed to Earth will Rise Again." 

A year ago* the labor press of America 
charged that the Teapot Dome scandal was 
suppressed news. 

Newspapers, with one or two exceptions, 
could not be induced to say a word about 
giving away this great national oil reserve, 
together with the naval oil reserve in Cali- 
fornia. 

The labor press, with the co-operation of 
International Labor News Service, hammered 
away at the big scandal. The American Fed- 
eration of Labor protested time and time 
again. Yet there was silence on the part of 
the daily newspapers, silence everywhere. 

Finally the pounding began to tell. Now 
the United States Congress has set aside 
$100,000 for a special prosecution and the 
President has named bipartisan counsel to 
supersede the United States Attorney Gen- 
eral in the prosecution. 

It isn't known yet who is to be prosecuted, 
but that there will be prosecutions seems 
assured. The important fact at this hour 
is that labor's protest has been vindicated 
and the United States seems about to re- 
cover at least part of the public property 
that was thrown away by Albert B. Fall as 
Secretary of the Interior. 



This is the "Age of Economics." 
Our political campaigns are full of it; our 
ministers preach about it ; our newspapers 
print and publish editorials about it; our 
legislatures spend a good part of their time 
making laws about it; our trade unions give 
it first place in their considerations and many 
other groups are concerning themselves 
with it. 

This is the "Age of Economics" because 
we are all concerned with the problem of our 
livelihood. 

In fact, we who live in the Twentieth Cen- 
tury are giving more attention to the study 
of wealth, its production and use. than we 
are to anything else. As a short way of stat- 
ing it, we say we are study "economics." 

How other people work and what they re- 
ceive for their work is important to each of 
us because most of what we use was made 
by other people. 

A loaf of bread may cost but five cents but 
it is the result of work by hundreds of hands. 
"We are really paying hundreds of people 
when we spend the nickel for the loaf of 
bread (we may even, at the same time, be 
contributing to some who do not work at all). 

Today nearly everything that we use was 
produced by other people and our money 
goes to pay them. 

This makes it important for us to under- 
stand what kind of work they do and what 
they receive for their work. 

We want them to do good work and to 
get good pay for their work. At the same 
time, we want to prevent excess incomes 
and incomes that are not the result of pro- 
ductive effort. 

This is what makes so many important 
questions today center about economics and 
about wealth. We are forever talking and 
planning and passing laws about rents and 
wages and how factories shall be regulated 
and what tariffs shall be and what taxes 
shall be imposed and how food products shall 
be kept pure and so on. 

But do we understand the economic laws 
involved and do we, as workers, understand 



11 



76 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1924 



what our relation is to these economic laws, 
their reasons for existence and their effects 
on our lives? 

The Workers' Education Bureau in a series 
of monthly lectures on Economics to be pub- 
lished in the Journal, will discuss some 
of these economic laws, their effect on work- 
ers' lives and their possibility of change. This 
is the introductory to the monthly articles. 



THE COST OF BRUTALITY 



On June 28, 1923, Federal Judge Partridge 
of San Francisco rendered his notable opin- 
ion awarding damages totaling $14,500 to 
members of the crew of the barkentine 
Rolph for brutal treatment at the hands of 
the mate. The decision was printed in full 
in the August, 1923, issue of the Journal. 

Another Federal Judge has now taken up 
the trend of Judge Partridge's irrefutable 
logic and awarded substantial damages to 
members of the crew of the barkentine 
Puako, who were brutally treated by the 
master of this vessel, commonly known as 
"Hellfire Peterson," and his two sons who 
served as first and second mates, respec- 
tively. 

Messrs. Silas B. Axtell of New York and 
Alden Ames of San Francisco represented 
the seamen and deserve credit for persistent 
and painstaking efforts in presenting the 
case. 

Judge Rudkin, who tried the case at San 
Francisco, rendered the following opinion : 
Opinion of Judge Rudkin 
These several libels were filed to recover damages 
for personal injuries and for lack of medical treat- 
ment. The libellants were employed as members 
of the crew of the Barkentine "Puako," which 
sailed from Victoria, B. C, in the latter part of 
April, 1918, and arrived at Cape Town in the 
latter part of August, 1918, after a voyage of 122 
days. The cruelties complained of occurred prin- 
cipally within the last two weeks before the arrival 
of the vessel at Cape Town. 

The testimony in the case is voluminous and ex- 
tremely conflicting. The witnesses agreed only upon 
the facts that the different libellants were hand- 
cuffed and confined on different parts of the ship, 
for periods varying from a few hours in some 
cases to several days in others. In addition to 
this confinement, the libellants claim that they were 
brutally assaulted from time to time, and that they 
were denied proper food and medical attention. A 
review of the testimony would serve no purpose. 

In justification of his act in handcuffing and 
confining the libellants, the Master claimed that 
the crew was mutinous and planned the destruction 
of the vessel, and the killing of the ship's officers. 



But the size of the crew, the sources from which 
the members were gathered, their conduct toward 
each other, and all the surrounding circumstances, 
satisfy me that the suspicions of the Master in this 
regard were without foundation. I am of opinion, 
however, that the conduct of the Master was in- 
spired by fear, rather than by malice. Doubtless 
there has been more or less exaggeration and with- 
holding of facts . on both sides, and neither party 
was entirely free from blame, but a careful review 
of the testimony convinces me that the several 
libellants are entitled to damages in the following 
sums: Campbell, $2000; Jensen, $2000; Jones $1500; 
Joe, $1500; Reilly, $250; Grielen, $500. The latter 
two did not take sufficient interest in the case to 
appear as witnesses in their own behalf, although 
the libels have been pending for a period of about 
three years. 

Let decrees be entered accordingly. 



A GOOD CREED 



You can't make a real success without 
making real enemies. 

You can't hold a strong position without 
strong opposition. 

You can't seem right to any if you don't 
seem wrong to many. 

A useful life can't be entirely peaceful and 
carefree. 

You must do your duty as you see it. 

Every earnest man in every generation has 
paid the price of individuality. 

You can't dodge. 

The greater you are, the greater the pen- 
alty of your progress. The farther you go, 
the wider your range, the more you inerease 
the points of contact with which you must 
reckon, and therefore, you multiply your 
battles against misconception and slander and 
envy and malice. 

You* can't avoid or evade your allotted 
destiny — you can only hold down your share 
of troubles by holding back. 

In every sphere men gibe and sneer — even 
the peace of the ditch-digger is threatened by 
the unemployed laborer who covets his job. 

So long as you aspire, others will conspire 
— so long as you try, others will vie. 

You'll have hostility to face in every place 
and at every pace. 

Go straight ahead to your goal. 

So long as your conscience isn't ashamed 
to acknowledge you as a friend, don't VQU 
give a rap for your enemies. 



To those who recognize the true scope and 
usefulness of the union label, its value cannot 
be overestimated. 



12 



March, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



11 



ELECTRIFIED SHIPS' GALLEYS 



In the last number of the Journal of Elec- 
tricity, Millard R. Hickman, superintending 
engineer of the Matson Navigation Company, 
described the progress that has been made in 
electrifying the galleys of modern vessels. On 
the Leviathan one of the restaurant galleys 
has been electrified, but not the main galley. 
American navy vessels and a number of 
Standard Oil tankers have had electrical 
installations placed in their galleys. The 
same is true of such United States Army 
dredges as are operated by electricity. On 
a few transatlantic liners and on a limited 
number of Pacific vessels part of the galley 
equipment is electrical. 

The Matson liner Matsonia is the first 
Pacific Coast steamer to have her main and 
crew galley completely electrified. In this 
vessel, which plies between San Francisco 
and the Hawaiian Islands, there are three 
marine type hotel ranges, a multiple deck 
bake oven, three electric grills and four 
seven-slice toasters. The three electric ranges 
have replaced six oil ranges and are furnished 
with direct current. 

These electric ranges have been found to 
be extremely speedy in their operation. The 
chef, who previous to the time that the 
electrical equipment was installed on the 
vessel had made forty-nine voyages on her, 
declared after his first trip with the new 
equipment that they were the most efficient 
ranges that he had ever used. As an example 
of the speed of the ranges, he showed by 
actual demonstrations that fresh bread could 
be toasted on both sides in exactly three 
minutes. 

The installation has also become exceed- 
ingly popular with the galley crew because 
of the fact that the temperature has been 
considerably reduced since the electrical 
equipment was put in. The trip to the 
Hawaiian Islands is macfe largely through 
tropical and semi-tropical waters, the tem- 
perature at sea ranging around 80 degrees 
Fahrenheit on deck. Despite the fact that a 
forced ventilation system was employed, the 
temperature in the galley would average 
around 140 degrees Fahrenheit. On the first 
trip that the ranges were used the ther- 
mometer readings showed that the average 



temperature was only 112 degrees Fahrenheit. 
While no actual figure can be obtained 
which will show the saving that has been 
effected by the use of the electrical equip- 
ment in the galley because of the many 
conditions which enter into the amount of 
oil that is consumed on a voyage, it is 
certain that a material saving will be noticed 
when the operation is considered over a 
period of a year. A saving can be noticed 
in the food that is served to the passengers 
because of the smaller shrinkage that occurs 
while food is cooked electrically. This is 
particularly noticeable in the baking of 
bread and the roasting of meats. 



THAT WASHINGTON BOOZE LIST 



Along with some of the other great un- 
solved mysteries, so it seems practically cer- 
tain now, will go down in history the puzzle 
of the disappearance of the list of booze- 
drinkers in Washington, D. C. 

The whole story is still a fresh, throbbing 
tale. Prohibition sleuths uncovered a great 
find in the Nation's capital by making a 
haul of eleven prominent bootleggers on the 
eve of the holiday liquor rush. But they did 
more than that: together with the booze- 
traders they took a list of 2500 of their custo- 
mers, names that shine in every walk of life, 
legislators, administrators, diplomatists, men 
of letters and science, and, as some would 
have, persons known for their uncompromis- 
ing and unbending advocacy of strict pro- 
hibition enforcement — for others. 

For a day and a night Washington was on 
the tiptoe of expectancy, and the rest of the 
Nation appeared to be equally agitated. Here, 
at last, there was a powerful trump in the 
hands of the Volsteadians, and sure enough 
they would make all capital possible out of 
it. Here there was a chance to expose to 
public pillory a galaxy of public men who 
should not drink but would, who should 
tread the narrow path but would rather 
zigzag it. 

Then came the climax. Of a sudden the 
distressing news was given out that the 
list, all but ready for publication, mysteri- 
ously disappeared and, all search notwith- 
standing, cannot be found. What is worse — 
no one actually could be found to be blamed 



13 



78 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1924 



for this startling loss. It just went and lost 
itself, and that's all there was to it. The 
prohibition authorities, of course, would not 
mind insinuating that some all-powerful hand 
of the opponents of the Eighteenth Amend- 
ment may have reached out for this list to 
save their friends from undesirable publicity. 
But on the other hand, the Association 
Against Prohibition is yelling foul and de- 
mands the publication of the list hoping to 
expose thereby some of the best-known hypo- 
crites in the country and to capitalize the 
affair for its own purposes. Meanwhile the 
list is not here and, we arc afraid, will never 
see the light of day. 

And now again we ask: What, indeed, has 
become of the Washington boozers' list. — 
Justice. 



U. S. STEAMBOAT INSPECTION 



According to a report sent out by the De- 
partment of Commerce, 323,000,000 passen- 
gers were carried on steamboats reporting to 
the Steamboat Inspection Service in the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1923, and only 59 of 
them lost their lives by accident, or less than 
the number of pedestrians killed accidentally 
in the streets of some of our large cities. 
Total accidents during the year involving loss 
of life were 197, and the aggregate loss of 
lift- was 247, of which but 59 were passen- 
gers; 116 of the fatalities were due to suicide, 
falling overboard, and other acts of the de- 
ceased, leaving only 81 directly chargeable to 
collisions, explosions, founderings, etc. The 
ratio of passenger- lost through such acci- 
dents to total passengers carried was 1 to 
5,476,785. During the year the service in- 
spected and certificated 7653 vessels with a 
total tonnage of 14,982,850. Domestic vessels 
inspected numbered 7613, comprising 6941 
steam vessels, 790 motor vessels, 19 passen- 
ger barges, 566 sea-going barges, and 755 
cargo vessels permitted to carry passengers. 
The service inspected 166,434 new life-pre- 
servers, 6860 new cork ring-buoys, 425 new 
lifeboats, 478 new lifefloats, 104 new liferafts 
at factories, and 20 line-carrying guns. Rejec- 
tions numbered 4398 life-preservers, 149 cork 
ring-buoys, 9 lifeboats, and one raft. Licenses 
were issued to 25,052 officers of all grades. 
Only 23 applicants examined for visual de- 



fects were found to be color blind or other- 
wise visually ineligible. Certificates of effi- 
ciency were issued to 10,456 able seamen and 
14,913 lifeboat men. 



PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC IN 1923 



Traffic through the Panama Canal in the 
year ended December 31, 1923, exceeded that 
in any previous • year. Commercial vessels 
making the transit during the year num- 
bered 5037, with an aggregate net tonnage of 
24,737.437, and carried 25.160.545 tons of 
cargo. As compared with 1922. the number 
of ships increased 68 per cent, tonnage 90 
per cent, and cargo 84 per cent. 

A summary of commercial traffic through 

the canal during the past year, compared 

with that for previous calendar years, is 

given in the following table: 

Number Net Tons 

Year of ships tonnage of cargo 

1914 350 1,284,293 1758,625 

1915 1 1 54 3.902,592 4,893,422 

1916 1217 3.S17.704 4,774,822 

1917 1960 6,217,054 7.443.MO 

1918 2070 6,409.ssr, 7,284,159 

1919 2133 6,943.(>,x7 7,477,945 

1920 2814 10,378,265 11,236,119 

1921 27^ 11.435.811 10.707.005 

1922 2997 12.992,573 13,710,556 

1923 5037 24.737.437 25,160,545 

During 1923, vessels transiting the canal 

from the Atlantic to the Pacific numbered 
2714 compared with 2323 irqm the Pacific 
to the Atlantic. In the calendar year 1922. 
Atlantic to Pacific transits numbered 1630, 
and Pacific to Atlantic numbered 1367. 

Tolls collected in the year ended Decem- 
ber 31, 1923, amounted to $22,966,838, an in- 
crease of 83 per cent over the preceding 
year. Of this total, $11,534,023 was paid 
by vessels in transit from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific, and $11,432,816 on vessels passing 
from the Pacific to the Atlantic. 



HIS MISTAKE 



"Now," said the colonel, looking along the 
line of recruits, "I want a good smart bugler." 

At that, out stepped a dilapidated fellow 
who had a thick stubble of black beard. 

"What!" said the colonel, eyeing him up 
and down, "are you a bugler?" 

"Oh, bugler!" said he. "I thought you 
said burglar." 



14 



March, 1924 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 79 

LARGEST DIESEL TUG IN U. S. CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 



The largest Diesel tug in the United States 
is the Jumbo, belonging to the Transmarine 
Line of New York. The Jumbo is equipped 
with a 600. horsepower Nelseco Diesel engine 
installed by the New London Ship & Engine 
Building Company at Groton, Conn. She has 
entered the service of the Transmarine Line 
in New York harbor and Newark bay, mov- 
ing lighters and barges. Commenting upon 
the new tug the company says : 

"The Transmarine Line has found the ad- 
vantages of Diesel power so obvious that 
it now has six Diesel power tugs, all equipped 
with Nelseco engines of varying sizes. During 
the last two years the smaller tugs have 
shown a 10 to 1 ratio in cost of operation 
over competing steam towboats. The par- 
ticular economy which interests marine oper- 
ators is the fuel expense. A Nelseco-Diesel 
tug shows a 7 to 1 advantage over steam. 
This was demonstrated on the New York 
State Barge Canal this summer in a 32,000 
mile test by the Transmarine Line. 

The Jumbo is 100 feet long, electrically 
equipped throughout and has a speed of 
13>4 knots running light. 



WORLD'S SHIPBUILDING 



The statistics just published by Lloyd's 
Register of the merchant tonnage launched 
throughout the world in 1923 fail to disclose 
any impressive signs of improvement in 
the shipbuilding industry. New vessels sent 
into the water last year footed only 1,643,181 
tons as against 2,467,084 tons in 1922, the 
former total being the lowest recorded, with 
two exceptions, in the last quarter of a cen- 
tury. The only gain that took place last 
year was in motorship construction, which 
branch of the shipbuilding trade promises to 
attain a record-breaking figure during the 
coming year. The only place where an im- 
provement was noticed was the L T nited 
States, where the output increased from 119,- 
128 tons in 1922 to 172,817 tons last year. 
This country, which ranks after Great Britain 
and Germany as a shipbuilding nation, is 
turning out one-tenth of the world's total 
production of new shipping. 



In the case of the lighter Henry Gillen, 
the Circuit Court of Appeals, in the Second 
Circuit of New York, held that a hole in a 
wooden floor cover, over the top of the deck 
of a lighter, placed there to protect the 
lighter, if continued for a period without 
repair, renders the owner liable for damages 
sustained by deck-hand employed in handling 
cargo. The maintenance by the employer of 
a man with tools and equipment to make re- 
pairs to the floor covering was not sufficient 
to render the ship seaworthy under the Mari- 
time Law. 

Reputable attorneys handling seamen's 
cases report that since the Shipping Board 
has adopted the policy of posting guards at 
Marine Hospitals, to keep out the runners, 
their business has shown a marked improve- 
ment. Sailors should be permitted to seek 
counsel, take their own advice, and consult 
their own attorneys without improper inter- 
ference, or effect settlement if it is in their 
interest to do so. We applaud the efforts 
of the Shipping Board to curb this practice. 
The closing up of the American Relief So- 
ciety, one of the principal objects of which 
was to entice the injured seamen into the 
hands of some lawyer, is a very great ac- 
complishment in the right direction. We 
congratulate the United States attorney of 
the port of New York for his efforts in that 
direction. 

The case of Gonzales vs. U. S. Shipping 
Board Emergency .Fleet Corporation was 
tried in the Supreme Court, Richmond coun- 
ty, New York, and resulted in a verdict for 
the plaintiff in the sum of $5000. The best 
offer of settlement before the case was tried 
had been $250. The first and second mates. 
and another man. lowered the plaintiff over 
the side of the ship with a rope, to pick up 
a hatch cover which had fallen overboard 
alongside of pier 16, Staten Island. When 
they started to pull him up, they pulled him 
between the pier and the ship which was 
breasting into the dock. They kept on pull- 
ing the rope which was around the plaintiff's 
waist, and not his shoulders. They pulled so 
hard that they broke the transverse proce 
of either side of the plaintiff's back, and 



15 



80 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1924 



caused a rupture, and an injury to his chest. 
He would have been killed had it not been 
for the fact that he had a knife in his pocket 
and succeeded in cutting the rope, and free- 
ing himself. He was. subsequently taken out 
of the water, and rushed in an ambulance to 
the hospital, and an operation for a hernia 
was performed there. The injury to the 
back was not there discovered. X-rays taken 
immediately after the accident and before he 
left the hospital disclosed the full extent of 
the injury. The jury, after a short delibera- 
tion, returned a verdict for $5000. Judge 
Norman S. Dike declined to set aside the 
verdict or reduce it. on motion of counsel 
for the defendant. Mr. Axtell was the at- 
torney for the plaintiff. 

In the case of McCarthy vs. U. S. Shipping 
Board Emergency Fleet Corporation, S. S. 
Coperas, tried before the United States 
District Court, Eastern District of New 
York, Judge Inch, in December term, 1923, 
a verdict for $7500 damages, was returned for 
the plaintiff for the loss of the first two 
fingers of the right hand. The negligence 
was that of the defendant, the Emergency 
Fleet Corporation, in failing to have a guard 
over one of the wheels of the anchor winches. 
Plaintiff slipped and fell and his hand went 
into the exposed cogs. 

A verdict for the plaintiff of $8050. was 
handed down by a jury in the United States 
District Court, Eastern District of New York, 
in the month of December, in the case of 
Hart vs. U. S. Shipping Board Emergency 
Fleet Corporation, S. S. Bolivar. Cause of 
action was based on tuberculosis incurred 
through the negligence of the defendant com- 
pany in failing to furnish proper place in 
which to sleep and give proper treatment 
when illness resulted. Mr. Arthur Laven- 
berg was the attorney for the plaintiff. 



A JUDGE WHO UNDERSTANDS 



Ignorance has two constant allies — super- 
stition and jealousy. Every new idea, every 
step in the world's progress, has met this trio 
at the threshhold. Ignorance has denied, su- 
perstition has feared, jealousy has fought 
every advancement. 



Federal Judges are prone to lean toward 
the vested interests, toward property rights 
rather than human rights. Therefore the 
popular demand for the abolition of life ap- 
pointments to the bench. 

Happily there are exceptions to the rule. 
And seamen have good reason to be thankful 
that Judge Partridge of San Francisco was 
appointed for life. 

In denying a petition for limitation of lia- 
bility by the Charles Nelson Lumber Co., 
owners of the barkentine Mary Winkleman, 
Judge Partridge carefully reviewed the case 
before him (a damage suit for personal in- 
juries sustained by a seaman on said vessel) 
and then made this significant comment on 
the important status of American seamen : 

On the other hand, it may pertinently he asked, 
"What's the ship without the men?" Is it too 
much to hope that it will he possible to build up a 
body of vigorous, rugged, intelligent seamen in 
such numbers that American ships can at all times 
confidently rely upon the best of American crews? 
Ts it not apparent that the very existence of such 
a corps will be the very highest stimulus to the 
production and maintenance of American bottoms? 
But how can we expect such a corps, if the Ameri- 
can sailor is in a position materially more disad- 
vantageous than that of other American workmen?' 
It is no answer, either, to say that there are al- 
ready many such, for the very reason that their 
condition has been greatly ameliorated by humane 
legislation, but for the additional reason that the 
numbers of such men should be vastly greater than 
they are. 

It has become a truism that seamen are the 
wards of Admiralty — to be jealously guarded from 
oppression or wrong. This is all right enough; but 
it does not, and should not, accord with the dig- 
nity of a noble profession — in that the American 
seaman who is to maintain and enlarge our pres- 
tige on the sea should not and must not, have any 
need of wardship. His status should be and must 
be defined with precision, so that his calling will 
be invested with the dignity which it deserves. To 
that end has pointed the whole trend of modern 
legislation; and it seems to me that the courts 
should have it constantly in mind, so as to further 
and not retard, all progress toward that end. 

Nor is it difficult to find recognition of this in 
the course and history of legislation with regard to 
seamen, as well as the general trend of judicial 
interpretation. If it has lagged behind legislation 
looking to the betterment of the condition of other 
American workmen, it is only because it has had a 
greater ways to go and a heavier load to carry. 
In fact, the distance between the condition of the 
seaman of half a century ago and his status today 
is far greater than the progress which has been 
made with regard to other workmen — not because 
the progress has been further forward, but because 
it started much further back. 



There is not enough for all because some 
get without earning what others earn with- 
out getting. 



Who would be free himself must strike the 
blow. — Byron. 



16 



March. 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



81 



NO SUBSTITUTE FOR UNION 

(By Edward Keating, Editor of Labor) 



OUR WASHINGTON LETTER 

(By Laurence Todd) 



There is no substitute for the labor union. 

I have been in the labor movement for 
thirty years, and I have done a frightful lot 
of talking and writing in that time ; but in 
season and out, I have persistently endeavored 
to get across to my fellow-workers the idea 
expressed in my opening sentence. 

There is no substitute for the union. 

It is the workers' Verdun. If the union 
falls, the labor movement will be destroyed. 

Therefore our first thought should be, "pre- 
serve the union." 

But that devotion should not prevent us 
using other weapons. 

Chief among those weapons is education. 
The workers must know what is going on in 
the world, as well as what has gone on in 
the world. A knowledge of what has gone 
on may enable us to deal effectively with 
what is going on. 

How is this knowledge to be conveyed to 
the workers? To my mind there is only one 
way : 

Labor must have its own press — owned by 
labor, controlled by labor, edited by labor, 
subject to no outside influence. 

Political action is another great weapon. 
Many of labor's battles in the future will be 
decided at the ballot-box. Thousands of men 
died, tens of thousands rotted in prison cells, 
countless thousands suffered in body and 
mind in order that the workers of today 
might have the ballot. We cannot afford to 
be careless in the use of a legacy purchased 
at such tremendous sacrifice. 

In politics the workers must be indepen- 
dent. They must not wear the party collar. 
They must support men and measures, and 
refuse to become mere camp followers of po- 
litical bosses. 

We are justified in facing the future with 
confidence. God has been very good to the 
workers of America. No enemy can vanquish 
us if we are only true to ourselves. 



The union label helps us to provide in 
times of industrial peace what we very often 
need in industrial war — a strong organiza- 
tion and substantial funds. 



Washington, Feb. 15. — Times have changed 
since the day when the Shipping Board re- 
fused in public meeting with the representa- 
tives of the organized seamen to give union 
officers the "permit" to enter the docks for 
the purpose of collecting union dues. Ad- 
miral Palmer, the present manager of the 
Government fleet, seems to think it only fair 
that the union shall have access to its mem- 
bers when in port. 

On the question of replacing Filipinos and 
Chinese, on Government ships on the Pa- 
cific, with white men, action is still pending. 
Palmer is considering the demand made by 
the union, and doubtless has before him 
various arguments of the gentlemen who 
launched the policy of making Uncle Sam's 
merchant marine Asiatic. He is new at his 
job, and has at least the excuse for delay 
that he is overburdened with work. 

This policy of white vs. colored manning 
may be affected by the immigration policy 
just announced to the House Committee on 
Immigration by Secretary of State Hughes. 
Mr. Hughes says the Japanese ought not to 
be excluded by law, as the Chinese have been. 
It hurts the feelings of a proud and powerful 
nation and will bring us bad luck. He thinks 
it may disturb the Four Power Pact, under 
which the peace of the Pacific has been guar- 
anteed by Britain, France, Japan and the 
United States. The A. F. of L. stands for 
exclusion, but it has not yet made a formal 
reply to Hughes' protest against the pro- 
posed law. 

Senator Jones reports that he has heard 
nothing from the Commerce or the Labor 
Department, nor from the Shipping Board, 
as to their views of the Jones bill (S. 1751) 
or the LaFollette bill (S. 2222). Plummer 
of Maine, always an enemy of seamen's re- 
lief legislation, is chairman of the legislative 
committee of the Shipping Board. That 
seems to indicate that the board will be slow 
in recommending passage of any measure 
that the I. S. U. A. has asked for. 

Investigation of the Shipping Board's af- 
fairs, along with various other big sources 
of scandal in the administration, is being de- 
manded in Congress. Senator Fletcher, in 



17 



82 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1924 



a speech in the Senate February 13, reviewed 
the ruinous extravagance of the Lasker 
regime in the board, and said that he had 
come to the conclusion that "Energetic and 
persistent effort has been made by our com- 
petitors, by selfish interests, by those who 
oppose the Government conducting any busi- 
ness, to make our whole plan and purpose 
a failure." 

In March, 1921, there were 78 people in 
the comptroller's office and 450 ships were 
being operated. After Lasker reorganized 
the office there were 1600 persons in it, al- 
though only 400 ships were run. Where 
there had been a profit of $17,000,000 there 
now came a deficit of $50,000,000 a year. 

Fletcher said the Shipping Board had 
"started to cross to the side of real Govern- 
ment operation, went part way, and then 
circled about and returned— a suicidal policy. 
The board was made a dumping-ground for 
political patronage. Useless employes and 
large salaries — three men got nearly $95,000 
— helped to load down the overhead cost. 
Nobody would buy the ships when they saw- 
that soon, at this rate, the Government would 
be giving them away. 

Palmer's selection to run the business, 
Fletcher said, seemed to indicate that Presi- 
dent Coolidge would now try real Govern- 
ment operation, direct and on sound business 
principles, "with a will to have it succeed, 
and with no sort of understanding that it is 
to terminate at any foreseen time." 

"If that is done in good faith." he declared, 
"I see hopes that we will have at least 
4,000,000 tons of merchant shipping in over- 
seas trade under our flag permanently, in- 
creasing as the years go by and American 
commerce requires. It will mean that the 
United States will no longer be almost wholly 
dependent on foreign ships in peace or war. 
We ought to so announce to the world. The 
Emergency Fleet Corporation should amend 
its charter by eliminating the word emer- 
gency. It should be proclaimed that the 
Government is in this enterprise without 
limit and to stay, in order to execute the 
declared policy 'to do whatever may be 
necessary to develop and encourage the 
maintenance' of a merchant marine." 

Fletcher said that never yet has the 
United States Government really set its 



sail for genuine Government ownership and 

operation "in good faith"; that big business 
was against such a policy. Now, if Palmer 
and the Fleet Corporation would take that 
course, America'- merchant marine would 
become a power in the world. If they did 
not take the true course, "within five years 
there will not be 1,000,000 tons of overseas 
shipping under our flag, and that will grow 
rather than increase, as time goes on." 
He went over the appalling figures of 
comparative cost and sale price of Govern- 
ment ships. For instance, the seven Presi- 
dent boats were sold to the Dollar Line for 
$550,000 each, though they cost $4,000,000 
each. The purchaser has five years t<> com- 
plete the payment. Meanwhile the Gov- 
ernment "proceeds to spend nearly one-half 
of the total of this sale upon Cwe ships to 
replace them in the losing end— the freight 
end — of the same trade." 



SMOKING ROOM FOR CREW 



In the new motor tanker Phoebus, of the 
German-American Petroleum Company, spe- 
cial attention has been paid to quarters for 
the crew. All the members of the ship's 
complement are housed in two-berth rooms 
similar to those to be found on the most 
modern of emigrant liners. In addition a 
special place has been provided where all 
hands may smoke. The fact that the vessel 
carries an inflammable cargo account- [or 
this innovation. 

The Phoebus is of 14,000 ton> deadweight 
capacity and is propelled by twin Sulzer Die- 
sel engines of 2000 s.h.p at 100 r.p.m. On 
a recent voyage from Kiel to New York she 
averaged 11 knots on 14.3 tons of fuel oil 
daily, including oil for the donkey boiler. 



The footpad who relieves a victim of his 
all and then compassionately hands back his 
tram fare is no worse than the capitalist who 
robs the worker and then gives him back 
some of the loot under the name of charitv. 



Never, perhaps, in all history, has there 
been so impressive a failure as that of the 
statesmen to whom the world in 1919 en- 
trusted the task of making a real peace. — 
Sidney Webb. 



18 



March, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



83 



YESTERDAY AND TOMORROW 



"I am Yesterday and I know Tomorrow. 
I have the power to be born a second time." 
This sounds like an extravagant statement 
but careful consideration will convince every 
seaman that it comprises truth itself. 

You are all the same men who but yes- 
terday enjoyed a set of conditions that are 
in keeping with American ideals and aspira- 
tions; today your condition is deplorable. 
Tomorrow you may again enjoy favorable 
conditions provided you seek them unitedly. 
Unity and conformity with the program 
outlined by the International Seamen's Un- 
ion of America, alone can bring this to pass. 
Today is the result of yesterday's mistakes 
and defection; tomorrow will inevitably be 
the result of today's action. The future is 
in your hands. 

Spasmodic and enthusiastic outbreaks will 
not in any degree improve your condition. 
Wishing, worrying over other organizations, 
nor consideration of the tribulations of the 
proletariat in general can lead to improve- 
ment. When the shipowners are convinced 
that their present tactics are detrimental to 
their interest as well as to ours, they will 
change, but not until that time. It lays in 
your power to make their present* program 
impossible. While you co-operate- the ship- 
owners will adhere to their present policy. 
Their policy as it applies to the personnel 
of ships is generally a little more degrading 
than even the shipowners intend it to be. 
This condition will always arise under the 
present conditions, as the class of people 
who can be procured to fulfill the various 
subordinate positions in such an enterprise 
are of such a peculiar mental makeup that 
normal, healthy-minded seamen find them 
utterly incomprehensible. If the shipowners 
are at any time convinced that it is necessary 
to deal with seamen instead of boxcar revo- 
lutionists, they will not hesitate an instant 
to do so, as their primary aim is to success- 
fully operate ships and not to subsidize 
comic opera shipping bureaus. 

Of course, the present conditions are only 
a source of worry to seamen. The so-called 
rebel or revolutionary workers are for the 
most part people who have discovered that 



the ships afford a better means of transpor- 
tation than do box cars; you don't have to 
rustle ypur grub or jungle up on ships. 
We have many seamen who through senti- 
ment or early training, or because of fright- 
ful conditions that have existed on vessels 
in the past, nurse a bitter hatred against 
shipowners, capitalists or the master class, 
as the "Wobblies" term everyone but them- 
selves. These men today are the greatest 
aid the "Open Shop" has and they alone 
make it possible. Of course the slackers are 
an aid to the "open shop," but as a rule they 
may be classed with sheep or eunuchs, to be 
used as desired and cast aside. 

Tomorrow, insofar as it concerns the Sea- 
men, is today in the hands of the Seamen, 
and your rebirth as a unified, organized 
aggregation of seamen, with a voice in deter- 
mining the •conditions of work and pay de- 
pends on the individual action of each sea- 
man. Adherence to your Union, non-co-op- 
eration with scab shipping offices, a knowl- 
edge of the aims and aspirations of your 
former comrades who today are carrying on 
the struggle hampered by your inertia will 
certainly improve your condition. Of course, 
if you believe in the open shop, or only 
ship to dodge riding in box cars, or if you 
are waiting for that famous "revolution" in 
which the working class is to take over the 
industries, then by all means don't waste any 
time complaining about present conditions, 
for they are exactly the conditions that you 
are making yourselves. — Samentu. 



THE MAKERS OF PEARLS 



Last year the waters of the United States 
yielded $15,000,000 worth of pearls, some of 
them being worth $25,000 apiece, and now 
efforts are being made to increase the in- 
dustry by taking care of the spawn of the 
mussel that makes the pearl. 

This spawn dies unless it can attach itself 
to, and feed off of, the gills or fins of cer- 
tain fish, and the fish bureau will bring the 
two together, either by putting fish in spawn 
filled water or by pouring such water di- 
rectly over the fish. After two or three 
weeks the spawn leaves the fish, drops to 
the river bed and in two or three years be- 
comes a maker of pearls. 



19 



84 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1924 



SHIPPING NEWS 



T. V. O'Connor, former President of the 
International Longshoremen's Association, 
has been appointed chairman of the Shipping 
Board. 

The Atlantic Refining Co. of Philadelphia 
has placed a contract for converting one of 
its 8000-barrel tankers to the Diesel electric 
drive, making the fourth order from this com- 
pany for this type of propulsion. The tanker 
will be used as a bulk gasoline carrier in 
coastwise service. 

The Canadian Pacific Railway has ordered 
two passenger steamers, of about 5000 tons 
each, from John Brown & Co., Clydebank, 
Scotland. These steamers are fo# the British 
Columbia coastal service of the company, and 
will run between Vancouver, Victoria, and 
Seattle. They will have accommodation for 
325 night passengers, and will cost about 
£300,000 each. 

According to estimates made by marine 
men, based upon the ice formation in the 
St. Lawrence River, it is expected that the 
river will be open the first or second week 
in April. According to the time-charter mar- 
ket the first ocean-going ships will not be 
due in the river until the end of April, and 
it is stated that a special effort will be made 
to bring in tram]) tonnage during the earlier 
parts of the month. 

The seagoing dredge Culebra of the United 
States Engineering Department will begin 
dredging the main channel across San Fran- 
cisco bar early in March. The channel will 
be 2000 feet wide and 40 feet deep at mean 
low water, the axis of the channel being the 
usual sailing range marked by Fort Point and 
Alcatraz lighthouses. The Culebra will be 
operated twenty-four hours a day when she 
is placed in service in March. 

William S. Hill of Mitchell, S. D., has been 
confirmed by the U. S. Senate as a commis- 
sioner of the Shipping Board. He takes the 
place of Edward P. Farley, whose resigna- 
tion took effect on January 29. He operates 
a farm of 1520 acres and is engaged in rais- 
ing high-grade livestock, grain and alfalfa. 



Mr. Hill has served on the South Dakota 
State Board of Agriculture for eighteen years, 
and has been president of that organization 
for the last twelve years. 

Rear Admiral Leigh C. Palmer, who has 
been appointed president of the Emergency 
Fleet Corporation to take over the operation 
of the Government's merchant fleet, is a na- 
tive of Missouri and was accredited to that 
State while at the Naval Academy, from which 
he graduated in 1896. During the war he 
served as chief of the Navy Department's 
Bureau of Navigation, with the rank «»f Rear 
Admiral. Recently he has been the represen- 
tative of the Shipping Board in Brazil. 

The U. S. Shipping Board has awarded a 
contract to the Cramp Co. Cor the manufac- 
ture of manganese bronze propeller blades 
aggregating about 500,000 pound- and consti- 
tuting the requirements of the Government 
merchant fleet for six months. These blades 
will vary in weight from 4000 to 9000 pounds 
each and will be used on propeller wheels 
ranging in total weight from 20,000 pounds 
to the George Washington's 48,000-pound 
propeller, the largest of any vessel afloat. All 
of these blades will be cast of the highest 
quality bronze with a tensile strength exceed- 
ing that of steel. 

According to President 11. F. Alexander, 
vessels of the Pacific Steamship Co. in the 
Pacific coastwise trade earned a gross rev- 
enue of $19,000,000 last year. At Seattle 
alone, the company spent $3,500,000 in 1923 
for wages, $5,600,000 for ship repairs, stores 
and other items or a total of $9,000,000. The 
company will build a $3,500,000 ocean ter- 
minal on the Skinner & Eddy sitc'recently 
purchased by it at Seattle. During last year 
the company carried in the coastwise and 
transpacific trades a total of 128,000 passen- 
gers and 1,700,000 tons of freight. In 1907 
the company carried only 4907 passengers. 

The intercoastal steamship lines hope to in- 
crease the handling of freight between coasts 
and also the total for Pacific Coast ports by 
adopting new methods warranted to stimu- 
late this traffic. They expect to accomplish 
this by effecting a plan which will cut down 
the time from shipper to consignee. At pres- 
ent there are numerous shipments sent by 
rail at greater expense to the shipper because 



20 



March, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



85 



time is the factor, and if this can be over- 
come — in part at least — a considerable ton- 
nage may be diverted to the cheaper all-water 
route. Several plans have been proposed, but 
none will be adopted until the details have 
been carefully checked over. 

Henry S. Scott, president of the General 
Steamship Corporation, has purchased Mis- 
sion Rock, located on San Francisco bay. 
The deal was engineered through Captain 
William J. Gray and the price is said to be 
$300,000., The Harbor Board at one time 
offered $250,000 for the property, at that time 
planning to include the rock in a comprehen- 
sive scheme of terminals. The estate de- 
manded $400,000, and the deal fell through. 
Scott and his associates hope to construct a 
terminal unit which may afterward be con- 
nected with the shore by an extension of the 
new proposed pier 50, the plans for which 
have been made by the Harbor Board. 

On the morning of February 12 a serious 
fire broke out on the steamship Boston com- 
pleting at the fitting-out dock of the Spar- 
rows Point yard for the Metropolitan Line. 
The loss is placed at from $150,000 to $200,- 
000 and is covered by insurance. The fire 
started from an undetermined cause in the 
boiler-room and swept up through the boiler 
hatch, destroying all work on the various 
decks adjacent to the hatch before the local 
fire department could put out the blaze. The 
fire was confined to the midship section of 
the vessel which will enable the yard to 
proceed with the finishing up work at both 
ends. 

During 1923 the Luckenbach Steamship 
Company spent upward of $7,000,000 in the 
operation of its twenty ships on the Pacific 
Coast alone, according to figures given out 
by Zac T. George, Pacific Coast manager of 
the line. The latter's Pacific Coast costs last 
year show a total of $1,480,000 for fuel, 
$1,240,000 for repairs and vessel supplies; 
$3,730,000 for labor expenses, office and pier 
payrolls and longshoremen's wages, and 
$430,000 for miscellaneous. These figures are 
an increase of upward of $1,000,000, as com- 
pared with 1922. The Luckenbach company 
is following a policy of purchasing on the 
Pacific Coast all of its supplies for its Pacific- 



Gulf service, as well as a considerable quan- 
tity of supplies for its Atlantic service. 

More than 14,000 passengers and approxi- 
mately 1,000,000 tons of freight "were carried 
to and from the Hawaiian Islands during 1923 
by vessels of the Matson Navigation Com- 
pany, it was reported at the twenty-third an- 
nual meeting of officials of that company at 
San Francisco. That 1923 was as prosperous 
a year for the Matson Company as that pre- 
ceding was borne out by the above figures 
and the construction of the new Matson build- 
ing in San Francisco at a cost of more than 
$2,000,000, it was said. Shipping and travel 
to and from the islands is equally divided, 
the report showed, approximately 500,000 tons 
of. freight being shipped here and 7000 pas- 
sengers making the voyage to the States. It 
was also stated that 90 per cent of all of the 
raw sugar and canned pineapples shipped 
from the islands to San Francisco were car- 
ried on Matson vessels. 

Many strange stories are told about the 
pirates who prey upon the bootlegging ves- 
sels off these coasts, but the proof that 
piracy exists can be found in the judgment 
of the Federal District Court at Jacksonville 
in the case of The Louise F. (293 Fed. 933). 
This vessel, an auxiliary schooner under the 
British flag, was seized by the U. S. customs 
some five miles off the Florida coast and 
brought into Jacksonville. She had a cargo 
of liquor, laden at Nassau for Halifax, and 
it was shown in evidence at the trial of the 
vessel for forfeiture, that the day after hav- 
ing Nassau members of the crew over- 
powered the officers, locked them up in the 
forecastle, and made for a point between 
St. Augustine and Pablo Beach, where they 
landed a portion of the cargo in the ship's 
yawl and escaped. After this the remaining 
members of the crew informed the authori- 
ties, but before the seizure was effected two 
fishing boats came alongside and removed 
another portion of the cargo. There were 
no firearms on the Louise F., but the men 
who took charge on the high seas were armed 
with pistols. The vessel was released by the 
court. The decision of Judge Call recites 
that the officers of the schooner requested 
the apprehension of the pirates, but no at- 
tention seems to have been paid to this. 



21 



86 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March. 1924 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



During 1923 Belgian vessels of 37,493 tons 
were either sold, lost or broken up, while live 
boats of 8751 tons were purchased and placed 
under Belgian registry. The net diminution 
in Belgium's merchant marine during last 
year was, therefore, 28,742 tons. 

A bill has been presented to the Portuguese 
Parliament by the Minister of Commerce to 
authorize the sale by public auction of ex- 
German steamers. The loss on the working 
of these ships is 524,000 contos ($17,775,000). 
Only Portuguese citizens and companies will 
be permitted to purchase the ships. 

The Nationalist Government of Turkey has 
prohibited the importation ol foreign coal in 
order to develop the coal basin at Heraclee 
(Eregli) on the Black Sea. Cardiff coal is 
the only real competitor of Turkish coal in 
the fuel transit trade of Constantinople, and 
the prohibition is a direct hit at British trade 
in Turkey. 

The Polish merchant marine is still un- 
important, as there are only 12 steamers 
under the Polish flag. The river boats of 
Poland are small in both size and number. 
At the end of 1922 there were 148 steam and 
motor boats with a total tonnage of 9199 tons, 
86 motor launches, and less than 600 barges 
of various sizes. 

The Trieste shipping company "Naviga- 
zione Libera," which already owns a fleet of 
twenty-eight cargo boats employed in the 
tramp trades, has placed an order with a 
Trieste yard for the construction of three 
steamers of about 5400 tons deadweight each. 
It is noteworthy that throughout the period 
of depression this company has never had to 
lay up a single boat. 

During 1923 the lifeboats of the Royal Na- 
tional Lifeboat Institution rescued 721 lives 
and helped into safety 24 boats and vessels. 
Of its fleet of 230 boats. 44 are motor life- 
boats. The new line-throwing gun proved of 
particular value in getting a sloop off the 
sands near Spurn Head last July, when all 
other means had failed. The Institution was 
founded on March 4, 1824. 

The shipping returns for Hamburg last 



year show a total tonnage of 15,619,000 tons, 
against 13,303,000 in 1922 and 14,400,000 in 
1913, the last full year before the war. In 
1913 German shipping accounted for 8,726,000 
tons of the total, and for 5,406,000 tons last 
year. The British figures which were 4,114,000 
tons in 1013 rose to 4.720,000 tons last year, 
while the American figures rose from 3000 
tons in 1913 to 937,000 tons last year. French 
tonnage was three times as large last year as 
in 1913. 

According to figures compiled by Cunard 
officials, the Cunard Line and its subsidiary 
companies carried the largest number of 
transatlantic passengers in 1923. Altogether, 
976,875 passengers were carried by more than 
twenty different lines in the North Atlantic 
trade. Of this total the Cunard Line, the 
Anchor Line and the Anchor-Donald-<>n 
Line carried both eastbound and westbound 
225.042. This amounts to 23 per cent of the 
entire passenger movement and is several 
thousand higher than the number carried by 
the next nearest group of lines. 

Sixty per cent of British sailing tonnage 
engaged in the deep-sea trade is laid Up, 
according to the report of the British Sailing 
Ship Owners' Association. The report states 
that, while there has been some real improve- 
ment in trade conditions, a considerable pro- 
portion of the stimulated trade during the 
past year was due to special demands from 
the Continent owing to political differences, 
and these demands have been to the dis- 
advantage of the sailing ships, the bulk of 
which are employed in coasting business. In 
deep-sea trades it is estimated that three out 
of five British sailing ships were laid up. 

The number of steamers laid up at Rotter- 
dam has been reduced from 15 to 12 by the 
recommissioning of two Holland-Amerika 
Line cargo steamers and the sale of an aux- 
iliary motor schooner to German buyers. Of 
the remaining twelve ships, ten are Holland- 
Amerika liners, including three passenger 
steamers, one is a small cargo steamer, and 
the other an auxiliary motor schooner. The 
recommissioned Holland-Amerika liners arc 
the Zijldik, which had been lying idle since 
August, 1922, and the Schiedijk, which- has 
sailed on an Australian voyage via Hamburg, 
under the flag of the Holland-Australia Line. 

Nationalism of a violent type is being ap- 



22 



March, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



S7 



plied in Turkey against shipping. Only re- 
cently diplomatic intervention by the Powers 
was necessary to prevent the enforcement of 
a decree forbidding the use of a foreign lan- 
guage in bills of lading. Now another decree 
has been issued whereby foreign firms estab- 
lished in Turkey are forbidden to use foreign 
characters to denote their style and business 
unless accompanied by a Turkish inscription 
four times as large as that in a foreign 
tongue. In addition, Turkish vessels are for- 
bidden to make use of Latin characters as to 
name or port of registry, which must be dis- 
played exclusively in Turkish characters. 

Returns of laid-up shipping as of January 
1 last, as compiled by the British Chamber 
of Shipping for ports of the United Kingdom, 
show some improvement. The total number 
of British vessels idle on January 1 last was 
301 of 605,585 tons, as compared with 374 
vessels of 727,134 tons on October 1. In ad- 
dition, there were 16 foreign vessels of 24,- 
178 tons laid up, as compared with 21 of 
27,967 tons on October 1, making a total for 
January 1 last of 317 vessels of 629,763 tons, 
as compared with 395 vessels of 755,101 tons. 
The reduction of 78 vessels of 125,338 tons 
has been due mainly to the demand for ves- 
sels in the trans-Pacific trade, many of which 
proceeded direct from the United Kingdom to 
the Pacific Coast in ballast. 

French shipowners' hopes that an impor- 
tant trade in frozen meat between South 
America and France might be developed after 
the war have been thwarted. The vessels 
which had been ordered constructed with the 
special purpose of being employed in the 
meat transport trade, are now being con- 
verted into ordinary cargo carriers, through 
the removal of their refrigerating appliances. 
Not more than 100,000 tons of frozen meat 
is imported into France annually, which is 
considerably in excess of the capacity of the 
French vessels fitted for this trade. In addi- 
tion, much of the frozen meat sold in Europe 
is controlled by British firms, which bring 
the meat to England and store it in specially 
constructed warehouses for re-export at fav- 
orable prices. 

A few months ago an agreement was drawn 
between the Russian Government and the 
Hamburg Amerika, the Norddeutscher Lloyd, 
White Star and American Lines, by which 



these companies were to be permitted to open 
agencies of their own in Moscow, Petrograd, 
KiefT, Odessa, etc., to enjoy, together with the 
Russian Volunteer Fleet, a monopoly of the 
Russian emigrant and immigrant traffic in the 
case of direct passenger bookings to and from 
Soviet Russia. This combination of State and 
private companies was known as the Ocean 
Travel Bureau, Ltd. It is now announced 
that the Russian Government has extended 
the right to open offices and agencies on 
Soviet territory to various other companies 
in order more especially to facilitate emigra- 
tion from Russia to Canada. 

At the recent annual general meeting of 
the Norske Veritas Dr. Bruhn, its managing 
director, stated that the mercantile tonnage 
of the world would now total 70,000,000 tons 
gross if it had increased since 1913 at the 
rate of 5 per cent per annum, which was the 
average rate of increase in the twenty-five 
years preceding the war. Similarly, the Nor- 
wegian merchant fleet would have attained 
3,500,000 tons today if the pre-war rate of 
increase, namely, 7 per cent per annum, had 
been maintained. Instead of these totals 
being reached the powered tonnage of the 
world today was only 60,000,000, while that 
of Norway was 2,300,000 tons, the respective 
deficits being 15 and 35 per cent. Dr. Bruhn 
attributed this result partly to war losses and 
partly to the subsequent stagnation of trade. 

In Norwegian shipping quarters an acute 
feeling of dissatisfaction is being expressed 
at the steady placing of orders for new ves- 
sels in foreign yards. .The greater part of 
these orders are finding their way to German 
yards, and the balance to Danish and Swedish 
yards. Mr. Gunnar Knudsen, former Pre- 
mier, president of the Norwegian Shipowners' 
Association and manager of a big shipping 
concern, was recently criticized for his action 
in giving contracts to Burmeister & Wain of 
Copenhagen for two motor vessels of 8000 
and 6600 tons deadweight, for delivery end of 
1924 and beginning of 1925. In a statement 
on the subject, Mr. Knudsen answers his 
critics that his action was not prompted by 
unpatriotic motives, but because the tenders 
given by foreign builders were so much be- 
low those of Norwegian shipbuilders. In fact, 
the latter only intimated a probable cost, so 
that he felt bound to accept the foreign offers. 



23 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March. 1924 



LABOR NEWS 



The San Francisco Central Labor Council 
is investigating the feasibility of opening a 
labor bank. 

Henry Ford has on his payroll 162,792 
workers throughout the world, the Ford 
Motor Company announces. 

The American Woolen Company (the 
woolen trust) announces that the cost of 
men's wool suitings and overcoatings has 
been increased 5 to 10 per cent. 

In the Province of New Brunswick there 
are approximately 600 sawmills which give 
annual employment to 9000 men, whose aggre- 
gate salaries amount to $5,700,000. 

The American Radiator Company's profits 
last year were $10,700,000, after Federal 
taxes were paid and healthy sums set aside 
for "wear and tear" of the various plants. 

By the small majority of 312 votes, mem- 
bers of the International Molders' union fav- 
ored the creation of an emergency defense 
fund. In a referendum vote 4284 members 
voted "yes," and 3972 voted "no." 

Importing bananas is a profitable business, 
according to the United Fruit Company's 
report, which shows .a net income of $23,- 
097,330, after charges and Federal taxes. 
The company set aside $10,000,000 from 
1923 earnings for this year's dividends. 

Unprecedented development in the mining 
and lumber industries of Northern Ontario 
has caused the first shortage of labor in many 
years, the demands for workmen far exceed- 
ing their supply. Increased wage scales are 
in effect and the absence of labor disturb- 
ances are noticeable. 

Through an aroused public opinion the 
Rucker mill management of Everett, Wash., 
has been defeated in its attempt to substi- 
tute Japs for white workers. The public 
supported the Central Labor Council's pro- 
test and a Federal Union with a member- 
ship of 220 was organized in less than a 
week. 

The importation of strikebreakers into 
Missouri will be outlawed if the Legislature 
approves a bill introduced by Representa- 
tive J. Scott Wolff. The act provides that 



workers shall not be transported to any 
strike area for purposes of employment un- 
less they are informed of the strike and its 
causes. 

Two hundred fishermen at Monterey, Cal., 
the majority being Sicilians, went on strike 
following the refusal of the fishing compa- 
nies and canneries to meet demands for in- 
creased prices for fish. The rock cod men 
have received 4 cents per pound and de- 
mand 5 cents. Mackerel crews want a bet- 
ter rate. 

Gunmen are used against striking electrical 
workers employed by the Northwestern Elec- 
tric Company at Portland, Ore. The com- 
pany has refused to arbitrate, and organized 
labor and sympathizers are aroused at the 
despicable efforts to establish the anti-union 
shop. The State Conciliation Board is hold- 
ing hearings to acquaint the public with the 
facts. 

Railroad earnings last year totaled $977,- 
543,590, or 5.10 per cent of their estimated 
value. This is an increase from $776,880,592, 
or 4.14 per cent in 1922. These figures in- 
clude roads that are badly managed and th< 
that were built for stock jobbing purposes. 
The report indicates the profits that have 
been made by well managed properties which 
serve populous sections. 

It is calculated that 118,091 persons mi- 
grated to Canada in the eight months — 
April 1 to November 30, 1923 — or more than 
twice as many as in the similar period of 
1922. Of these, 16,207 are said to have come 
from the United States, a decrease of 1833 
under the total for the like period of 1922. 
However, seven and one-half times as many 
Canadian citizens went to the United States 
in the same period. 

There were 2452 men killed in coal mines 
last year, according to reports received by 
the United States Bureau of Mines. Coal 
produced in this period totaled 641,476,000 
tons, or a fatality rate of 3.82 per million 
tons, as compared with 4.15 for 1922. This 
is a reduction of 8 per cent in the fatal-acci- 
dent rate per million tons of coal produced 
in 1923, and is equivalent to the saving of 
210 lives, the bureau points out. 

More than $83,000,000 has been paid to 
the victims of industrial accidents in Penn- 
sylvania the past eight years, according to 



24 



March, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



89 



Gabriel Moyer, manager of the State insur- 
ance fund. During this period there have 
been 20,462 fatal accidents, more than 
100,000 serious accidents and more than 
1,500,000 accidents of all degrees of severity. 
In 1923 there were more than 3000 fatal ac- 
cidents and more than 110,000 serious acci- 
dents. More than one-half of the total 
money paid has been to widows and 
orphans, Mr. Moyer said. 

By practically a unanimous vote . the 
House of Representatives approved a 
$100,000 appropriation for oil prosecutions. 
The union-hating Blanton of Texas cast the 
one vote against the proposal. Congress- 
man Abernathy inquired why it is necessary 
to appropriate money to employ special 
counsel "when we have a Department of 
Justice." "The only reason I can see," re- 
plied Congressman Byrns, "is that the Pres- 
ident doesn't trust the Attorney General." 

The Teapot Dome probe reveals that 
officers of the Sinclair Oil companies drew a 
few cents less than $50,000 a year, and this 
made it possible to save hundreds of dollars 
income tax because they are not in the 50,000 
class. In several cases vice presidents drew 
$49,999.92. In other cases the annual salary 
was $24,999.96. H. G. Wylie, a vice president 
of the Doheny interests, drew $81,666.66 for 
the year 1922. The list of the two companies 
is an imposing array of vice presidents who 
receive princely salaries. E. L. Doheny, 
president of the Doheny oil interests, heads 
the list with a salary of $1,000,000 a year. 

William Z. Foster, head of the so-called 
Trade Union Educational League, received 
$165,000 from Moscow, was the charge made 
before the Senate subcommittee investi- 
gating Soviet propaganda in the United 
States, said A. W. Klieforth, of the State 
Department division of Far Eastern affairs. 
Mr. Klieforth said he made his statement 
on evidence which the State Department 
considers authentic. Mr. Klieforth testified 
that on his return from one of his trips to 
Moscow Foster brought with him $40,000. 
Later Moscow sent $90,000 to Foster and 
at another time sent $35,000. 

James Duncan, first vice-president of the 
American Federation of Labor and formerly 
president of the Granite Cutters' Interna- 
tional Association of America, has been 



chosen chairman of a central group repre- 
senting organizations opposed to the pro- 
hibition amendment. The organizations in- 
clude the Association Against the Prohibi- 
tion Amendment, the Constitutional Liberty 
League of Massachusetts and the Modera- 
tion League of New York. In general these 
organizations are working for modification 
of the Volstead law to permit the sale of 
light wines and beers, which is a move that 
has been indorsed by the American Federa- 
tion of Labor. 

The existing bituminous miners' wage 
scale will be continued for three years from 
April 1, as the result of an agreement be- 
tween the miners and coal owners, following 
a conference of several days. At no time 
did the conference assume a warlike aspect. 
President Lewis has made history for the 
Miners' union. The miners retain their pres- 
ent wage. The contract is the longest they 
ever secured, and the wages they retain are 
the highest. The agreement directly affects 
what is known as the central competitive 
field, comprising Western Pennsylvania and 
the States of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. 
Wages in this district serve as a base for 
bituminous rates in other sections of the 
country. 

By a 6 to 1 vote the conventkn of the 
United Mine Workers declared that when 
miners sign an agreement this pledge must 
be kept. The decision was made in the case 
of the Nova Scotia district, which supported 
the Communist Internationale and indulged 
in an illegal strike. President Lewis showed 
that this district, in defiance of its. contract 
and union practices, ordered out pump men 
and other maintenance men, thereby imper- 
iling property to the extent of millions of 
dollars. President Lewis suspended the dis- 
trict last summer. "Either you want to 
uphold the law and abide by your contracts 
or you don't," said the miners' executive, 
who declared that a vote against the report 
of the committee is a vote against the sanc- 
tity of contracts. "By such a vote you will 
say to the world that you are more con- 
cerned with your private passions and preju- 
dices than in upholding the contractural ob- 
ligations of your union," continued Presi- 
dent Lewis. The suspension of the district 
was upheld by a vote of 1800 to 300. 



25 



90 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1924 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



A number of firms in the Dresden, Saxony, 

district are paying their workmen in food- 
stuffs* instead of marks. 

To pacify Italian industry, Premier Mus- 
solini has called capital-labor conferences to 
discuss problems under Government super- 
vision. 

The Labor Government of Queensland, 
Australia, has built 8000 to 9000 houses for 
people in the last eight years, according to 
Premier Theodore. 

Statistics on emigration from Sweden show 
that the emigration of last year was the 
largest in 20 years, the estimate being that 
30,000 persons left Sweden during the year 
1923. 

Strikes, lockouts and labor disputes in Swit- 
zerland have declined steadily since 1918. ac- 
cording to the Federal Labor Office, which 
has recently surveyed this labor phase of 
Switzerland's 300,000 industrial workers. 

According to an agreement made between 
the Austrian Republic and the Swiss Federal 
State, each State assures to the other the 
same treatment of unemployed as would be 
accorded them in the state to which they 
owe native allegiance. 

The principle of the eight-hour day, which 
has been the subject of vigorous attacks by 
German industrialists in recent months, is 
preserved in the decree of December 31, 
1923. promulgated by the German Govern- 
ment under the "enabling act." 

Wage differences and disputes on account 
of hours and conditions of labor in the 
Portuguese merchant marine brought about 
a strike of sailors and marine firemen late 
last year which, at that time, had practically 
tied up all ocean-going Portuguese steam- 
ships. 

It is said that Sweden's unemployment 
problem has practically disappeared, and that 
the number of workmen receiving State aid 
is comparatively small. This favorable situa- 
tion has resulted in the recommendation that 
the State Employment Commission be dis- 
solved. 

Normally there are employed on the Clyde 



49,000 workers in the shipbuilding industry 
and 41,000 men in the engineering trade. Of 
this total about 70 per cent are registered as 
unemployed, according to latest accounts, 
namely, 33,000 shipyard workers and 30,000 
engineers. 

According to Polish newspapers, the num- 
ber of emigrants leaving Poland for France 
is steadily growing. The latest official sta- 
tistics give the number of Polish subjects 
who- have already emigrated to France at 
500,000. They are for the most part land 
workers and miners. 

According to the Spanish Official Gazette 
of December 24, 1923, a decree has been 
issued establishing courts for the settlement 
of questions that may arise between rail- 
way companies and their employes. An ap- 
peal lies from the decision of these courts 
to the Government of Spain, whose dictum 
is to be final. 

Collective agreements in Norway generally 
expire in the spring. As three months' no- 
tice to terminate is usually required, this 
is the notice season, and it happens that 
practically all groups of workers, with the 
exception of the seamen and printers, whose 
agreements do n<>t expire until next year, 
have given notice. The result might be a 
general strike. 

Serious conflicts are threatening in inland 
navigation in Germany. Employers are 
everywhere calling for longer working 
hours, the performance of loading work, the 
abolition of their social obligations, reduced 
wages, etc. The men are ready for a fight. 
It will probably be a hard one, because, to 
quote a single example, out of 8000 mem- 
bers of the Elbe-Oder group, 5600 men are 
out of work. 

The economic depression and the heavy 
expenditure incurred in the payment of un- 
employment benefit have led to the creation 
of a Dutch emigration office, which, although 
due to private initiative, will be under state 
control. The new institution will seek to 
remedy the growing unemployment by or- 
ganizing emigration to countries which have 
been found, after careful inquiry, to offer bet- 
ter opportunities of gaining a livelihood, and 
where it is hoped that the emigrants will 
have better prospects of permanently enjoy- 
ing civilized standards of living. 



26 



March, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



91 



Although there are 237,000 unemployed 
women in England and Wales, there is a 
serious shortage in the supply of domestic 
servants. Accordingly, a special committee 
has been making observations of the causes 
of the shortage and has submitted recommen- 
dations to the Minister of Labor regarding 
matters of training, hours and conditions of 
employment and distribution which, it is 
thought, may make this type of employment 
more attractive. 

As a result of the severe agricultural labor 
shortage throughout the northern states of 
Brazil, a bill is now pending before the Bra- 
zilian Chamber of Deputies, providing for the 
establishment of European immigration colo- 
nies in the states from Bahia north. Free 
third-class passage aboard the steamers of 
the Lloyd Brazileiro S. S. Line from Euro- 
pean ports to a port in Brazil will be offered 
to prospective immigrants, as well as attrac- 
tive guarantees of land, good housing and 
sanitary conditions. 

After lasting for twelve weeks, the strike 
of 400 Vienna taxicab drivers has ended in 
a complete victory. Not only has the long- 
demanded minimum wage been established, 
but a 25 per cent increase has been secured. 
At the beginning some 1300 men came out, 
but most of the smaller employers imme- 
diately gave way, only four large compa- 
nies holding out against the men's demands. 
Now all but one have accepted a proposal 
which differs only slightly from the original 
demands. Those drivers who remained in 
employment paid a weekly levy of 70,000 
crowns each in support of their fellow-driv- 
ers who stayed out. 

The biggest news of the month was the 
unconditional release from prison of Mo- 
handas K. Gandhi, the famous Hindu 
leader. It was unfortunate for the friends 
of Gandhi here that Woodrow Wilson should 
happen to die the same week the great 
pacifist was liberated, as it killed the pub- 
licity value of that most important event. 
The backing down of the British authorities 
is undoubtedly due to the Labor party and 
its control of the government of the British 
Empire, although this is strenuously denied. 
It is, however, an admission that Gandhi, 
with his passive resistance work, had been 
too much for the executive council of Anglo- 

27 



Indians who boss India. It is also an ad- 
mission that the old order is getting shaky 
even in sleepy, conservative Asia. 

On January 2, while Captain Giulietti, 
secretary of the Italian Seamen's Federa- 
tion, was speaking at Genoa, a small group 
in his audience raised a voice of profest, 
and ended by firing revolvers to such good 
effect that thirteen of Giulietti's supporters 
were later taken to a hospital. This inci- 
dent is the outcome of a plot which the 
Genoese shipowners have long been hatch- 
ing against Giulietti, with a view to gain- 
ing an ascendency over the Seamen's Fed- 
eration. The police took no action except 
to arrest a few of Giulietti's partisans. The 
management of the Federation has since 
been confided to a Fascisti triumvirate. It 
is interesting to note that Mr. d'Annunzio 
strongly disapproves of this attack, and has 
protested openly against the attitude of the 
authorities. 



Roster of International 
Seamen's Union of America 



(Continued from Page 2) 



Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash DAVID ROBERTS, Agent 

84 Seneca Street 

SAN PEDRO, Cal ADDISON KIRK, Agent 

111 Sixth Street. P. O. Box 574 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 86 Commercial Street 

EUGENE STEIDLE, Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 6955 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock 

P. O. Box 214 
SAN PEDRO, Cal P. O. Box 54 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary 

Telephone Sutter 6452 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash... 84 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42 

ASTORIA. Ore _„ _ P. O. Box 138 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SEATTLE, Wash „_ 84 Seneca Street 

Branches: 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C), Canada. P. O. Box 1676 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska..- _ P. O. Box 201 



UNITED FISHERMEN OF THE PACIFIC 
ASTORIA, Ore - P. O. Box 138 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal _...69 Clay Street 

C. W. DEAL, Secretary 
Telephone Sutter 2205 



FISH TRAP, PILE DRIVERS AND WEB WORKERS 
OF PUGET SOUND AND ALASKA 
P. O. Box 371, Bellingham, Wash. 



92 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March. 1924 



On March 3 

The Market-Ferry Office of this bank,' 
now at 34 Market Street, will move to 
permanent quarters in the Matson Build- 
ing. 

MARKET-FERRY OFFICE 

Mercantile Trust Company of California 

Since 1857 



To Seamen, Clients and Union Workers 

If my clients will keep me informed of the names of the 
vessels on which they are employed, while their cases are 
awaiting disposition, it will be of great assistance to me in 
preserving their rights and in securing early trials. 

Respectfully yours, 
S. B. AXTELL, 1 1 Moore Street, New York, N. Y. 



NORFOLK, VA. PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



Navigation, Marine 
Engineering 

Instruction for All Licenses: 

Deck, Engine, Pilot 

Success Guaranteed or Fee Refunded 

U. S. Nautical College, 

Inc. 
"The School Without a Failure" 
119 Bank St. Norfolk, Va. 

Capt. Wm. J. Blue, Pres., Phone 41626 

How Is Your Spiritual Carbon? 
— Knocking, in an individual, is 
just as much evidence of lack of 
power as it is in an automobile. — 
The Lyre. 



TAXI 

CALL UNION 9020 
Red Top Cab Co., of R. I., Inc. 



57 Chestnut St. 



Providence, R. I. 



Fine Board — "Kate, the hash 
was very much like sawdust this 
morning." 

"I know it, sir. The missus 
said to use all that was left of 
the planked steak." — Judge. 



All Clear Now.— Whiz Bang— 
"What's the difference between the 
jingle of the American dollar and 
the Chinese yen?" 

Sky Rocket — "One is the chink 
of the coin and the other is the 
coin of the Chink." 



A Starter — Farmer — "Now, come 
along, and I'll teach you to milk 
the cow." 

Cockney Hand — "Seein' I'm new 
to it, Mister, hadn't I better learn 
on the calf?" — London Opinion. 



Helpful Spirit.— The Father— 
"Young man, you couldn't even 
buy my daughter's clothes!" 

The Suitor — "I could help." — 
The Passing Show (London). 



Flavoring the Cake. — "Susie," 
said the girl's mistress, "go and 
see if the cake's done. Stick a 
knife in it. It's done if the knife 
comes out clean." 

Susie departed. Some minutes 
later she returned beaming. 

"The knife come out as clean 
as a whistle," she said, "so I 
stuck the rest of the knives in it, 
and the forks and spoons, too." — 
Loudon Opinion. 
28 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union »f 
the Pacific since its organization 

H. W. HUTTON 

Will give the cases of seafaring men 

prompt attention 
527 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Market 

Streets, San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 315 



Albert Michelson 

Attorney-at-Law 
Attorney for Marine Firemen and 
Watertenders' Union of the Pacific. 

Admiralty Law a Specialty. 

676 Mills Building, San Francisco 

Telephone Douglas 1058 

Residence Phone Franklin 1781 



S. T. HogevolL Seamen's Law- 
yer; wages, salvage and damages. 



909 Pacific Building, 821 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Market 



Tel. Sutter 6900 



Notary Public — Typewriting 



ANNE F. HASTY 

RANCH 
Trust Co. 



SEABOARD 
Anglo-California 



101 Market St. 



San Francisco 



The 
Scandinavian Club 

Dansk Smoppebrod 

Oblikage Scandinavian Paper 

Best Coffee 

42 Market St. San Francisco 

Alfred Petersen Phone Sutter 5361 



SEAMEN 

Before sailing, sail up to our studio 
and have your Photograph taken 



41 Grant Ave. 




San Francisco 



San Francisco Camera Exchange 

KODAKS AND CAMERAS 

Bought, Sold, Exchanged, Repaired 

and Rented — Developing — Printing 

88 THIRD STREET, AT MISSION 

San Francisco 

Mail Orders Given Special Attention 



Photos of Ships 

Bring your photos to us for print- 
ing and developing and let us supply 
you for your next voyage. 

Allen Photo Supply Co. 

Kodaks bought, sold, rented and ex- 
changed. 

246 Market St., San Francisco 



The Unkindest Cut.— Herbert— 
(finding a piece of rubber in bis 
hash) — "There's no doubt about 
it, the auto is displacing the horse 
everywhere." — The Harvard Lam- 
poon. 



March, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



93 



938 Market 
(Near Mason) 
San Francisco 



Walk-Over 



844-850 Market 
San Francisco 



{SHOES FOR CMEN AND WOMEN) 

UNION MADE 



Style — Quality and Sensible 
Prices make these good 
Hats popular with sailormen 



HA' 



26 Third St. C05 Kearny 1082 Market 

3242 Mission 720 Market 2640 Mission 

226 W. 5th St., Los Angeles 



SMOKES ! ! 

Cigarettes and Cigars a Specialty at 

Wholesale Prices 

See Me Before You "Load Up 

SYD MODLYN 

Ocean Market 
80 Market St. San Francisco 



LACKING TIME 
SEAMEN SUFFER 

Many sailors are suffering to- 
day from decayed and neglected 
teeth because their time in port 
is limited. 

They know the average den- 
tist in his small office cannot 
finish their work properly 
"while they wait." 

The Parker offices with their 
large force of dentists, nurses 
and assistants can serve you 
promptly and successfully at 
short notice. 

Pacific Coast offices of dentists 
using 

K @">E. R. Parker 

'mRNEKV s y stem 

SYSTEM^ 

located at 

Vancouver, B. C, San Francisco, 
Portland, Seattle, Bellingham, Ta- 
coma, San Diego, Eureka, Oak- 
land, Santa Cruz. 



-f 

More and More and More. — 
"When Jack and I are married, I'm 
going to have three servants." 

"You will probably have twen- 
ty-three, my dear — but not all at 
once." — The Sydney Bulletin. 



BEN HARRIS 

No Relation to Joe Harris 

Patronize an Old Reliable Outfitter 

The Best Seamen's Outfitter on the 
Waterfront 



218 Embarcadero 



San Francisco 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 

— at — 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 5348 



At Night— 




Complete Banking Service . 


Yom 


9 A. M. till 12 P. M. for Sailor- 


men. 




Liberty 




Market 1^ ^ y\ 
at Mason MJ Cl 11 


k 


San Francisco 





THE ONE PRICE STORE 

Sander Supply Co. 

SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

Furnishing Goods, Oilskins, 

Sea Boots 

Square Knot Material 

Uniform Caps 

93-95 Market, Cor. of Spear Street 
South. Pac. Bldg., San Francisco 



Chinese Repairs. — Lee Mun fixee 
chair very fine, cane seat any- 
thing; come and get, brink back 
very quick. 1337 Park street. — 
Alameda (Cal.) Times-Star. 



The Little Darling.— "Mother, 
isn't auntie just like a bulldog?" 

"Hush! Hush! Don't talk so 
loud!" 

"Why? Would the bulldog be 
mad?" — Kasper (Stockholm). 

29 



J. MAHER'S 

RELIABLE HOOKS 

All Kinds Hand Made — Wholesale and 

Retail 

610A 3rd Street San Francisco 

Tel. Garfield 2340 



ABERDEEN, WASH. 



The "Red Front" 

CARRIES A FULL STOCK OF 
UNION MADE CLOTHING, HATS, 
SHOES, COLLARS, SUSPENDERS, 
GLOVES, OVERALLS, SHIRTS 

A. M. BENDETSON 

321 East Heron Street - Aberdeen 

Exclusive Owner of "The Red Front" 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings, Hickory Shirts, 

Hats, Oil Clothing. 

Home of the Union Made 

Co-operative Shoe. 

302 So. F Street, ABERDEEN, Wash. 

on the Water Front 



A. A. Star Transfer Co. 

QUICK SERVICE 

EXPRESS — BAGGAGE 

Phone 307 — Office by Union Depot 
ABERDEEN. WASH. 



HUOTARI & CO. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE 
and MEN'S FURNISHINGS 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Orders taken for 

Made-to-Measure Clothing 

Heron and F Sts., Aberdeen, Wa»h. 

Tickets to and from Europe 

NOTARY PUBLIC 



Phone 263 

"Niels and Charlie" 

"THE ROYAL" 
"THE SAILORS' REST" 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 
219 EIGHTH ST., HOQUIAM, WASH. 



EUREKA, CAL. 



— For — 

A GOOD CUP OF COFFEE 

— or — 

A SQUARE MEAL 

— Try — 
EUREKA CHOP HOUSE 

Cor. Second and D Sts., Eureka, Cal. 
A. R. ABRAHAMSEN, Prop. 



94 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1924 



Office Phone Main 5190 
Residence Phone Elliott 5825 



Established 1890 
COMPASSES ADJUSTED 



MARSHALL'S 

NAVIGATION SCHOOL 

WE GUARANTEE to teach you until you receive a LICENSE 

WE will save you TIME and MONEY 

203 Bay Building, First and University Sts. SEATTLE, WASH. 



L. V. WESTERMAN 

UNION LABEL, 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 
Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney-Watson Go. 

FUNERAL DIRECTORS 

AND EMBALMERS 

Private Ambulance Service 

Crematory and Columbarium in 

Connection 

Broadway at Olive St. Seattl< 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 
MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES. HATS 

AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., Cor. University, 

SEATTLE, WASH. 



Union Store 

Best Line of Men's Suits 

Overcoats, Raincoats, Shoes, Hats 

and Men's Furnishings 

CARL SCHERMER 

103-107 First Avenue South 
Near Yesler Way SEATTLE 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim and Douglas Shoes 

And the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 Sixth Street, SAN PEDRO OPP. SAILORS' UNION HALL 




That Kind of Pocket.— The word 
"thief" was on the blackboard, but 
Dick could not spell it. "Surely 
you know what that spells," ex- 
claimed the teacher. "Now, sup- 
pose 1 put my hand into your 
pocket and took out a penny, what 
should I be?" "A conjurer," re- 
plied Dick. — London Post. 



How It's Done. — Head Waiter 
(to waiter) — "The customer in the 
corner has ordered fresh-made 



NOTICE! 

The exclusive agency here for the 
only C. T. & M. Tailors in the U. S. 
A., affiliated with the American Fed- 
eration of Labor and employing only 
members of the Journeymen Tailors' 
Union, is held by the reliable tailoring 
man 

S. G. SW ANSON 

Established 1904 
Upstairs, Room 4, Bank of San Pedro 

Building 
110 W. 6th Street San Pedro 



coffee. Just keep him waiting ten 
minutes." — Klods-Hans (Copen- 
hagen). 

30 



SEAMEN 

Visit 
Your Hatter 

FRED AMMANN 

UNION HATS 

at the right prices. I'll try and 
wait- on you personally and show 
you a large assortment and give 
you your money's worth. 

JOHN B. STETSON hats, too 

If you want your Panama blocked 
right I'll do that. 

You'll find me at 

72 Market St., San Francisco 

next to Ocean Market 



MEAD'S 
RESTAURANT 

NO. 16 
EMBARCADERO 

NO. 3 
MARKET STREET 

"THE" Place to Eat 
in 

San Francisco 



Oh, Joy! — Scientist (to his house- 
keeper) — "Hannah! You have 
been in my employ twenty-five 
years, so as a reward for your 
faithful service 1 have decided to 
name after you this species of 
water beetle I have just discov- 
ered." — London Opinion. 



His Class. — A group of ni - 
were at the terminal station Sun- 
day morning, telling a few depart- 
ing brethren good-by. A trainman 
noticed one negro looking on non- 
chalantly, and inquired: "John, are 
you going north?" 

"No, sir," said the negrc- ad- 
dressed. "I'sc a class B nigger." 

"What do you mean by class 
'B' nigger?" asked the trainman. 

"Well," said Sam. "1 B'a lure 
when (ley leave, and I B's here 
wlun dey come back." — Macon 
News. 



March, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



95 



BOSS ™ E TAILOR 

1120 MARKET STREET, SAN FRANCISCO 

OPPOSITE SEVENTH STREET 



SUITS AND 
OVERCOATS 

To Order at Popular 
Prices 




All Work Done 

Under Strictly Union 

Conditions 



We Furnish the 
Label 



Always Fair with Labor — Always Will Be! 



JENSEN & NELSEN 

Gent's Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 
Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 
110 EAST STREET 
Kearny 3863 



Near Mission 
San Francisco 



H. SAMUEL 

THE OLD UNION STORE 
Established 1874 

Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 

Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, Bags, 

Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and Oil 

Clothing, Watches and Jewelry. 

Phone Kearny 519 

676 THIRD STREET, near Townsend 

San Francisco 



THE 
James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

PRINTING 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Seamen's Journal" 



Where They Help. — "Do motor 
cars make us lazy?" asks the Di- 
gest. Well, not if we're pedes- 
trians. — Roanoke World-News. 



Finished Job. — "So you have 
seen Krempel's wife? I "hear she 
is a complete beauty." 

"Complete? Why, she is nearly 
concluded !" — Meggendorfer Blaet- 
ter (Munich) 



"ALL NIGHT IN" 

A Sailor's Dream of Bliss 

Good Beds, Baths, Fine Lounges 
Stop and Meet Shipmates at 

LINCOLN HOTEL 



15 MARKET 



SAN FRANCISCO 



Telephone Douglas 2494 

O. B. Olsen's Lunch 

Delicious Meals at Pre-War Prices 

Quick Service 

98 Embarcadero and 4 Mission St. 

San Francisco, Open 6 a. m. to 1 a. m. 



Seamen, when in port, 
deal with 

W. P. Shanahan & Co. 

MEN'S SHOES 

Expert Repairing 

254 Market Street San Francisco 



ALAMEDA CAFE 

JACOB PETERSEN & SON 

Proprietors 

Established 1880 

COFFEE AND LUNCH HOUSE 

7 Market Street and 17 Steuart Street 

San Francisco 



D. Edwards & Sons 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Fair Prices. Reliable Goods 

92 EAST STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

GUARANTEED OIL CLOTHING 



Horrible Example. — Speaking of 
Six Meals a Day. — First-class 

Passenger — "How do they feed 

you in your quarters?" 

Third - class Passenger — "Fine ; 

six meals a day." 

First-class Passenger — "Six'" 
Third - class Passenger — "Yes ; 

three down and three up." 

31 



TACOMA, WASH. 



SEAMEN — ATTENTION! 

When In TACOMA. Visit 

Brower & Thomas 

FOR YOUR 

CIGARS AND TOBACCO 

THREE STORES 

1103 Broadway 11th & A Street! 

930 Pacific Avenue 



Always with the 
Union Label 

DUNDEE 

Woolen Mills 

Popular Priced Tailors 

Tacoma, 920 Pacific Avenue 

Seattle, 312 Pike Street 

Bellingham, 1306 Dock Street 

Aberdeen, 204 E. Heron Street 



A Common Custom. — Golf is not 
mentioned in the Bible, though we 
learn of Jehu that he drove furi- 
ously. — The Lyre. 



All Jones' Fault.— Prof.— "This 
is the third time you've looked on 
Jones' paper." 

Stude — "Yes, sir, he doesn't 
write very plainly." — Boston Bean- 
pot. 



As It Looked to Percy. — "Do 

tell me something about the play," 
she said to the young man. "They 
said the climax was superb." 

"Yes, I am inclined to think it 
was very good," said Percy. 

"Can't you describe it to me?" 
she asked. 

"Well, the heroine cam* stealth- 
ily on the stage and knelt dagger 
in hand, behind a clump of rib- 
bons. The hero emerged from a 
large bunch of flowers, and as 
soon as she perceived him, she fell 
upon him, stabbed him and sank 
half conscious into a very hand- 
some aigrette. This may sound 
queer, but the woman in front of 
me wouldn't remove her hat, and 
that's how it looked to me." — 
Pittsburgh Sun. 



96 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1924 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 

and Battery Sts., Opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Cal. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
: any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation 
and Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always In view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law, and is now, 
In addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and Its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments o r : common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him fiom the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




UNION-MADE 



A complete line of seamen's shirts and 



garments of all kinds, union made right 
Cf-IIRTQ here in California, sold direct from factory 
to wearer and every garment guaranteed. 

and UNDERWEAR Direct from Factory to You 



1118 Market Street, San Francisco 
112 South Spring Street, Los Angeles 
1141 J Street, Fresno 
717 K Street, Sacramento 



Since 1872 



Eagleson & Co. 



Established 1917 by 



,. S. B. 



School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 

FERRY BLDG.. SAN FRANCISCO 



Puget Sound 
Nautical School 

Conducted by CAPT. H. S. SMITH, 
four years Assistant Inspector of 
Steamboats, Puget Sound District. 
Formerly Instructor in New York 
Nautical College. 

Room 303, Bay Bldg. 1213 First Ave. 
SEATTLE, WASH. 




Gifts That Last 



James Jt. Sorensen 

fres. and Jreaa. 

Jewelers, Watchmakers 
Opticians 



Watches, Diamonds, Jewelry, 
Clocks and Silverware 

Largest Assortment, Right Prices 
All "Watch Repairing Guaranteed 

£crmmCh 

715 Market Street, bet. Third and Fourth Sts. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Established 1896 Phone Kearny 201' 




A Good Place 
to Trade 



Courteous Service 

Broad Assortments 

Moderate Prices 



Market at Fifth 
San Francisco 



UNION LABEL 

IS IN EVERY ONE OF OUR 
Hard finished— Hard wearing 

$QC WORSTED 
Ou SUITS 

-See Them in our Windows — 




852-868 MARKET ST. 
SAN FRANCISCO 



Joint Accounts 

This bank will open accounts in 
the name of two individuals, for 
instance, man and wife, either of 
whom may deposit money for or 
draw against the account. 

HUMBOLDT 
BANK 

783 MARKET ST., Near Fourth 
SAN FRANCISCO 



32 




Official Paper of the International Seamen's Union of America 

niHiiiiiiiiiniiniiiiiiiiuiiiiiiimiiniiiiiiiiiniuiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiim 



A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 

Sea power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's tools. 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use them. 

Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea Our Motto: Justice by Organization 


Contents 

SEAMEN'S INTERNATIONAL CODE 

RUNNING COST OF SHIPS 

EDITORIALS: 

HIGH-PRICED AMERICAN CREWS 

CO-OPERATION 




99 
101 

102 
103 
103 
104 
104 
105 
105 
106 
107 
108 
109 
109 
110 
110 
112 
112 
113 
113 
115 
115 
119 
123 


AMERICA'S IMMIGRATION POLICY 

PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE 

SEAMEN'S OCCUPATIONAL RISKS 

INSURING AGAINST UNEMPLOYMENT 

GERMAN SEAMEN'S STRIKE ENDED 

THE UNITED STATES OF EUROPE 

CHINESE CREW OF PRESIDENT LINCOLN (Illustrated) .... 
A STUDY OF ECONOMICS 




IS MAN ABOVE THE DOLLAR? 

AS OTHERS SEE US 




PANAMA CANAL OUTSTRIPS SUEZ 

NORWEGIAN WHALE OIL INDUSTRY 

SELF-HELP VERSUS SELF-PITY 

BOOK REVIEW 




BERLIN AS INLAND PORT 

OUR WASHINGTON LETTER 

CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 




SAILING SHIPS OF THE FUTURE 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 


..116, 117, 118, 
. .120, 121, 122, 


X __ T v _, Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice 

VOL. XXXVIII, No. 4 as second-class matter. Acceptance for 

,, 7TTrvT —, XT ..r^o mailing at special rate of postage provided 

WHOLE No. 1923 for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 

authorized September 7, 1918. 


SAN FRANCISCO 
APRIL 1, 1924 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L. Bldg.. Washington, D. C. 



K. B. NOLAN, Secretary-Treasurer 
355 North Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 



DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES: 
ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR Secretary 

1% Lewis Street 
Branches: 

NEW YORK, N. Y WILLIAM MILLER, Agent 

67-69 Front Street 

BALTIMORE. Md C. RASMUSSEN. Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa S. HODGSON, Agent 

108 Walnut Street 

NORFOLK. Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. JACOBSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex _ LOUIS LARSEN, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 



MARINE FIREMEN'S, OILERS* AND WATERTEND- 
ERS' UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y _ 70 South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 
Telephone John 0975 

Branches: 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa ERNEST MISSLAND, Agent 

108 Walnut Street 

BALTIMORE, Md JAMES ANDERSON, Agent 

804 South Broadway 

GALVESTON, Tex JOHN CLAUSSEN, Agent 

32l Twentieth Street 

BOSTON, Mass TONY ASTE, Agent 

288 State Street 

NORFOLK, Va _ DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 



ATLANTIC AND GULF COOKS', STEWARDS' AND 

WAITERS' UNION 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretary 

4 South Street. Phone John 0975 
Branches: 

N. Y., WEST SIDE BRANCH E. DOYLEY. Agent 

46 Renwick Street 

BOSTON, MASS _ JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

No. 6 Long Wharf 

PHILADELPHIA, PA O. CHRISTENSEN, Agent 

13 South Second Street 

BALTIMORE, MD CHRIS. RASMUSSEN, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

NORFOLK, VA DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, LA R. T. KAIZER, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

PROVIDENCE. R. I FRANK B. HAYWARD, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 

GALVESTON, TEX LOUIS LARSEN, Agent 

321 20th Street 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass WM. II. BROWN, Secretary 

288 State Street 

Branches: 

GLOUCESTER Mass NEWMAN SHEA, Agent 

209 Main Street 
NEW YORK, N. Y JAMES J. FAGAN. Agont 

6 Fulton Street 



GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

CHICAGO. Ill 357 North Clark Street 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary 

VAL. DUSTER, Treasurer 

Phone State 5175 

Branches: 

BUFFALO, N. Y PATRICK O'BRIEN 

55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1501 Columbus Road 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERING, Agent 

162 Reed StreeL Phone Hanover 240 

DETROIT, Mien WM. DONNELLY, Agent 

410 Shelby Street. Phone Main 0044 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 
COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 71 Main Street 

THOS. CONWAY, Secretary 
ED. HICKS. Treasurer. Phone Seneca 0048 

Branches: 

CLEVELAND, 819 Superior Avenue 

Phone Main 866 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

Phone South 598 

DETROIT, Mich 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO. ILL 357 North Clark Street 

Phone State 5175 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters: 

BUFFALO. N. Y 36 West Eagle Street 

J. M. SECORD, Secretary 
Telephone Seneca 896 

Branches: 

CHICAGO, 111 357 North Clark Street 

L'Li;\'KLAND, 1501 Columbus Road 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

DETROIT, MICH 410 Shelby Street 

PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO. Cal 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE C. LARSEN. Acting Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches: 

VANCOUVER, B. C G. CAMPBELL, Agent 

305 Cambie Sti 
P. O. Box 571, Telephone Sevmour STo:: 

TACOMA, Wash A. KLEMMSEN, Agent 

22Q7 North Thirtieth Street 
l\ <>. Box 102, Telephone .Main 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, Agent 

84 Seneca Stre< t 
P. O. Box 65, Telephone Elliot 6 

ABERDEEN, Wash CHAS. OLESEN, Agent 

P. O. Box 280 

PORTLAND, Ore D. W. PAUL, Agent 

243 Ash Street, Telephone Broadway 1689 

SAN PEDRO. Cal HAKRY OHLSEN, Agent 

P. O. Box 67, Telephone C 1 \V 

HONOLULU, T. H JOSEPH FALTUS, Agent 

P. O. Box 314, Telephone 4495 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO. Cal 58 Commercial Street 

PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 3699 
(Continued <>n Page u T > 



April, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



99 



SEAMEN'S INTERNATIONAL CODE 




HE International Labor Office, func- 
tioning by authority of the League of 
Nations, has been working on the 
preparation of a draft for an inter- 
national codification of laws relating to 
seamen. A copy of the tentative draft has been 
received and carefully analyzed by Andrew 
Furuseth, President of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America. 

There can be no question that such a code, 
if enacted, either through legislation ot 
through the adoption of treaties, will remain 
unchanged for years to come because it will 
be practically impossible to obtain any 
changes. 

Industrial, social and political conditions 
in Europe and very largely in our own coun- 
try, may be said to be in a state of flux, some- 
thing similar to super-heated iron that is 
ready to be poured into a form which, when 
cooled, remains in that shape until it is re- 
heated, so that it is again in the state of flux. 
It is, therefore, of the utmost importance to 
prevent the framing of a Seamen's Code that 
is out and out reactionary. 

Andrew Furuseth's comment and criticism 
of the tentative draft of the proposed Sea- 
men's International Code follows : 

Mr. Albert Thomas, Director, 
International Labor Office, 
Geneva, Switzerland. 

Dear Sir — Through the courtesy of Mr. Damm, I 
have received the tentative draft of what seems to 
be part of an International code for seamen. 

Insofar as the seaman's freedom is concerned, 
the tentative recommendations do not agree with 
the instructions given by the special maritime ses- 
sion held at Genoa. It seems that the jurists have 
encountered some serious difficulty in their efforts 
to understand and apply those instructions. The 
instructions read as follows: 

"Violations of provisions in articles of agreement 
between seamen and employers should not be dealt 
with as criminal offenses unless they be violations 
of the clauses of a public character, maintaing pub- 
lic policy as distinguished from private interest, and 
even then only at the instance of public authorities." 

In your discussion on the subject found on page 
1 in "Note on the question of penalties for breach 
of agreement by the voluntary act of the seaman," 
you call attention that the agreement will contain 
clauses of a public character and of a private 
character, and out of that arises the difficulty which 
you seem to encounter. Mr. Ripert makes sug- 
gestions on page 6, in which it appears that he has 
a conception, but a hazy one, of what the seaman's 
status would be, if the instructions adopted at 
Genoa were to be embodied in legislation. 

In dealing with the question earlier in the report, 
you call attention that the seaman is essentially a 
part of the military forces of a nation, either be- 



cause he is an inscribed seaman, as in France, or 
because he may constitute the crew of a privateer, 
and you are finding the origin of the seaman's 
status in that fact. Then you go on to suggest that 
since the adoption of compulsory military service, 
it ought not to leave any further obligation upon a 
seaman in private employment than upon any other 
workman, in which, of course, you are right. The 
difficulty which you and Mr. Ripert encounter is 
very easy of solution. 

A vessel at sea or in motion in a harbor is under 
the common hazard. She is, unless properly man- 
aged, a danger to herself and, in port, also to her 
surroundings. She must, therefore, be under con- 
trol. In order to be under control she must have 
a crew of some kind, and whoever these men may 
be they must have skill, experience and willingness 
to obey commands. The State is interested in the 
preservation of life and of property and it, there- 
fore, very properly lays down as a fundamental duty 
of the seaman to obey any lawful order received, 
while the vessel is subject to the common hazard. 
A seaman who would refuse to obey orders at sea, 
who "abandons his post" at sea, endangers the 
ship and the lives of everybody on board of her. 
So that any seaman who abandons his proper work, 
or who refuses to obey lawful commands- at sea, 
violates public policy. Such violations of duty 
would necessarily "be violations of the clauses of a 
public character" and every nation now provides 
penalties for such conduct. The seaman's conduct 
is noted in the ship's log. Report is made to the 
public authorities on arrival in port and the public 
authorities undertake the prosecution and finally. 
under the law, impose the penalty. But the ship 
also is in harbor and if she is not moored and in 
motion she is still under the common hazard. She 
is a danger to herself and her surroundings and 
disobedience on the part of the seaman is a viola- 
tion of "the clauses of a public character," and 
while the penalty may not be as severe in ports as 
at sea, the danger is there and there must be obedi- 
ence to command. 

When a ship is in a safe harbor, properly an- 
chored or at the dock moored, she is under no 
more hazard, no more danger than any house or 
structure on shore; in fact, she is under less, and 
there is no more reason why a seaman then should 
be penalized criminally for disobeying commands 
than there is for imprisoning any workman on 
shore disobeying the ofder given to him by his 
employer. The public is not interested, so far as 
I understand, in the earning power of property, 
at least not to the extent of enslaving the men that 
are working and making the property productive. 
It is interested in the maintenance of the property, 
and a ship in harbor may, through one or more 
watchmen, be maintained in safety without any 
crew, or with a skeleton crew. The only loss that 
can come to the ship and the shipowner from the 
disobedience of the seamen is a loss of a certain 
amount of money or a certain amount of earnings. 
In fact, the earnings may be greater because the 
crew is out of the ship. We seamen know of thou- 
sands of cases in which the crew is driven out of 
the ship in order to save money for the shipowner 
while the ship is lying waiting either to deliver or 
to take on cargo. When a ship is in this position 
she is not under the public policy but under the 
dominion of private interest, and why there should 
be any hesitation on the part of the Labor Office, 
interested in progressive human legislation, to dis- 
tinguish a vessel while she is under the common 
hazard, under which condition men are subject to 
penalty for disobedience of lawful commands and 



100 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 1924 



times when she is under private interest and there 
is no danger to life or property, is rather remark- 
able. 

II 
In dealing with the discharge of seamen, the pro- 
posed Code in Article 28, on pages 49 and 50, 
gives sundry specific reasons why the seaman may 
be summarily discharged from the vessel. In other 
words, when an employer may break his contract. 
The different clauses are summed up in the follow- 
ing expression: 

"Or in general any failure by the seaman 
to carry out essential obligations under the 
agreement, without prejudice to the right or 
the shipowner to bring an action for dam- 
ages on account of such failure." 
First, the seaman may be summarily discharged 
for any violation to carry out any essential obli- 
gations under the agreement. Secondly, he may 
have to answer a suit in damages. Who is to deter- 
mine whether the seaman has failed to carry out 
any essential obligations under the agreement, who, 
except the master? The master takes the seaman be- 
fore a Consul or a Consular Agent, if there be such 
in the port. The master makes the complaint, the 
master brings the witnesses. Those witnesses will, 
under the law, be compelled to remain on the ship, 
subject to the master's orders and discipline, and 
it is too much to expect those men to incur the 
master's enmity by testifying on behalf of the men, 
even if under other circumstances they would be 
willing so to do. 

But aside from this, there is a taint that attaches 
to anyone who is compelled to give service. That 
taint is inherited from the ancient status of the 
slave who could not give testimony against his mas- 
ter, and it is carried downward to our times, be- 
cause the presumption is that a seaman will lie in 
order to get out of the ship. Incidentally, I may 
here remark that I have been shipmate with men 
who, at the time when we were together, deliber- 
ately took poison in order to become sick and so be 
left behind. I have seen men deliberately go ashore 
and commit an offense against the peace of the 
community in which the vessel was lying in order 
to be arrested and sent to prison, and for no 
other purpose than that they thus might get out 
of the vessel. I know of men, at least of one, who 
took a chance to swim ashore in water infested 
with alligators. No sane seaman desires to remain 
in the vessel after he has incurred the enmity of 
the master or one of the officers under whose com- 
mand he has to live and work. Yet, in this pro- 
posed Code, the master is permitted, practically for 
any reasons that seem good to him, to dismiss a 
man from the service, while on the other hand, if 
a seaman withdraws himself from the service, 
though he is willing to sacrifice his saved-up earn- 
ings, he is in addition to such sacrifice, to be sent 
to prison and the International Labor Office seems 
to think that this is equality before the law. 

But this is not all. Section 3 of Article 31 says: 
"The expenses of repatriation shall not In- 
charged to the seaman unless he was dis- 
missed for sufficient motives." 
In other words, whenever the master wants to get 
rid of a man he brings charges against him, dis- 
misses him and then leaves him, that is, if it is in 
a harbor where there is a Consul or Consular Agent. 
But the vessel also may be in some out of the way 
harbor in Australia, in Asia, in Africa, in North Amer- 
ica or on some island of the sea, and the master 
still has the right to dismiss him. So this, in addi- 
tion to all the rest, wipes out any penalty for 
marooning a seaman or leaving him behind where 
he would be helpless. A Norwegian master some 
years ago did that with two boys in China. In 



desperation of hunger and want, they committed 
murder and as a grace, they were permitted to 
be decapitated instead < of being punished in the 
customary Chinese fashion. 

Let us be done with pretense, Mr. Director. 
The penalty imposed upon a seaman for desertion 
when the vessel is safe in a safe harbor is just an 
inheritance and cannot be distinguished from the 
peonage under which the laborer on an estate be- 
longing to a nobleman prior to the French Revolu- 
tion was compelled to remain on that estate unless 
permitted by his master to leave it. There is no 
valid excuse for the continuation of that system in 
our days. More than a century ago there really 
ceased to be any reason for it. Where a vessel 
went and where men were at all likely to quit their 
ships, there were other seamen to be obtained, and 
whether the law permitted it or not. the men quit, 
as is abundantly proven when gold was discovered 
in Australia or in California, or when diamonds 
were discovered in South Africa, or gold was dis- 
covered in the northern part of Alaska. In some 
of these instances the men left and the vessels 
rotted at their anchor. There were no governing 
powers strong enough to bring the men back and 
compel them to labor. So that in the last instance 
all the penal laws and treaties compelling a seaman 
to labor against his will, when the vessel was in 
a safe harbor, were of very little utility and prac- 
tically of no value at all. 

Of course it is agreeable for the master to be 
in a position in which he docs not need to consider 
the feelings of the men under his command. It 
may be agreeable to the shipowner to be placed in 
a position in which he can get rid of the men 
when he wants to and hold them on board against 
their will when it suits his interest. But, sir, this 
is not equality before the law. If it be anything 
except stupidity, it is the beginning of that new 
servitude which the "Third Estate" is seeking to 
impose upon all working men, and to begin it with 
seamen, who are the most helpless. 
Ill 

In submitting the proposed draft of "Articles of 
Agreement" you state that there is a "legal necessity 
of reserving a large field for party agreements." 

It is with some regret, that I must conti 
a complete disagreement on this point. The "Arti- 
cles of Agreement" carry at this time in their 
womb the entire law maritime. Save and except, 
where as in France, the person is an inscribed sea- 
man, he is not a seaman at all except when under 
agreement with a vessel. When under no agree- 
ment he is now as free as other men and it is the 
signing of the maritime contract that hrings him 
under the law maritime. This law has been in proc- 
ess of development during past ages and is a 
compromise between the law of the ancient Rho- 
dians and the old Norse law. 

The Mediterranean seamen never knew freedom. 
The ancient Norse seamen never knew bondage 
except such as arose out of the "Common Hazard." 
The migrating Xorse seamen took their law with 
them, and in settling in southern countries they 
caused the modification, in Spain known as the 
"Consulate ,del Mare," in western Europe as "The 
Judgments of Oleron." Into this mixture went 
also "The Statutes of Visby," which had been mod- 
ified and made less humane by "The Laws of the 
Hanseatic League" and made still more harsh to 
the seamen and of more advantage to the ship- 
owners by the "Rescripts of Louis XIV of France." 

In the earlier times the seaman carried on trade 
on his own account, at least in northern countries, 
and we still call him "Merchant Seaman" as dis- 
tinct from the seaman employed on vessels of war. 
In those days there was no regular insurance of 
(Continued on Page 111) 



April, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



101 



RUNNING COST OF SHIPS Other items of operation specified in the 
diagram will be materially increased or de- 

The diagram shown on this page is repro- creased, as the case may be, by an efficient or 
duced from a series of charts prepared for inefficient crew. It is a most interesting 
the Sailors' Union of the Pacific by the Labor problem and a study decidedly worth while 
Bureau, Inc., of San Francisco. The purpose to every man in the shipping industry. The 
of this diagram is to clear up 
some of the mysteries of 
finance in ship operation. 

When shipowners talk for 
publicity they generally en- 
deavor to create the impres- 
sion that "wages" is the all 
important item in the cost of 
operating ships. When talk- 
ing to Congressional Commit- 
tees they virtually moan about 
the comparatively "h i g h" 
wages on American ships. 
When they want to effect a 
saving the wage item is 
usually the first to be at- 
tacked for reduction. Yet, 
only twelve cents out of each 
dollar of the total cost of 
ship operation is paid for 
wages. And this includes 
everybody's wages aboard 
ship from master to the low- 
est paid boy. The major item 
of expense is for fuel and port 
charges. Now it goes without saying that division of the circle (percentages of costs) 
an efficient crew, even though a high wage shown on this page is made upon excellent 
crew, will easily be the less expensive be- authority. It is based upon statistics fur- 
cause the two principal items in ship opera- nished to the Committee on Merchant Ma- 
tion namely, fuel and port charges, can be rine and Fisheries of the House of Rep- 
and will be very considerably reduced when resentatives by the United States Shipping 
efficient men are manning the ship. Board. 




A new scheme of old age pensions for sea- 
men has been proposed in Sweden. Accord- 
ing to the proposal the premium is to be 2y 2 
or 3 per cent of the monthly wages for old 
age and invalid persons, \y 2 per cent for life 
insurance, the latter premium to be paid 
half by the Government and half by the em- 
ploying shipowner. 



The good things of life do not drop out of 
the clouds as the result of a wish or a prayer, 
but come to us as the inevitable gain of de- 
termined and intelligent effort. 



The thirty-eighth anniversary of the Sailors' 
Union of the Pacific was celebrated in the 
union's hall at San Francisco on March 6 by 
a well-attended mass meeting. There was 
plenty of excellent oratory and good music. 
Every one present agreed that it was a worth- 
while birthday celebration. 



To labor for one's own living is dignified 
and honest, but to live upon the labor of 
others is to live by plunder, however it may 
be disguised by legal sanction and high- 
sounding names. 



102 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 1924 



Seamen's Journal 

Established In 1887 
Published on the first day of each month In San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW FURUSETH, President 

A. F. of L. Building, Washington. D. C. 

PATRICK FLYNN, First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

V. A, OLANDER, Second Vice-President 

166 W. Washington Street. Chicago, 111. 

THOS. CONWAY. Third Vice-President 

71 Main Street. Buffalo. N. Y. 

P. B. GILL, Fourth Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street. Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR. Fifth Vice-President 

1% Lewis Street. Boston. Mass. 

WM. H. BROWN. Sixth Vice-President 

202 Atlantic Avenue. Boston, Mass. 

OSCAR CARLSON. Seventh Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York, N. Y. 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary-Treasurer 

355-357 N. Clark Street. Chicago. 111. 

Office of Publication. 525 Market Street 
San Francisco. California 

Subscription price $1.50 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG Editor 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished in the JOURNAL, provided they are of general 
Interest, brief, legible, written on one side only of the 
paper, and accompanied by the writer's name and 
address. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the 
expressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscript. 

> ■'.".■'--■ 



- 



APRIL 1, 1924 



HIGH-PRICED AMERICAN CREWS 



A brilliant plan for the solution of the many 
grave problems affecting the American mer- 
chant marine is offered by Charles W. Brown 
in the March issue of the Atlantic Monthly. 

According to Mr. Brown, "so-called" Amer- 
ican sailors (he uses the term "so-called" re- 
peatedly) are to blame for all the troubles 
afflicting American merchant vessels. The 
wages and the standard of living of our so- 
called American sailors are too high. The 
Seamen's Union, too, comes in for several jabs 
from Mr. Brown's vitriolic pen. In fact, says 
pessimistic Mr. Brown, "the glories of the 
American sailor are in the past and can never 
be revived." Altogether it is a story quite 
unworthy for so high class a magazine as the 
Atlantic Monthly. 

Now for Mr. Brown's wonderful solution 
of the perplexing problem that has confounded 
business men and statesmen for several dec- 



ades. The solution is no more and no less 
than a suggestion that we sell or charter all 
our surplus tonnage to the Chinese. Sim- 
plicity itself, is it not? Strange that no one 
lias thought of it before! 

For, says Mr. Brown, with Chinese crews 
"these vessels could be operated as economic- 
ally as any in the world, and far more cheaply 
than any European steamers." 

Tlu-re is the substance and the meat of Mr. 
Brown's cocoanut — get cheap crews and you 
can compete ! 

It is almost impossible to believe, yet it is 
true that the great conspiracy of silence, fos- 
tered by American newspapers, has kept the 
American people in blissful ignorance of the 
fact that American ships in the foreign trade 
are already largely manned by Chinese. Fili- 
pinos and other cheap Asiatics. 

On page 11 of this issue is ocular evidence 
of a touching farewell staged by the Chinese 
crew of the S. S. President Lincoln to their 
retiring skipper. 

On another vessel operated by the same 
company, the S. S. President Cleveland, a re- 
cent check revealed that out of a total crew 
of 237 no less than 134 were Chinese. 56 were 
Filipinos, the percentage of Americans being 
only 18.5. And these vessels, while operated 
by a private concern, are still owned by the 
people of the United States. 

Seven of the "President" ships were recently 
sold to Captain Dollar at ridiculously low 
terms. Captain Dollar has been importing 
Chinese ever since to man his newly acquired 
vessels. There is no secret about these things, 
but the daily press, with a few noted excep- 
tions, has carefully censored the news- relating 
to the shameful discrimination against Ameri- 
can seamen. 

Even so reputable a publication as the 
Atlantic Monthly is used by propagandists to 
create the impression that American ships are 
manned by high-priced American crews, when 
as a matter of fact only the cheapest Orien- 
tals are employed ! 



The "Annual" of the Aberdeen Daily World, 
issued during the month, is worthy of special 
commendation. It contain- 114 page- of live 
news and valuable information about the won- 
derful resources of Grays Harbor country. 
We congratulate the entire staff of the World! 



April, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



103 



CO-OPERATION 



Allegations and insinuations that organ- 
ized labor will not work in co-operation with 
industrial management are given a knockout 
blow by the success of the union plan now 
in operation on the Baltimore & Ohio Rail- 
road. 

For several months the shops of the Balti- 
more & Ohio have been operating under a 
co-operative agreement with the shopmen's 
unions. The plan is not a company scheme 
designed to weaken organized labor, but an 
agreement between the International Asso- 
ciation of Machinists and other shop craft 
unions and the officials of the railroad com- 
pany. The spirit of the agreement is well 
illustrated by the preamble from the con- 
tract, which says : 

The welfare of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 
and its employes is dependent on the service which 
the railroad renders the public. Improvements in 
this service and economies in operating and main- 
tenance expenses result chiefly from willing co- 
operation between the railroad management and the 
voluntary organizations of its employes. When the 
groups responsible for better service and greater 
efficiency share fairly in the benefits which follow 
their joint efforts, improvements in the conduct of 
the railroad are greatly encouraged. The parties to 
this agreement recognize the foregoing principles 
a'nd agree to be governed by them in their relations. 

The B. & O. plan is unique because it 
provides that the employes give technical 
advisory service to decrease operating costs 
and increase efficiency in the service of the 
public. That it is a big step forward is 
recognized by all who have studied the plan. 
Typical of recent comments on the plan was 
one made by Mark W. Potter, Interstate 
Commerce Commissioner, who said: 

It is the biggest, most progressive and enlight- 
ened and intelligent development in industrial rela- 
tions in the last half century. The experiment is 
the labor union's answer to the false charge that 
the workers are at enmity with the employer, and 
systematically slow down production to increase 
cost. Labor is not now a slacker, and never was a 
slacker and the B. & O. experiment should put an 
end to this foolish charge. 

With a few honorable exceptions, Ameri- 
can shipowners still profess to believe that 
the use of coercive and bulldozing tactics 
on their part will make American seamen 
humble, docile, voiceless, kickless, etc. But 
many of them are learning a much- 
needed lesson while the union baiting is go- 
ing on. And sooner or later they will be 
anxious to disown their blacklisting dis- 



charge books and repudiate their costly scab 
shipping offices. 

There never has been and never can be 
genuine and wholehearted co-operation be- 
tween employers and employes as long as 
the former conduct themselves as autocrats. 

Autocracy in industry is just as anti-Amer- 
ican as autocracy in government. Neither 
can be perpetuated among free peoples. 



AMERICA'S IMMIGRATION POLICY 



Within the last few years the American 
people have begun to realize that the proper 
solution of the immigration problem is a 
matter of vital importance to the country. 
The vast tide of immigration, which in the 
past fifteen years has amounted to nearly 
10,000,000 persons, is making folks sit up and 
take notice. It is particularly interesting to 
note that with the year 1896 a change in the 
character of the immigration began to take 
place, and instead of receiving a preponder- 
ance of immigrants from northern and west- 
ern Europe as in the earlier years of the his- 
tory of the country, they have formed but 
28.7 per cent of the arrivals during the last 
twenty-five years, while the eastern and 
southern European laces have furnished 65.5 
per cent of the immigrants. No such move- 
ment of peoples has taken place in the his- 
tory of mankind as that involved in the immi- 
gration to the United States in the past 
century and a half, and it is self-evident that 
if allowed to continue it can not fail to have 
an even more profound influence upon the 
current of our national life than has already 
been the case. 

Without a doubt the most startling thing 
in connection with the immigration question 
are the brazen efforts now made by various 
foreign governments and particularly by 
Japan to prevent the Congress of the United 
States from enacting more stringent immi- 
gration restrictions. If America as a nation 
can no longer determine its own immigration 
policy, if we must trim our sails on purely 
domestic question of this character to please 
the whims and fancies of a few European and 
Oriental potentates then we had better frank- 
ly admit our incapacity for self-government and 
become a mandate for the League of Nations. 



104 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 1924 



PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE 



When Admiral Dewey steamed into 
Manila bay and sunk the Spanish fleet there 
was great rejoicing throughout America over 
this daring exploit of our navy. 

The enlisted men in Admiral Dewey's fleet 
could hardly foresee that a quarter of a cen- 
tury later Filipinos would be given prefer- 
ence over Americans in the manning of 
American ships. Yet such is the situation 
today. Even in vessels owned by the United 
States and temporarily allocated to private 
operators by the Shipping Board the Filipino 
and the Chinaman are given first choice. 

It is true the Shipping Board, many months 
ago, issued an order forbidding the employ- 
ment of Filipinos when American seamen are 
available ; but this "order," like many others, 
is openly flouted and deliberately ignored. 

The Filipino in America occupies a peculiar 
status. He is not eligible to citizenship yet 
he is at liberty to enter American territory 
almost without restriction. 

Many thousands of Filipinos have been 
imported by the Hawaiian sugar planters 
and a considerable percentage of these men 
have "moved on" to the mainland of the 
United States. 

Year after year, the situation is becoming 
worse. More and more Filipinos are being 
used to lower the standard of American 
workers. Among others, American cigar and 
tobacco workers are particularly bitter in 
their complaints about unfair competition of 
cheap labor employed in the island's cigar 
and tobacco factories. 

The one ray of hope is Philippine in- 
dependence. And this is, fortunately, becom- 
ing a live issue in Washington. To be sure. 
big business, Secretary of War Weeks and 
President Coolidge stand by General Wood 
in declaring that the Filipinos are unfit for 
independence and are ungrateful for the bless- 
ings conferred upon them by 25 years of 
American military occupation. Senator John- 
son of California, chairman of the Senate 
Committee on Territories and Insular Posses- 
sions, says that it is clear that the United 
States cannot defend the Islands since Guam 
has been given up as a military base and the 
Hughes treaties have surrendered the right 



to fortify the Philippines. Senator Reed of 
Pennsylvania, a conservative Republican, 
flatly disagrees with the President and says 
the Islands should be turned loose immedi- 
ately. The Progressives and Democrats, led 
by Senator Robinson of Arkansas and Sena- 
tor King of Utah in this matter, denounce 
Mr. Coolidge's attitude as one of repudiation 
of the pledges made to the Filipino people 
by President McKinley and by Congress. It 
is to be hoped that the Independence resolu- 
tion will be brought to a vote before ad- 
journment of Congress this summer. 

When the Filipino people have won their 
independence they will be less subject to 
exploitation by American plutocrats. And 
American workers, ashore and afloat, will 
begin to enjoy at least the same degree of 
protection that is now enforced against all 
other peoples with low standards of living. 



SEAMEN'S OCCUPATIONAL RISKS 



After an exhaustive investigation, Sir 
Westcott S. Abell finds that the average 
death rate for British seamen engaged in the 
foreign trade is about 4 per thousand em- 
ployed, of which 2 per thousand arises from 
accidents. The occupational risk of miners 
was about 2 per thousand in 1890, and this 
figure was reduced to 1.5 in 1902 and rose 
again to 1.7 in 1907. But in order to make 
the comparison as fair as possible, the time 
for which the seaman and miner are exposed 
to risk must be considered. It may be taken 
roughly that vessels engaged in overseas 
trade are in port half the time, and that 
miners working, say, 48 hours a week are 
subject to underground dangers for one-third 
of their time. 

The seaman may therefore be considered 
as exposed to risk half as long again as the 
miner, and, taking this into account, the 
risk for the seaman should be reduced by 
one-third — i. e., between 1.33 or 1.7. as com- 
pared with 1.5 or 1.7 for the miner. 



The real friend of labor shows his friend- 
liness by granting the claims of the workers 
to know most about their own affairs. The 
professional in that line is known by his 
assumed superiority of judgment. 



8 



April, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



105 



NSURING AGAINST UNEMPLOYMENT 



To work with security, knowing that the 
pay check will come even when business de- 
pression enforces idleness — will unemploy- 
ment insurance make this possible? 

In its agreement with the Chicago Indus- 
trial Federation of Clothing Manufacturers, 
the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of Amer- 
ica are attempting to answer that question by 
practical experiment. It is a pioneer effort in 
this field for the United States, although simi- 
lar experiments have been made in Europe 
with more or less success. In Europe, how- 
ever, the schemes have usually involved gov- 
ernment subsidies, to which the American 
people do not take kindly. 

Under the Chicago agreement each employe 
furnishes \ l / 2 per cent of his weekly wage, 
and the employer furnishes a sum equal to 
that paid by all his employes. The Insurance 
Fund is under the jurisdiction of a Board of 
Trustees, composed of an equal number of 
representatives of manufacturers and employes, 
and of one neutral member. An employe is 
entitled to receive compensation during un- 
employment, provided he has made payments 
to the fund for a year, "and has not willingly 
surrendered his position nor been dismissed 
for cause. The payments are to equal 40% 
of his full time weekly wage, but not to 
amount to more than $20 a week nor continue 
for more than five weeks in a year. 

Under the terms of the agreement, the con- 
tributions of manufacturer and employes were 
to commence immediately upon ratification of 
the agreement, and insurance payments were 
to commence not earlier than January, 1924, 
nor later than May, 1924. It is, of course, 
too soon to judge of the success or failure of 
the plan, but of its importance there is no 
doubt. 

Unemployment is the factor of uncertainty 
which frequently consumes the workers' mar- 
gin of savings and renders life a hopeless 
struggle. Its importance to the stability of 
industry is more clearly recognized than ever 
before. Tons of books have been written 
about unemployment and hundreds of meth- 
ods proposed for its cure. The experiment 
which the Clothing Workers' Union is under- 
taking in Chicago is worth many books and 



paper solutions. If it succeeds it will point 
the way for skilled workers in other indus- 
tries, who may profit by the practical lessons 
drawn from Chicago's experience. Both the 
manufacturers and the union members co- 
operating under the terms of the agreement 
are making a splendid contribution to indus- 
trial peace and prosperity. 



GERMAN SEAMEN'S STRIKE END.ED 

After two months of struggle to increase 
their miserable wages the crews of German 
vessels in British ports called off the strike. 
Upon return to their home ports many of the 
strikers were arrested and had suspended 
sentences imposed upon them. This sus- 
pended sentence business indicates that the 
German authorities lacked the nerve to go 
through with the severe penalties for de- 
sertion that may be imposed upon German 
seamen for quitting their jobs, even though 
the ship may be in a perfectly safe harbor. 
The short-sighted leadership of the German 
Seamen's Union always opposed any change 
in the ancient statutes denying to seamen 
"the right to quit" the ship until their con- 
tract had expired. It is to be hoped that 
the rich experience recently gained in Brit- 
ish ports will cause a change of heart in this 
respect. 

It should be duly recorded in this connec- 
tion that the worthy (?) Joseph Cotter, Pres- 
ident of the dual seamen's union in England, 
was violently opposed to the strike of Ger- 
man seamen in British ports. Although pos- 
ing as a great progressive with radical ten- 
dencies, Joe had himself interviewed by va- 
rious plutocratic newspapers to advertise his 
abiding faith in a one-sided contract that still 
ties the seaman to his ship like the galley 
slave of old. As a self-styled leader of a 
small faction of disgruntled seamen, Mr. Cot- 
ter has long since ceased to be useful to the 
Seamen's movement and his explosive com- 
ment with regard to the recent German Sea- 
men's strike brands him as a person entirely 
unworthy of serious attention. He shall have 
no more free advertising in these columns. 



It is easy to be independent when all be- 
hind you agree with you, but the difnculty 
comes when 999 of your friends think you 
wrong. — Wendell Phillips. 



106 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 1924 



THE UNITED STATES OF EUROPE 



The National Council of the French Sea- 
men's Federation met on- January 19. A res- 
olution was adopted protesting against the 
application of the turnover tax to the fisher- 
nun's share in their catch, on the ground 
that this share is a part of their wages, upon 
which they already pay an income tax; and 
calling upon the Finance Committee of the 
Senate to rescind the order. 

A lengthy discussion on the international 
situation took place and the following reso- 
lution was adopted : 

The National Council of the French Seamen's 

Federation, in view of the instability of the Peace, 
which the ambitions, greed and intrigues of Euro- 
pean capitalism and the reactionary plots of Euro- 
pean governments are rendering every day more 
insecure, considers that the idea of constituting a 
"United States of Europe" should be examined, 
and calls upon all organizations affiliated to the 
International Transportworkers' Federation to do 
all they can to spread this idea in the circles which 
they influence, with a view to its ultimate realiza- 
tion. 

More power to our French comrades! Their 
resoluting for a United States of Europe may 
seem a little premature, but some day the bit- 
ter hatreds and fierce jealousies now extant 
in Europe will have to give way to the spirit 
of tolerance and co-operation. 

It may be a far distant day, yet — unless we 
give up all hope for a progressive civiliza- 
tion these never-to-be-forgotten word- pi 
Woodrow Wilson must ultimately be written 
upon the banner of every nation: 

"The world must be made safe for democracy. 
Its peace must be planted upon the tested founda- 
tions of political liberty. We have no selfish ends 
to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. 
We seek no indemnities for ourselves* no material 
compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely 
make. We are but one of the champions of the 
rights of mankind. We shall be satisfied when 
those rights have been made as secure as the faith 
and freedom of nations can make them.'' 



MO'RB FRENZIED FINANCE 



Talk about Teapot Dome and easy money 
— well, the sale of the steamship City of 
I.ms \ngeles for $100,000, after the Shipping 
Board spent $4,677,001 on her in three year-, 
is another indication how fortunes are 
"made." 

The vessel was taken over from the mili- 
tary branch of government by the Shipping 
Board earlv in 1920. The Board refitted her 



at a cost of $2,686,077. This included the in- 
stalling- of a fuel-oil system and the rebuild- 
ing of passenger accommodations. Later the 
vessel was transferred to the Pacific pas- 
senger service. The Board expended $47,948 
for more repairs, including passenger quar- 
ters; $60,000 for equipment and $21,976 for 
other equipment. 

The Board then advertised for bids for the 
vessel. The Los Angeles Steamship Com- 
pany was the only bidder and was awarded 
the ship for $100,000. This is $4,500,000 less 
than the Board expended. 



There is a decided movement in Japan to 
improve the conditions of workers employed 
in the maritime industry. This is apparent 
in view of two requests recently made to 
the Joint Maritime Commission of the Inter- 
national Labor Office (League of Nations), 
suggesting the advisability of an International 
Maritime Conference, both of which requests 
have emanated from Japan. The first re- 
quest is from the Japanese Seamen's Union, 
suggesting the necessity of instituting or ex- 
tending existing legislation to give prol 
to seamen as regards sickness, invalidity, 
old age, accidents, etc. The other, from the 
Officers and Engineers' Association of the 
Japanese merchant marine, points out the ad- 
visability of setting up in the various mari- 
time nations councils composed of shipown- 
ers and seamen for the purpose of considering 
the problems of the seamen in the respective 
countries. 

German shipowners have evidently not been 

frightened by the strike of (ierman seamen 
in foreign ports. They propose that the 
eight-hour day .shall only apply to vessels of 
over 2000 tons, instead of those over 1000 
tons, as at present. They also want t<> abolish 
the one day leave now granted every month, 
and in other respects cut down on established 
conditions relating to leave and overtime. < >n 
the other hand they offer a wage increase of 
only 7 marks (gold basis i a month, which 
would brisg an able seamen's wages Kip to 
65.50 marks. Negotiations are still continu- 
ing, but the seamen's section of the German 
Traffic Union considers that it would be 
ter to have no agreement at all than ti» have 
such an unfavorable one. 



10 



April, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



107 



CHINESE CREW OF "PRESIDENT LINCOLN" STAGES 
FAREWELL PARTY TO RETIRING SKIPPER 




Photo by courtesy of the J 11m 



What would President Lincoln say if he could see American ships, paid for and owned by the people of 
the United States, manned by Chinese while hundreds of capable and qualified American seamen are 

walking the streets looking for jobs? 



The advisability of calling a special mari- 
time session of the International Labor Con- 
ference (functioning under the auspices of the 
League of Nations) was discussed at the 
meeting of the Joint Maritime Commission 
recently held in London. Such a special ses- 
sion was held in Genoa, Italy, in 1920, at 
which time the Joint Maritime Commission 
composed of seamen, shipowners, and Gov- 
ernment representatives, was constituted. The 



International Labor Office has pointed out 
that it is the practice of the governing body 
to draw up the Agenda of the annual confer- 
ence two years in advance of the meeting, lo 
allow for exhaustive investigation of the ques- 
tions to be discussed. It would therefore be 
impossible to call a maritime conference be- 
fore 1926. The 1925 conference has already 
been set aside as one at which social insurance 
will be the fundamental topic for discussion. 



11 



108 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 1924 



A STUDY OF ECONOMICS 

(By Professor Lloyd M. Cosgrave. Formerly Pro- 
fessor of Economics, Indiana University. 
Lecturer to Workers' Study Cla- 



Every one knows that questions of wealth 
and industry are very important. 

In the first place many political controver- 
sies and most political campaigns are based 
upon them. Take, for example, the present 
contest at Washington over what the income 
surtax should be; or the disputes that occur 
over how far public ownership should extend ; 
or failures to agree concerning the protective 
tariff; or disputes over boundaries under in- 
ternational treaties. These are all disputes 
that are based frankly upon the economic in- 
terests of all or part of the country. These 
disputes deal with either the production or 
distribution of wealth. 

In addition to political matters, every one 
is profoundly affected personally by the 
amount of wealth in his possession. Every 
one's outlook is also determined in large 
measure by the kind of industry in which he 
is employed. It could hardly be otherwise. 

Thus it is of importance to study matters 
of wealth and industry, which comprise the 
important branches of the science of econom- 
ics. It is the purpose of the present article to 
set forth the major topics in economics that 
citizens of our country should know about. 
These will be discussed in this series. 

It is impossible to make a list of subjects 
in economics that includes the interests of all 
readers. The following topics, however, in- 
clude only those subjects of first importance. 
They are all matters that are much in dis- 
pute today; they all profoundly affect social 
peace and welfare. Upon the successful solu- 
tion of these problems depends much of the 
well-being of many individuals and of society 
in general, both at present and in the future. 

The following is an analysis of "Incomes 
in the United States" ; 

Nobody can know how much wealth is 
produced in the United States during a year 
for many things that are valuable are not as 
a rule given any money price — such as the 
service of mothers and friends, the use of an 
and sunlight, etc. 

However, every year in the United States, 
there is produced much wealth that is given 



a money value and an important question is 
how is this divided among the 110,000,000 
people of the country ? 

Three questions arise in this connection : 
How many receive small incomes (less than 
$2000 per year)? How many receive moder- 
ate incomes (between $2000 and $5000 per 
year)? How many receive large incomes 
(over $5000 per year) ? 

If we leave out of consideration children 
and those who depend upon other people, 
then the answers to these three questions are: 

Eighty-five out of every one hundred per- 
sons or 85% of the people receive less than 
$2000 per year. 

Thirteen out of every hundred persons or 
13% of the people receive between $2000 and 
$5000 per year. 

Two out of every hundred or 2', of the 
people receive over $5000 per year. 

The persons receiving small incomes are so 
numerous that more than half of what the 
country produces each year goes to them. 
That is, 

The above 85 per cent of the people receive 
in the aggregate about 60 per cent of the coun- 
try's total production. 

The above 13 per cent receive about 20 per 
cent of the total production. 

The above 2 per cent receive about 20 pet- 
cent of the total production. 

Stated in another way, the poor people of 
the country receive about 60 per cent of the 
wealth produced in the country each year; the 
well-to-do people receive about 20 per cent 
and the wealthy people receive about 20 per 
cent. 

This indicates, of course, that more of the 
wealth produced each year in the country 
goes to the very numerous poor people than 
to the very few wealthy people. It could not 
be otherwise. If it were, those who are now 
"poor" would be actually starved for each one 
would receive almost nothing. 



Agitators, from Christ downward, have 
been the salt of the earth. It is only such 
as they who save society from dry rot and 
putrefaction. 



The chains of wage slavery are forged by 
the ignorance of those who bear the chains. 



12 



April, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



109 



IS MAN ABOVE THE DOLLAR? 



The United States Supreme Court has ruled 
(Railroad Commission of Texas vs. Eastern 
Texas Railroad) that the dollar may strike 
when it is not receiving a sufficient wage (in- 
terest). The "rights of the public" are not 
considered. 

The court takes a contrary position when 

human beings are involved. In the Adamson 

case — officially known as Wilson vs. New — 

the Supreme Court said : 

"That right (to strike) is necessarily surrendered 
when the men are engaged in public service. They 
are comparable to soldiers in the ranks who, in the 
presence of the enemies of their country, may not 
desert." 

The Texas decision, just rendered, involved 
the right of a small railroad to cease opera- 
tions because it is losing money. 

State officials insisted that this will incon- 
venience the public and that the road should 
operate until its charter expires. 

The Supreme Court upheld the railroad's 
perpetual strike. Said the court : 

"The usual "permissive charter of a railroad com- 
pany does not give rise to any obligation on the 
part of the company to operate the road at a loss. 

"The company, although devoting its property to 
the uses of the public, does not do, so irrevocably 
or absolutely, but on condition that the public shall 
supply sufficient traffic on a reasonable rate basis 
to yield a fair return. 

"And if at any time it develops with reasonable 
certainty that future operations must be at a loss, 
the company may discontinue operation and get 
what it can out of the property by dismantling the 
road." 

In other cases the court has taken the same 
position — that the dollar has the right to 
strike, regardless of the public's inconve- 
nience. 

The human being, however, is not accorded 
this right. 

The Supreme Court, so solicitous for the 
dollar, has said that public utility workers 
"are comparable to soldiers in the ranks who, 
in the presence of the enemies of their coun- 
try, may not desert." 

The dollar is permitted to strike. The court 
rules, it owes no duty to the public. 

The worker is not permitted to strike with- 
out bringing odium to. his patriotism. 

If the public utility dollar finds its employ- 
ment unprofitable, if it operates at a loss, the 
court says : "Close up shop ; dismantle your 
plant ; go on a perpetual strike ; the conve- 



nience of the public can not be considered 
when you lose money." 

If the public utility worker finds his em- 
ployment unprofitable, if he operates at a loss, 
if he is unable to meet increased living costs, 
and strikes to secure a higher wage, note the 
changed attitude of the court. 

Then the court talks of "soldiers in the 
ranks" and prepares to classify the strikers 
as enemies of their country. 

When the dollar strikes, this course is ap- 
proved by the court. Permanent inconve- 
nience must be borne by the public when the 
dollar does not secure its wage (interest). 

When the worker strikes, this course is 
condemned by the court. The public's tem- 
porary inconvenience is of more importance 
than maintaining the right to cease work and 
secure a higher living standard that bene- 
fits all. 

Now, who is responsible for agitation 
against our judiciary? 



AS OTHERS SEE US 

A recent visitor in the United States who 
has for many years been an active figure in 
the British labor movement made the fol- 
lowing frank and interesting comment on 
conditions in America: 

In the United States the triumph of pro- 
hibition is a class triumph. The rich may 
and do drink, and there is much reason to 
believe that they drink more under prohibi- 
tion than they drank before it. This imposi- 
tion on one class of a rule of life which in 
fact is not applied to the other is not the 
worst feature of prohibition as it appears to 
the unbiased observer. 

The worst feature of prohibition appears 
when it is identified as a manifestation of the 
desire of the Puritans, active in America, to 
suppress any habit or opinion which for any 
reason is distasteful to them. 

The cry of the Puritans in America, as 
elsewhere, is "refrain." They stand for de- 
nial and interdiction and the compelling of 
others into their narrowed and mortified 
scheme of life. The suppression of drink is 
to be only the first of a long list of sup- 
pressions. The movement against tobacco 
has already begun, and tbe Anti-Nicotine 
League is hopeful of repeating, sooner or 



13 



112 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

SELF-HELP VERSUS SELF-PITY BOOK REVIEW 



April, 1924 



Self-pity, passive submission to prevent- 
able hardships, loss of individual respect — - 
these are the characteristics of the habitual 
loser, the hopeless failure. If you think you 
are beaten, you are. If you cherish the idea 
that a job is too big for your shoulders, you 
and the job are destined not to be long to- 
gether. Your union can accomplish things 
only to that degree in which you place confi- 
dence in your union. Achievement is ob- 
tained by the spirit to move forward; the 
union whose membership is indifferent, in- 
active and submissive, cannot achieve sub- 
stantial recognition. Successful unions are 
not made by two or three general officers. 
They develop only when the membership is 
of the necessary high caliber. The officers 
may have to their credit a reasonable mea- 
sure of attainment, but if they lack member- 
ship support and concerted action, that which 
may have been gained is easily sacrificed. 
There does not exist today on the face of 
the earth a union but what can be made a 
vital factor in labor's program of advance- 
ment, if the membership so wills it. There 
are no obstacles so stupendous that they 
cannot be overcome by united action and 
intensive effort. 



DOLLAR'S CREWS LIVE HIGH 



When the President Adams, the first steamer 
in the new around-the-world service of the 
Dollar line to arrive at the Panama Canal, 
reached Colon she gave an order for the fol- 
lowing supplies intended for her Chinese crew : 
Chinese cabbage, dried white cabbage, white 
lily root, dried lily flower, bamboo shoots, 
green beans, black beans (salted), bean sticks, 
salted eggs, seaw r eed, salted ginger, dried scal- 
lops, pickled lemons, pea oil, dried oysters, 
dried shrimps, curb beans, red and white; 
bean sauce, plum sauce, dried flat fish. 

The only items not supplied on the order 
were twenty-four tins of okra, which was out 
of stock, and fresh lily root, which is not ob- 
tainable in the Canal Zone. 



We will never be truly civilized until we 
cease to be a nation of monev-chasers. 



Woodrow Wilson's Case for the League of 
Nations, by Hamilton Foley, Princeton Uni- 
versity Press, Princeton, N. J. Price $2. 

This is a compilation of addresses delivered 
by President Wilson in explanation of the 
Covenant of the League of Nations and the 
Treaty of Versailles. The explanation to the 
Senate was made in August, 1919, and those 
to the people of the United States were com- 
prised in "some 37 addresses delivered dur- 
ing his tour of the Western States in the 
month of September following 1 ." In addition, 
Mr. Foley has included in the book the full 
text of the Covenant, and two addresses de- 
livered before the Peace Conference in Paris. 
The book was prepared with President Wil- 
son's approval and. as Mr. Foley points out, 
"every word in this book is Mr. Wilson's 
own word, and all are here used in explana- 
tion of that detail of the subject in which 
he used them." 

Hie first chapter. "The World War." gives 
the historical background for the Treaty of 
Versailles, going back to the Vienna Peace 
Conference in 1815, the Monroe Doctrine. 
outlining events leading to the World War, 
and the factors determining America 
trance into the struggle. 

Succeeding chapters on the Treaty of \ er- 
<ailles, a careful discussion of the League of 
Mations, and of America and World Prob- 
lems, bring the main portion of the book- 
to a close. Appended are: Address opening 
the Discussion as to a League of Nations. 
the Address Explaining the Covenant, Presi- 
dent Wilson's Advisers, Cablegrams from 
Taft and Root, Interpretation of Article X. 
and the Covenant of the League. 

This compilation is timely and interesting. 
It is published at a time when the League of 
Nations is a subject of vital importance. 
Whatever be one's personal opinion of the 
wisdom of America'- entry into the League 
of Nations, this book is worth reading as a 
fair statement of the opinion of the League's 
most earnest advocate, and the man who was 
presumably best acquainted with the pur- 
poses of the League. 

For the sake of his cause, it is perhaps a 
pity that Woodrow Wilson's arguments 



1', 



April, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



113 



could not have been presented by another 
than himself. In the task of winning popular 
support he is not a particularly effective 
advocate. With the exception of a few pages, 
there is a constant feeling that he is endeav- 
oring to employ his knowledge of "mob 
psychology," to play upon the emotions of 
the people by sentimental appeals, rather 
than to reach their intelligence with a fair 
discussion of the issues involved. As an in- 
dividual Woodrow Wilson was too detached 
and intellectualized to express accurately the 
common emotions and sentiments. He prob- 
ably realized this, and in trying to bring his 
ideas into the popular idiom, he succeeded 
neither in doing justice to those ideas, nor 
in framing a very reasonable argument. 
Throughout the addresses one feels that 
Woodrow Wilson was making a supreme at- 
tempt to convert his hearers to the League. 
This attempt fell short, not because of the 
sincerity of his purpose, but because he was 
unable to believe in the intelligence of his 
listeners, and so failed to express himself 
sincerely or clearly. Perhaps he cared too 
much for the welfare of the League to dis- 
cuss it with sufficient detachment. What- 
ever the reason, and despite their undeniable 
value, the explanations compiled here do not 
approach his earlier writing in their power 
to convince. — M. T. H. 



BERLIN AS INLAND PORT 



The city of Berlin has nearly four million 
inhabitants and is the second largest Ger- 
man inland port, being outranked only by 
Duisberg-Rurhort. On account of its loca- 
tion on both banks of the Spree it has access 
to 3000 miles of inland waterways, all navi- 
gable by barges of from 600 to 1000 tons 
deadweight. In 1922 water craft brought 
commodities weighing 3,000,000 tons to the 
German capital and carried away 600,000 tons 
of freight. 

Berlin is connected by water with the 
ports of Hamburg and Stettin, the Ruhr re- 
gion, the whole of Saxony, Upper Silesia and 
Czecho-Slovakia. The city's harbor facilities 
cover about 270 acres. The docks have a 
waterfront of 7y 2 miles and are equipped 
with 71 cranes and four elevators. 



OUR WASHINGTON LETTER 

(By Laurence Todd) 

Washington, March 15. — Legislative mat- 
ters are receiving little consideration in Con- 
gress this winter, because of the discovery, 
through the investigation of the fraudulent 
leasing of the naval oil lands, that the pres- 
ent administration is unlikely to enforce laws 
when once they are enacted. The country is 
faced by the spectacle of an administration 
whose chief activities seem to be evasion or 
violation of law. 

Seamen are familiar enough with the sys- 
tematic evasion and defiance of the Seamen's 
Act by the Federal enforcement officials. 
They have spent years in the vain attempt to 
induce the Bureau of Navigation to enforce 
the language clause and other vital features 
of this measure. But the rest of the Nation 
has not be.en so conscious of the fact that 
public officials have held the law in contempt 
according to their political convenience. The 
discovery that the Secretary of the Interior 
received $100,000 in cash in a suitcase from 
Doheny and that millions were paid to other 
influential members of the administration 
party on various pretexts by the oil com- 
panies has created so much excitement that 
Congress has lost interest in the regular run 
of its work. Sessions of the scandal-investi- 
gating committees at the Senate have been 
besieged by crowds of listeners and the press 
of the country has been compelled to give up 
most of its news space to printing the amaz- 
ing testimony of big politicians, bankers, edi- 
tors, and oil speculators, as the various plots 
and intrigues have been traced down. 

Up to date Secretary of the Navy Denby 
alone has been forced from the Cabinet. At- 
torney-General Daugherty clings to his office 
and retards the prosecution of grafters of all 
kinds, while Senator Wheeler's committee un- 
folds the tacit conspiracy of lawlessness which 
centers in Daugherty's office. The sordid hy- 
pocrisy of the whole rotten affair is summed 
up in the scene at the country estate of Mc- 
Lean of the Washington Post, where Presi- 
dent Harding, Secretary of State Hughes, and 
Attorney-General Daugherty joined in view- 
ing prizefight pictures which could not le- 
gally be brought into the District of Colum- 
bia. Hughes made his reputation by his fight 



M 



114 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 1924 



against the racetrack evil in New York State 
years ago. The meeting at which he viewed 
this prizefight film was followed by a secret 
deal through which the promoters of the fight 
picture, including Tex Rickard, gave half of 
the profits for its illegal showing throughout 
the country to three men connected with Mc- 
Lean and Daugherty. 

Ruin of the political hopes of President 
Coolidge is a foregone conclusion. The aver- 
age observer in ^'ashington figures that "Cau- 
tious Cal," who is so cautious that he has not 
asked Daugherty to resign, will get about as 
many electoral votes as Taft had in 1912 — 
the votes of Utah and Vermont. 

The House has named a committee to in- 
vestigate the affairs of the Shipping Board. 
It is anticipated that this inquiry will develop 
the scandalous waste of money outlined by 
Senator Fletcher in his speeches, and that it 
will trace the connection between the ap- 
pointment of Chairman Lasker and the as- 
tounding misuse of funds and stuffing of the 
payroll which followed. If anything were 
needed to show the country that the adminis- 
tration which began in March, 1921, has been 
the most sinister in its methods and the most 
disastrous in the fruits of its policy that the 
country has ever known, the airing of the 
Shipping Board scandal may well furnish that 
evidence. 

Yet the President, looking only at the 
steady accumulation of handpicked delegates 
by organized job-holders, and feeling more 
and more confident of the Presidential nomi- 
nation at Cleveland, has ventured to strike 
another blow at labor. He is tacitly support- 
ing his lame duck Postmaster-General. Many 
New of Indiana, in refusing any readjustment 
in the wages of the three hundred thousand 
employes of the postoffice. It has been shown 
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in the De- 
partment of Labor that the postoffice clerks 
have, during the past ten years, been paid at 
least $400 a year less than a minimum suste- 
nance wage for a family. In other words, 
they have been robbed during the past ten 
years of $4000 each, which they would have 
received had they been paid a decent allow- 
ance for food, clothing, rent, etc. 

Senator Shipstead of Minnesota has de- 
manded an investigation of the Morgan l<>an 



of $100,000,000 to France, on the ground that 
it may be used as the basis for entangling the 
United States in a possible quarrel between 
France and England over the French determi- 
nation to destroy Germany. He has called at- 
tention to the statement made by the late 
American ambassador in London. Mr. Page, 
that the British Government had overdrawn 
its account with J. P. Morgan & Co. by $400,- 
000,000 shortly before the United States en- 
tered the World War, and that after our dec- 
laration of war the British promptly repaid 
Morgan with money borrowed from our 
Treasury. lie asks whether the State Depart- 
ment had a hand in this new Morgan loan to 
France, and also how it happens that such a 
loan is permitted to the chief military power 
of Europe when that power owes us $4,000.- 
000.000 and apparently has no intention of 
paying it. 

Asiatic exclusion has been given a thorough 
discussion before the Senate Committee on 
Immigration by ex-Senator Phelan, Y. S. Mc- 
Clatchy, and other Californians. No change 
in the attitude of the Senators is yet indi- 
cated. The Senate will probably strike the 
Asiatic Exclusion Clause from the pending 
Immigration Pill, and the "Gentlemen's 
Agreement" with Japan will be maintained. 
Pacific Coast members of Congress are hope- 
ful, however, that as a result of the protests 
coming from their section of the country the 
Japanese Government will sincerely enforce 
its embargo against the coming of Japanese 
laborers to the United States. 

No steps have been taken, as yet, t<> secure 
a vote in the House on the proposed new 
Transportation Labor Act, which is supported 
by the railroad labor organizations, the Long- 
shoremen, the Masters, Mates and Pilots, and 
tlic Marine Engineers. This bill providi 

•em of conferences, adjustment boards, 
mediation and conciliation boards and arbi- 
tration boards. 



CANDLES COST MONEY 

A Scotchman was on his deathbed and his 
wife sat by him all day until well toward 
night, and her work was not done. s<> she got 
restless ami said, "John, I"!l gae <>n aboot my 

work, and if you should ,^ r o before I conn- in. 
] (lease blow out the candle." 

18 



April, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



115 



CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 



Alfred Street vs. Shipowners' Association 
— This is an effort to enjoin the organized 
shipowners from continuing their so-called 
employment bureaus and to force seamen to 
carry out their black-listing discharge book. 
The District Court ruled against the seamen. 
An appeal was then taken to the Supreme 
Court of the United States. That tribunal 
referred the case for trial to the Circuit Court 
of Appeals. The latter Court, on March 20, 
listened to the arguments of Attorneys Hut- 
ton and Olney, representing the seamen and 
shipowners, respectively. The case was then 
submitted on supplementary briefs to be filed 
by both sides. A decision of the Circuit Court 
should be forthcoming early in May. 

Payment of Wages — The case of Cox vs. 
Lykes Bros., involving a seaman's claim of 
two days' pay for each and every day during 
which payment of wages was delayed, has 
finally received the attention of the Court of 
Appeals of New York State. The Municipal 
Court of the City of New York had ruled in 
favor of the seaman. Next, the Appellate 
Division of the New York Supreme Court re- 
versed the judgment of the lower Court. And 
now the Court of Appeals has reversed the 
determination of the Appellate Division and 
affirmed the judgment of the Municipal Court, 
with costs of all appeals. 

The amount at stake in this case was not 
so very large but the principle involved was 
of real importance. Attorney Axtell of New 
York again deserves great credit for perse- 
verance shown in carrying the fight to a 
successful conclusion. 

Jurisdiction of State Accident Commissions 

— The U. S. Supreme Court has affirmed 
judgments in State of Washington vs. Daw- 
son and Industrial Accident Commission of 
California vs. Rolph. In the first case the 
question was whether one engaged in the 
business of stevedoring, whose employees 
work on board ships in the navigable waters 
of Puget Sound, can be compelled to contrib- 
ute to the accident fund provided by the 
Workmen's Compensation Act of Washington. 
In the second case the question was whether 
the Industrial Accident Commission of Cali- 
fornia had jurisdiction to award compensa- 



tion for the death of a workman killed while 
actually at work upon a vessel moored at a 
dock in San Franciso Bay and discharging 
its cargo. The supreme courts of both states 
held the state laws went beyond intrastate 
powers, and the U. S. Supreme Court affirmed 
this position. In 1917 the U. S. Supreme 
Court refused to allow a claim for compensa- 
tion under the New York Compensation Act 
for death resulting from injuries sustained 
while a deceased was on board and engaged 
in unloading vessel. The Court then referred 
to the destruction of the uniformity in mari- 
time matters contemplated by the Constitu- 
tion that would result by allowing a state 
to subject foreign ships to such obligations ; 
and stated that freedom of navigation be- 
tween the states and with foreign countries 
would be seriously impeded. 



SAILING SHIPS OF THE FUTURE 

In a discussion of the query whether the 
sailing ship is doomed as a vehicle of modern 
overseas commerce, the Shipping Gazette re- 
. marks that the outlook for the windjammer, 
whether in the coasting or the deep sea trades, 
is not promising. The depression in freights 
appears to have hit the sailer very hard. In 
the twelve months between June, 1922, and 
June, 1923, the world's sailing tonnage has 
declined by no less than 1,260,000 tons. At 
this rate extinction is only a matter of time. 

But if the vessel depending entirely on sails 
appears to be doomed as an economic unit in 
sea traffic, there seems to be a great future 
before the auxiliary-engined vessel. There 
are now no fewer than 1149 such ships of 
458.585 gross tons on Lloyd's Register, which 
is an enormous increase on the forty-five 
ships of 13,000 tons reported as fitted with 
auxiliary engines in June, 1915. Evidently 
the sailing vessel is going to be saved by be- 
coming something more than a mere wind- 
driven craft, and as those vessels are best 
which are designed and built to be fitted with 
auxiliary engines, the building of new vessels 
promises to continue and to increase as ship- 
ping prospects improve. 

It may be laid down, therefore, that the 
sailer of the future will be an auxiliary-en- 
gined ship, and that as such there will be a 
distinct place for her in the world's eco 



19 



116 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 1924 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The Merritt, Chapman & Scott Corp., New 
York, has purchased a ten-acre waterfront 
tract at Long Beach, Cal., for use as a ter- 
minal for wrecking and dredging operations. 

The Bureau of Navigation, Department of 
Commerce, reports 45 sailing, steam, gas, and 
unrigged vessels of 3,950 gross tons built in 
the United States and officially numbered 
during the month of February, 1924. 

Seattle's water-borne commerce for 1923 
totaled 6,451,180 tons of cargo, a gain of more 
than a million tons compared with 1922. 
Estimated value $647,582,136, compared with 
$498,809,377 for 1922, a gain of $148,772,759. 

The total cost to the end of 1923 of the 
new Dominion Government dry dock at Skin- 
ner's Cove, Esquimault, Vancouver Island, 
is reported to have been $2,230,000, of which 
about $680,000 was expended on wages and 
material during the year. The concrete work 
is expected to be completed this year, and the 
dock gates installed early in 1925. 

Kermit Roosevelt, president of the Roose- 
velt Steamship Line, who returned to New 
York from a trip around the world, confirmed 
reports from Tokio concerning plans for a 
joint freight service of his company with the 
Kokusai Kisen Kaisha. Mr. Roosevelt said 
that each company will have four vessels on 
the round-the-world route, sailing alternately. 
His line will operate four new motorships. 

During the 12 months of 1923 vessels of 
the United States Lines carried a total of 
185,000 passengers between the United States 
and Europe, John J. Dwyer, manager of 
the third-class department of the Govern- 
ment's line, announced at San Francisco a few 
days ago. The Leviathan in eight trips 
across the Atlantic from July 4 to December 
21, when she was taken out of service for 
overhauling, carried a total of 27,000 
passenger-. 

More than eight and three-quarter millions 
gross tons of shipping entered the port of 
Vancouver during the year 1923, according 
to the annual statement of the Board of 
Harbor Commissioners, against 8,147,822 tons 
in 1922. Coastwise vessels entering port 



numbered 18,838; foreign coastwise, 799 ; deep 

sea, 573 ; ocean-going, 837, a considerable in- 
crease in each class over the previous year. 
A total of 1127 foreign boats entered the 
port, against 1050 in 1922. 

The new passenger steamers Greater De- 
troit and Greater Buffalo, which are now 
building in the yards of the Detroit Ship- 
building Company for the Detroit & Cleve- 
land Navigation Company, are the largest in 
the world if the number of rooms for the ac- 
commodation of passengers is considered. 
They each contain 650 rooms for pas>< 
with sleeping accommodations for 1500 people. 
The Leviathan, one of the largest ocean pas- 
senger liners, has only 571 rooms for p; 
gers. 

Recently published statistics all tend to 
show that international seaborne trade under- 
went a considerable improvement last year. 
The Transportation Division of the Depart- 
ment of Commerce has found that the world's 
idle steam tonnage declined 2.200.000 gross 
tons during 1923 leaving only 6,800,000 tons 
of powered craft out of commission at the be- 
ginning of this year as compared with ap- 
proximately 9,000,000 tons at the close of 
1922. With the exception of Greece every 
maritime nation shared in this betterment, 
nearly half of which was due to the removal 
of American tonnage from the inactive list. 

The Royal Mail Steam Packet Company 
steamer Orduna was seized in New York dur- 
ing the month for violation of the Custom 
laws, the National Prohibition laws and the 
Narcotic laws. On the night of March 11 
about sixty cases of assorted liquors, about 800 
bottles of ale and stout and a small quantity 
of morphine were detected by special' agents 
of the customs service, agents from the pro- 
hibition forces and agents from the narcotic 
squad as the articles were being unladen 
contrary to law from the vessel. Eight per- 
sons were arrested, including the chief stew- 
ard of the steamer, whose forfeiture will be 
sought by the United States Government. 

The Northern Pacific Railroad has com- 
piled some interesting figures on the extent 
of the incursions into transcontinental rail 
traffic made in the last few years by steam- 
ship competition via Panama Canal. Before 
the war less than twenty ship- were regu- 
larly engaged in intercoastal trade, whereas 



20 



April, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



117 



today 150 ships are so employed, not includ- 
ing 100 ships engaged exclusively in bulk oil 
traffic. The growth in the intercoastal trade 
has been uniformly steady. In 1920 there 
were 38 ships in the trade; 80 in 1921, 133 
in 1922, and 158 in 1923. The tonnage 
handled by the intercoastal fleet increased 
from 123,526 tons in 1920 to 1,042,556 tons in 
1923. 

Twenty-one ships were reported as miss- 
ing by Lloyds during 1923. These included 
twelve steamers, five schooners, two trawlers 
and other smaller craft. The most serious loss 
of the year was the American tanker Swift- 
star, believed to have burned without leaving 
a trace. The number reported for 1922 was 
exactly the same. One-third of the missing 
vessels left port during the month of Feb- 
ruary. Only a few had wireless and were, 
therefore, not in a position to send an "S. 
O. S." Lloyds, in their annual report, state 
that, despite the increase in the use of wire- 
less and other safeguards for navigation, a 
certain number of vessels will continue to dis- 
appear each year. 

United States Senator Edge, Republican, 
who some time ago introduced a bill for a 
one-man shipping administration, has put in 
a new bill providing for the reorganization of 
the Shipping Board and the Emergency Fleet 
Corporation. Under this the Board would be 
continued as a body with regulatory and ju- 
dicial functions only, giving the Fleet Cor- 
poration sweeping powers over the Govern- 
ment's ships. The bill would also transfer 
to the Department of Commerce certain func- 
tions regarding the investigation of maritime 
trade conditions and the documentation of 
vessels. The Fleet Corporation would be 
authorized to create subsidiaries to undertake 
the operation of particular lines. 

During the last year the Pacific Mail Steam- 
ship Company operated twenty-two steamers 
of 131,411 deadweight tons which carried 
cargoes aggregating 1,180,460 tons. Of these 
vessels, ten were operated in the freight and 
passenger service between New York and San 
Francisco. In addition the company operated 
in its transpacific service the Shipping Board 
steamers President Cleveland, President Lin- 
coln, President Pierce, President Taft and 
President Wilson with favorable results. The 
company's gross earnings last year totaled 



21 



$4,437,180.64 as against $4,616,513.59 in 1922. 
while the net income amounted to $184,- 
015.59 as compared with $277,166.59 in 1922. 
The profit and loss balance on December 31, 
1923, was $2,444,904.82 as against $3,237,- 
804.92 at the close of the year previous. 

The three California oil ports, Los Angeles, 
San Francisco and Port San Luis, shipped 
88,053,476 barrels of bulk oil in tankers to 
foreign and offshore points during the calen- 
dar year 1923, according to a report issued 
by the San Francisco office of the Shipping 
Board. This total is exclusive of strictly 
coastwise traffic, for which figures are avail- 
able only from August to December, inclu- 
sive. The total of the coastwise traffic for 
these five months was 30,929,140 barrels. 
Considering the coastwise traffic in the same 
ratio for the entire year, the bulk oil ship- 
ments from California ports to all destina- 
tions would aggregate approximately 160,- 
000,000 barrels. The foreign and off-shore 
traffic was carried by 1159 tankers. Of these, 
898 loaded at Los Angeles; 170 at San Fran- 
cisco, and 91 at Port San Luis. The major 
part of the increase over 1922 was repre- 
sented in crude oil from Los Angeles. 

Although the official figures of the Depart- 
ment of Commerce show that vessels of 132,- 
959,101 tons entered and cleared overseas at 
the various ports of this country last year as 
against a corresponding total of 130,029,948 
tons in 1922, American tonnage so employed 
fell to 55,664,798 tons last year as compared 
with 63,497,693 tons in 192Z Less than 42 
per cent, therefore, of the total tonnage en- 
gaged in our foreign trade last year flew the 
Stars and Stripes as against 49 per cent in 
1922. This very considerable shrinkage in 
American flag tonnage was mainly due to 
the falling off of Mexico's petroleum exports 
as a result of the intrusion of water in the 
Tampico and other oil wells. The decline in 
American tonnage was confined to the Euro- 
pean and North American trades, while in the 
trades with all the other continents more 
American tonnage found employment last 
year than in 1922. The most marked gain was 
in our trade with Japan, Australia and the 
Philippine Islands, which improvement 
out the contention that the Pacific and not 
the Atlantic Coast is going to be the future 
stronghold of our merchant marine. 



118 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 1924 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



The last sailing vessel of the once big sail 
fleet of the Transatlantic Steamship Co., of 
Gothenburg, has recently been sold to Ger- 
many, the barque Bohus having been bought 
by the Adler concern of Hamburg. 

The greater number of German warships 
which were scuttled at Scapa Flow where 
they were interned June 21, 1919, are to be 
raised under a contract just concluded be- 
tween the British Admiralty and a London 
firm of shopbreakers. 

The Italian Government has ordered the 
navigation companies carrying contract ser- 
vices to bring home citizens desiring to par- 
ticipate in the national election, at a reduction 
of 7? per cent from the regular tariff of pas- 
sage (exclusive of food). 

For the year 1923 the ship canal tolls, ship 
dues and miscellaneous receipts of the Man- 
chester Shi]> Canal Company aggregated £1,- 
384.743, as compared with £1,332,490 in 1922 
and only £654,937 in 1913. The net income 
was ^^^xyS, against £792,827 in the pre- 
vious year. 

Following the order issued by the French 
Government that ships of Soviet Russia may 
not enter French ports other than Marseilles, 
Havre and Dunkirk, the Soviets have ordered 
that Russian ports be closed to French ves- 
sels, with the exception of Novorrosisk, Batum 
and Odessa. 

During the last six months harbor dues at 
Dantzig have been increased by nearly 100 
per cent. The newly published shipbrokers' 
tariff shows still higher rates, and it would 
be advisable for those interested to obtain 
information on the present dues before mak- 
ing freight calculations. 

Under the name of Navarino Recovery, 
Ltd.. a salvage company has been formed in 
London with a capital of £50,000. The new 
concern has acquired the right to salvage 
the sixty Turkish and Egyptian men-of-war. 
which were sunk by the allied British, 
French, and Russian fleets in the Bay of 
Navarino on October 20, 1827. 

On December 1 last, the French merchant 
marine totaled 3,384,671 gross tons as com- 



pared with 3,500,784 tons on January 1, 1923. 
The decrease of 116,112 in the first eleven 
months of 1923 is due to the breaking up of 
nearly 100,000 tons of inefficient ships, and 
the sale of 19 sailing vessels and 78 steamers 
of 134,058 tons to foreign owners. 

The statistics issued by the Canadian Pa- 
cific Railway Company for the year 1923 
show substantial increases in the numbers of 
passengers carried. From all ports there was 
a total of 119 sailings, as compared with the 
109 in the year previous, while the number of 
travelers increased by 38,490, having been 
104.445 passengers in 1923, as against 65,995 
in 1922. 

During 1923 goods weighing 7,°44,600 tons 
were exported from French ports, while mer- 
chandise imported amounted to 37,617,400 
tons. In January imports amounted to 3,- 
933,000 tons, against 4,107,000 tons in 1923, 
and 3,287,000 tons in 1913. Exports in Janu- 
ary measured up to 1.769.000 tons, as com- 
pared with 1,894.000 tons in 1923, and 1,308,- 
000 tons in 1913. 

By paying the passage, in part or in full, 
of Swiss emigrants desirous of finding em- 
ployment in Canada, the Swiss Society for 
Interior Colonization and Industrial Agricul- 
ture assisted 860 Swiss to proceed to Can- 
ada during the year. This society began oper- 
ations on January 1, 1923, and was created 
with a view to relieving unemployment in 
Switzerland. 

The Sailors and Fishermen's Union of 
Reykjavik, Iceland, has concluded an agreement 
with the Association of Icelandic Steam Trawler 
Owners respecting the wages of fishermen 
(deckhands, firemen, cooks i on vessels be- 
longing to the Association. The wages agreed 
upon are a minimum of 220 kr. a month and 
25 kr. per barrel of liver. The agreement is 
made for twelve months. 

The tonnage of British and foreign ship- 
ping entered with cargoes at the ports of 
Great Britain and northern Ireland during 
1923 was 51,093,895 tons, as against 43,394,595 
tons in 1922 and 49,064,233 tons in 1913. The 
tonnage, British and foreign, cleared with car- 
goes from the same ports for the period 
named was 70.689,660 tons, as against 59,682.- 
130 tons in 1922 and 67,819.701 tons in 1913. 

Negotiations for the merger of the Nippon 



22 



April, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



119 



Yusen Kaisha and the Toyo Kisen Kaisha, 
the largest steamship companies of Japan, 
have broken down according to an announce- 
ment by Yonejiro Ito, president of the former 
company. The reason given for the failure to 
reach an agreement is that the Toyo Kisen 
Kaisha demanded a larger share in the combi- 
nation than the Nippon Yusen Kaisha direc- 
tors were willing to grant. 

The Under-Secretary of the French Merchant 
Marine has revoked the order prohibiting the en- 
trance of German ships into French ports and 
has issued directions that they be accorded 
the same treatment as other foreign vessels. 
The decree was based on the fact that the 
vexatious treatment to which French ships 
were subjected in German oorts has now 
ceased and on the further fact that Franco- 
German relations have much improved. In 
view of this action of the French authori- 
ties the Hamburg-South American liners will 
again make Boulogne a port of call. 

The British steamer Tuscany, which was 
blown ashore at Solischo, to the west of Mon- 
tevideo, on July 10 last, has been refloated 
and arrived safely in port. She is a steel 
screw steamer of 3430 tons gross, was built 
in 1900 and was insured for £30,000. Other 
steamers driven ashore in the same storm that 
caused the Tuscany to run aground were 
the Hamburg-American liner Rugia and the 
Dutch steamer Monferland. Both these ves- 
sels have been successfully refloated. 

The British steamer Stuartstar of 5736 tons 
gross, which stranded on the Hook of Hol- 
land on October 4 while bound with meat 
from Zarate to Bremerhaven, is not to be 
blown up but will be scrapped. This course 
has been decided upon owing to possible dam- 
age to the pier in the event of the explosion. 
The estimated time for her demolition is three 
months owing to the fact that work can only 
be carried out for a few hours each day. The 
vessel was built in 1899 and was insured for 
£100,000. 

The bill for the handling over of the Trans- 
ortes Maritimos do Estado (State Merchant 
Shipping Service) has been approved in the 
Portuguese Chamber of Deputies with a few 
minor amendments. The buyers of the ves- 
sels are to be Portuguese only. Three ships 
are to be reserved for the Ministry of Marine, 



two for Angola, one for Mozambique and one 
for Cape Verde. After the debts of the 
Transportes Maritimos do Estado have been 
paid, the surplus money received will fall to 
the State. 

The profits of the Peninsular & Oriental" 
Steam Navigation Company during the year 
ended September 30, last, amounted to £716,- 
176, which compares with £696,660 earned a 
year ago and £623,531 in 1921. A dividend 
of 12 per cent has been declared on the pre- 
ferred stock, being the same amount as was 
distributed last year. In their report the 
directors state that there were indications of 
a slight improvement in the outward trade 
business, but it is still very poor, although 
the company's ships secured their share of the 
business done. 

Following the publication in the Norwe- 
gian press of a series of articles calling atten- 
tion to the discriminatory tariff in force in 
the Kiel Canal, whereby foreign vessels were 
taxed on a higher scale than German boats, 
the canal authorities have decided to readjust 
the dues so that the discrimination will dis- 
appear. It is stated that the reason for the 
apparent discrimination was that most of the 
German vessels using the canal were of small 
tonnage, and therefore enjoyed the benefits 
of the pre-war tariff which gave an advantage 
to such boats. However, as the Versailles 
Treaty guaranteed all vessels equality of 
treatment in the canal, steps will be taken to 
restore the parity of rates by means of a re- 
duction of dues on the larger vessels. 

Under the recent agreements reached be- 
tween Italy and Jugo-Slavia, Italy recognizes 
the full sovereignty of Jugo-Slavia over Porto 
Baros and the delta, and Jugo-Slavia recog- 
nizes the full sovereignty of Italy over the 
Port of Fiume and territory as fixed by the 
Rapallo Treaty and adjusted in the present 
agreement. For a rental of one gold lira 
(19.2c) per annum Italy leases to Jugo-Slavia 
for fifty years a dock and a depot at Porto 
Grande in Fiume Port. The station at Fiume 
will be regarded as a frontier and have an 
international regime. To the Fiume Agree- 
ment are annexed two conventions, the one 
determining the economic relations between 
the frontier zones and the second determining 
the leasing of the dock at Porto Grande. 



23 



120 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 1924 



LABOR NEWS 



Last year's profits of the Page-Detroit 

Motor Car Co. increased 56 per cent. The 
amount is $3,180,971, after all charges were 
paid. 

Unskilled labor in Cuba is showing a sur- 
plus, which is largely due, it is said, to immi- 
grants who are coming in from southern 
European countries. 

The rich returns that are possible in the 
movie industry is indicated by the 1923 re- 
turns of the Famous Players-Lasky corpora- 
tion. The profits were $4,245,783.93 after all 
charges and taxes were met. 

Kmployes in the immigration service are 
petitioning Congress for higher wages. In- 
spectors in New York City state that they 
are paid on an average but $108 a year more 
than in 1908. Their main duty is to pass on 
the admissibility of future citizens. 

The Wall Street Journal mourns that the 
public press prints too much oil scandal and 
not enough "cheerful stuff." This mouthpiece 
for stock brokers says Teapot Dome is re- 
ceiving a great deal more space than it de- 
serves, and that newspapers are hiding their 
"bright stuff." 

Du Pont corporation, manufacturer of pow- 
der and numerous commodities, will redeem 
$10,000,000 of its 7Yz per cent bonds, issued 
three years ago. This redemption is possible 
because of the company's fabulous profits the 
last few years. The company showed a sur- 
plus last year of more than $7,000,000, after 
every charge was made. 

Common Pleas Judge Hay of Cleveland has 
dismissed John S. Baker's $10,000 damage 
suit against the Street Car Men's Union, and 
similar suits against two street-car com- 
panies. The union has a union-shop agree- 
ment with the companies. Baker was asked 
to join the organization, but refused. He was 
discharged and then started suit. In dismiss- 
ing the suit, Judge Hay indicated that a con- 
tract between a union and an employer is as 
sacred as other contracts. 

Business in Hawaiian islands is the most 
prosperous in their history, according to Wal- 
lace R. Farrington, governor of Hawaii. Gov- 



ernor Parrington state- that 1923 was a ban- 
ner year for business, and that the export of 
one product alone brought the islands more 
than $23,000,000. This prosperity report is 
different from the tale of Hawaiian planters 
a few years ago when they insisted that the 
islands would be ruined if they were not 
permitted to import the cheapest Oriental 
labor in the world. 

Wall Street >ays that President Wood of 
tlie wool trust has again concealed big 
earnings which made it possible for him to 
"clean up" in the stock market. It is now 
shown that the trust's net profits last \ ear 
were $6,660,212 after depreciation, taxes, and 
other funds were cared for. It has also been 
discovered that the $4,000,000 added to spe- 
cial reserve last year came out of the earn- 
ings of that year. These immense profits do 
not seem to satisfy the trust. ( >nly recently 
it announced price increases next fall for cer- 
tain lines of goods. 

Censorship has ever been a foe of prog 
declared Walter Prichard Katon, critic and 
author, in a recent address. "Censorship 
always ends by defending existing institu- 
tions, no matter what its avowed purpose 
when it begins," said Mr. Baton. "The cen- 
sor starts out to be a moral doctor, but he 
soon becomes a great big granite slab block- 
ing the path of progress. "The censor's idea 
is to sit on the lid and keep things as they 
are, despite the fact that civilization goes for- 
ward only by experiment and speculation and 
the overthrow of outworn institutions." 

Convicts in the Tennessee State peniten- 
tiary at Nashville are lashed, according to 
David llanley of the legislative committee. 
State Federation of Labor, in his address be- 
fore the Trades Labor Council. The unionist 
said that this brutality goes hand in hand 
with convict labor, which is exploited in 
Nashville by the Alliance Textile Manufac- 
turing Company. This concern, said Mr. 
Hanley, started operations twenty-five years 
ago with a capital of $25,000. Today it has 
contracts in nearly a score of prisons, and 
reports an annual profit of nearly $1,000,000. 

The Steel Trust announces that it has 
paid $1,448,112 in pensions to "more than 
4000 employes" during the past year. If 
the number were exactly 4000, this would 
mean an average pension of $362 for the 



24 



April, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



121 



year, or $6.98 per week. If the pensioners 
total more than 4000 — which is quite prob- 
able — the average is less. The public press 
makes friendly comment on this paternalism 
of the Steel- Trust, that is committed to the 
anti-union shop. As against this pension 
stands the pension of $8 a week which the 
International Typographical Union pays to 
every member. 

Just as the Nation is discussing excessive 
profits in the baking industry, the General 
Baking Co. unconsciously furthers this agi- 
tation by its 1923 report. Net profits during 
this period were $5,525,559, the largest in 
the company's history, and 20 per cent more 
than in 1922, more than double 1921 and four 
times the earnings of 1920. If the company 
was not far-sighted in 1922, and failed to 
issue two stock dividends, their 1923 profits 
would be over $160 a share. By increasing 
the amount of stock, however, profits, per 
share, is greatly reduced, and is less liable to 
attract attention. 

The stress of modern civilization is unduly 
taxing the human eye, Dr. Emil Arnold of 
Ann Arbor, Mich., told optometrists at their 
State meeting. "Nature intended man to live 
in the open, amid green fields and trees, 
where the light is soft and diffused," said 
Dr. Arnold. "Instead, he is now crowded 
into cities, facing the unnatural glare from 
stone buildings and pavements, straining his 
eyes with close factory work and placing per- 
fect vision, nature's priceless possession, in 
constant jeopardy. Even the schools are de- 
manding more eye work and the present gen- 
eration is reaping the harvest of the sown 
seed," said Dr. Arnold. 

The demand for cheap labor comes from 
"unprogressive" employers who fail to adopt 
methods and machines now available, said 
W. R. Bassett, a member of Secretary of 
Commerce Hoover's committee which is in- 
vestigating waste in various industries. 
"Some selfish manufacturers want a big labor 
reserve to draw on, just as they need a stock 
of spare parts," said Mr. Bassett. "Right now 
we have plenty of workers in this country to 
take care of the legitimate need for unskilled 
workers. Cheap labor is needed only by those 
who are not skilled enough to manufacture at 
low cost and still pay high wages. With the 
help of labor-saving equipment, skillful manu- 



facturers turn out more product per man em- 
ployed than they did before the war. ' 

Absentee farm landlords are not an impor- 
tant factor in the agricultural situation in 
most parts of the United States, according to 
the Department of Agriculture. It is stated 
that not more than 10 per cent of rented 
farms in 1920 were thus owned. Little con- 
centration of land ownership was found ex- 
cept in the plantation region of the South. 
Comparatively little farm land is owned by 
non-resident aliens. More than one-third of 
the farm landlords are themselves farmers, 
another third are retired farmers, and the re- 
mainder are mostly country bankers, mer- 
chants, and professional men. Ten to 12 per 
cent are women, mostly widows and daugh- 
ters of farmers. 

Carl Carlton, successful theatrical producer 
of New York, defends the unions of actors 
and musicians. Both are affiliated with the 
A. F. of L. These organizations, he declared, 
have brought stability to the theatrical world. 
They have eliminated to a great extent the 
unscrupulous manager and ended the scandal 
of whole companies left stranded hundreds of 
miles from New York without the means to 
get back, he said. They have also ended the 
practice of a certain element among actors, 
actresses and musicians who would quit when 
they wanted to and leave the manager with- 
out an organization. These "temperamentals" 
have been disciplined by their associates, and 
contracts they sign are now complied with. 

The current issue of the- Monthly Labor 
Review contains an article on labor produc- 
tivity in the slaughtering industry, by Ethel- 
bert Stewart, U. S. Commissioner of Labor 
Statistics. In this article the productivity or 
efficiency of labor and the labor costs are 
shown by occupations, and a comparison is 
made of the rates of output, wages, and labor 
costs in the first three years of the century 
and those prevailing in 1923. It is somewhat 
surprising to learn, in view of the enormous 
growth in the slaughtering and meat-packing 
industry, that every process at present em- 
ployed in the killing of cattle is done by 
hand exactly as it was done prior to the ad- 
vent of the so-called "packing-house" in 
1840, the wonderful change in methods since 
that time relating only to the handling of the 
animal and the division of labor. 



25 



122 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 1924 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



The reopening, during the past six months, 
of numerous Chilian nitrate plants that had 
been idle since 1920, has caused a labor short- 
age in northern and central Chile. 

Pensions for all merchant seamen who 
have served twenty-five years on French 
ships and who have attained the age of 50 
years, are being sought by the Seamen's 
Union of Marseille. 

A continual decrease in the number of 
Sweden's unemployed is reported by the 
Unemployment Commission. During the 
year 1923 the total gradually declined from 
45,900 to approximately 11,000 persons. 

Official Norwegian reports of December, 
1923, show an increase in unemployment 
over the previous month. The number of 
entirely unemployed people is, however, 
about 27 per cent less than during the same 
period of 1922. 

A "Workmen's Compensation Law" has 
been approved by the Bolivian Congress, and 
other bills abolishing peonage, preventing the 
taking of Bolivian workmen out of the coun- 
try, and regulating the hours of work are 
pending legislative consideration. 

An increase in the immigration tax. from 
fifty guilders per head to one hundred guild- 
er- per head, has been established in Java. 
This tax, it is said, was directed principally 
at the Chinese immigrants, of which about 
30,000 per year are now reaching the archi- 
pelago. 

Sixty-eight silk mills in Shanghai have 
agreed to have a uniform number of working 
hours, based upon a twelve-hour day with a 
full holiday every two weeks, and two hours 
per day for meals and other essentials. The 
employment of children twelve years of age 
has been prohibited. 

On January 2, 1924, the Governor of Per- 
nambuco, Brazil, under a resolution known 
as Law No. 1, 1924, made a concession of six- 
teen years' exemption from the payment of 
taxes as a means of encouraging the con- 
struction of houses for workmen, government 
employees and private individuals. 

During the early part of December, 1923, 



the Czecho-Slovak Government presented a 
bill to Parliament requesting a further sum 
of 14,000,000 crowns for unemployment 
subsidies for the remainder of the calendar 
year L923. The sum of 293,000,000 crowns, 
previously appropriated, had been exhausted 
by September 30, 1923. 

At the close of 1923, the number of ratifica- 
tion > of conventions adopted at the various 
sessions of the International Labor Confer- 
ence since 1919, actually registered with the 
International Labor Office, was 92. Further 
ratifications, the formal communication of 
which is pending, will bring the total to well 
over 100. By the methods of the older diplo- 
macy between 1890 and 1914, only 25 odd rat- 
ifications (not including those of small colo-' 
nial possessions) of two conventions to stand- 
ardize labor legislation were secured. 

Of late, increasing numbers of German 
workers are leaving Germany in order to 
escape the distressing conditions in their own 
country. All the countries bordering on Ger- 
many announce a growing stream of German 
i in migration. In most of these countries it 
is necessary to have a special permit for 
entry, but many Germans manage to cross 
the frontiers secretly. Jugoslavia. Rumania 
and Portugal also report an increase in the 
number of immigrant Germans. Emigration 
overseas has also increased. Everyone who 
can by any possibility amass the necessary 
amount of money emigrates. 

Each year sees some pre-war activity 
gradually being restored. The International 
Labor Office reports from Geneva that a 
Swiss organization committee for an inter- 
national congress of industrial health has 
been constituted and proposes to convene 
such a congress from July 18 to 20, 1924, 
at Geneva. This congress will deal with 
questions of industrial lighting and eye- 
strain, improvement of air in factories, and 
an examination of the value of fatigue tests. 
The committee has asked prominent men of 
science who have given special attention to 
these questions to draw up expert reports 
on them. 

Dr. Wester, professor of natural science at 
the Dutch Military School, has just pub- 
lished a book on this subject, from which 
we quote the following passage: "Anybody 
who has studied to any extent world litera- 



ls 



April, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



123 



ture on the subject of chemical warfare must 
indeed be innocent if he continues to believe 
that The Hague convention or the Hughes 
proposal of January 7, 1922, relative to the 
use of poison gas, or indeed any future con- 
vention on the matter, can prevent the use 
of chemical products in time of war. On 
the contrary, an impartial student cannot 
but believe that in any future war chemical 
products will constitute one of the principal 
weapons." 

A novel scheme of placing unemployed 
workers in the outlying districts of the coun- 
try is being tried out in New Zealand. Ar- 
rangements have been made by the Labor 
Department in Wellington with the Post and 
Telegraph Department, by which all post- 
masters act as employment agents. It is 
hoped that this will bring the farmers into 
closer touch with the labor markets in the 
cities. Under this arrangement, any em- 
ployer desiring the services of a worker may 
apply at the nearest postoffice and if no suit- 
able labor is available in the locality, the post- 
master communicates with the nearest office 
of the Labor Department. Similarly, workers 
in need of employment communicate with the 
nearest postmaster, who endeavors to place 
them. 

A general movement of rising prices 
throughout the world is indicated by figures 
given in the current issue of the Interna- 
tional Labor Review. According to these 
figures, wholesale prices show a more or 
less definite upward movement in most 
countries of the world. These countries 
may be divided into two groups. The first 
group includes Germany, Russia and Po- 
land, in which the movement is the result of 
the general economic situation and of the 
depreciation in the currency, and prices have 
been steadily rising for several months. The 
second group includes Spain, the United 
States, India, Norway, The Netherlands and 
New Zealand ; in these countries the situa- 
tion is not becoming perceptibly worse and 
the prices tend rather to fluctuate. 

The International Labor Office estimates 
that there are over 10,000,000 disabled ex- 
service men as a result of the World War. 
The largest number of these are found in 
Germany, or 1,537,000, closely followed by 
the number in France, or 1,500,000. Great 



Britain has approximately 900,000 and Italy 
800,000, Russia 775,000 and Poland 300,000. 
This represents an impairment of the indus- 
trial population of these countries to that 
extent, as a large majority of disabled men 
are workers. It is an accumulative prob- 
lem and adds to that already existing' as 
represented by the thousands disabled an- 
nually in industry. In reinstituting these 
men in industry, the governments of today 
have gone much further than they did after 
previous wars. Not only have all countries, 
as brought out in a recent report by the 
International Labor Office on "Employment 
of Disabled Men," given the right to prefer- 
ence to disabled men for employment in the 
state services, but they have spent millions 
on vocational training and the supply of suit- 
able instruments for those disabled to carry 
on their work, and have also organized the 
finding of employment for disabled men on a 
systematic line. 



Roster of International 
Seamen's Union of America 



(Continued from Page 2) 



Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash DAVID ROBERTS, Agent 

84 Seneca Street 

SAN PEDRO, Cal ADDISON KIRK, Agent 

111 Sixth Street. P. O. Box 574 

MARINE COOKS. t AND^^WARDS. t ASSOC.AT.ON 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO. Cal ---—S? Commercial Street 

EUGENE STEIDLE, Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 5955 

Branches: 

SEATTLE Wash Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock 

P. O. Box 214 _ 

SAN PEDRO. Cal p - °- Box 54 

ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal___ ---^ <*** Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary 

Telephone Sutter 6452 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42 

ASTORIA. Ore — - P- O. Box 138 

DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SEATTLE, Wash - 84 Seneca Street 

Branches: 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C.) Canada P. O. Box 167.> 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska P. O. Box 201 

UNITED FISHERMEN OF THE PACIFIC 

ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 136 

FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 59 Clay Street 

C. W. DEAL, Secretary 
Telephone Sutter 2205 

FISH TRAP, PILE DRIVERS AND WEB WORKERS 
OF PUGET SOUND AND ALASKA 
P. O. Box 371, Bellingham, Wash. 



27 



124 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 1924 



A SEAMAN'S BANK 

WHEN PAID OFF OPEN A SAVINGS ACCOUNT 
A%% INTEREST 

\ildress 

SEABOARD BRANCH 

ANGLO-CALIFORNIA TRUST CO. 



101 Market Street 



San Francisco 



California 



To Seamen, Clients and Union Workers 

If my clients will keep me informed of the names of the 
vessels on which they are employed, while their cases are 
awaiting disposition, it will be of great assistance to me in 
preserving their rights and in securing early trials. 

Respectfully yours, 
S. B. AXTELL, 1 1 Moore Street, New York, N. Y. 



NORFOLK, VA. 



Navigation, Marine 
Engineering 

Instruction for All Licenses: 

Deck, Engine, Pilot 

Success Guaranteed or Fee Refunded 

U. S. Nautical College, 

Inc. 

"The School Without a Failure" 
119 Bank St. Norfolk, Va. 

Capt. Wm. J. Blue, Pres., Phone 41626 



True . Sympathy. — lawyer — 
"What? Ten thousand a year to 
your wife if she marries again, 
and only five thousand if she 
doesn't? That is unusual!" 

Client — "Yes, but, you see, I 
think of my successor. He de- 
serves extra!" — The Passing Show 
(London). 



Not Him. — Shop Foreman — "You 
ain't one of them blokes wot drops 
their tools and scoots as soon as 
knock-off blows, are you?" 

Lily White— "Not me. Why I 
often have to wait five minutes 
after I put me tools away before 
the whistle goes." — The Sydney 
Bulletin. 



PROVIDENCE, R. I. 
TAXI 

CALL UNION 9020 

Red Top Cab Co., of R. I., Inc 

67 Chestnut St. Providence, R. I. 



Big Business. — A real estate man 
was plainly worried, and his wife 
asked him to tell her about the 
deal. It seems that he had it 
fixed up to sell a man a loft build- 
ing, a marble yard, with dock 
privileges, a factory site, and a 
summer garden, and to take in 
part payment a block of frame 
tenements, a small subdivision, an 
abandoned lime kiln and a farm. 

"He assumes a $20,000 mortgage 
on the loft building," explained the 
real estate man, "and I take over 
a second mortgage on the subdivi- 
sion. Get me!" 

"I guess I get you," responded 
his wife. "But what is the hitch 
about?" 

"Well, I want four dollars in 
cash." 



The Remedy.— He— "This cold 
weather chills me to the bone." 

She — "You should get a heavier 
hat." — The Lyre. 
28 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union «f 
the Pacific since Its organization 

H. W. HUTTON 

Will give the cases of seafaring men 

prompt attention 
527 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Mark»t 

Streets, San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 315 



Albert Michelson 

Attorney-at-Law 
Attorney for Marine Firemen and 
Watertenders' Union of the Pacific. 

Admiralty Law a Specialty. 

676 Mills Building, San Francisco 

Telephone Douglas 1058 

Residence Phone Franklin 1781 



Telephone Garfield 306 



Henry Heidelberg 

Attorney at Law 

< i [eideiberg A Hurasfcy 

Flood Building. San Francisco 



S. T. Hogevoll, Seamen's Law- 
yer; wages, salvage and damages. 
909 Pacific Building, 821 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Tel. Sutter 6900 

Notary Public — Typewriting 

ANNE F. HASTY 

SEABOARD BRANCH 
Anglo-California Trust Co. 

101 Market St. San Francisco 



The 
Scandinavian Club 

Dansk Smorrebrod 

Ablekage Scandinavian Paper 

Best Coffee 

42 Market St. San Francisco 

Alfred Petersen Phone Sutter 5361 



SEAMEN 

Before sailing, sail up to our studio 
and have your Photograph taken 



'jwf%JrZ J 



41 Grant Ave. 



San Francisco 



San Francisco Camera Exchange 

KODAKS AND CAMERAS 

Bought, Sold, Exchanged, Repaired 

and Rented — Developing — Printing 

88 THIRD STREET, AT MISSION 

San Francisco 

Mail Orders Given Special Attention 



Photos of Ships 

Bring your photos to us for print- 
ing and developing and let us supply 
you for your next voyage. 

Allen Photo Supply Co. 

Kodaks bought, sold, rented and ex- 
changed. 

246 Market St., San Francisco 



April, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



125 



Walk-Over 



938 Market 
(Near Mason) 
San Francisco 

(SHOES FOR <^MENAND WOMEN) 

UNION MADE 



844-850 Market 
San Francisco 



Where sailormen know that 

style, quality and price are 

always right — 




HJLTS 

Stores at 

26 Third St. 605 Kearny 1080 Market 

3242Mission 720 Market 2640 Mission 

226 W. 5th St., Los Angeles 



SMOKES ! ! 

Cigarettes and Cigars a Specialty at 

Wholesale Prices 

See Me Before You Load Up 

SYD MODLYN 

Ocean Market 
80 Market St. San Francisco 



LACKING TIME 
SEAMEN SUFFER 

Many sailors are suffering to- 
day from decayed and neglected 
teeth because their time in port 
is limited. 

They know the average den- 
tist in his small office cannot 
finish their work properly 
"while they wait." 

The Parker offices with their 
large force of dentists, nurses 
and assistants can serve you 
promptly and successfully at 
short notice. 

Pacific Coast offices of dentists 
using 

K@D E - R - Parker 

Ml s y stem 

located at 

Vancouver, B. C, San Francisco, 
Portland, Seattle, Bellingham, Ta- 
coma, San Diego, Eureka, Oak- 
land, Santa Cruz. 



Reason Enough. — "Why do, peo- 
ple cry at weddings?" 

"Well, I imagine those who have 
been married themselves start it, 
and the others join in." — Boston 
Evening Transcript. 



BEN HARRIS 

No Relation to Joe Harris 

Patronize an Old Reliable Outfitter 

The Best Seamen's Outfitter on the 
Waterfront 



218 Embarcadero 



San Francisco 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 

— at — 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 5348 



At Night 



Complete Banking Service from 
9 A. M. till 12 P. M. for Sailor- 



Liberty 



Market 
at Mason 



Bank 



San Francisco 



THE ONE PRICE STORE 

Sander Supply Co. 

SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

Furnishing Goods, Oilskins, 

Sea Boots 

Square Knot Material 

Uniform Caps 

93-95 Market, Cor. of Spear Street 
South. Pac. Bldg., San Francisco 



A Clear Case. — Stage Hand — 
"Did you say you wanted a win- 
dow or a widow?" 

Show Manager — "I said window, 
but they're both much alike. When 
I get near either of them I always 
look out." — Japan Advertiser. 



Named. — She — "What would you 
call a man who hid behind a 
woman's skirts?" 

He — "A magician." — Banker. 

29 



J. MAHER'S 

RELIABLE HOOKS 

All Kinds Hand Made — Wholesale and 

Retail 

610A 3rd Street San Francisco 

Tel. Garfield 2340 



ABERDEEN, WASH. 



The "Red Front" 

CARRIES A FULL STOCK OF 

UNION MADE CLOTHING, HATS, 
SHOES, COLLARS, SUSPENDERS, 
GLOVES, OVERALLS, SHIRTS 

A. M. BENDETSON 

321 East Heron Street - Aberdeen 

Exclusive Owner of "The Red Front" 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings, Hickory Shirts, 

Hats, Oil Clothing. 

Home of the Union Made 

Co-operative Shoe. 

302 So. F Street, ABERDEEN, Wash. 

on the Water Front 



A. A. Star Transfer Co. 

QUICK SERVICE 

EXPRESS — BAGGAGE 

Phone 307 — Office by Union Depot 
ABERDEEN, WASH. 



HUOTARI & CO. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE 
and MEN'S FURNISHINGS 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Orders taken for 

Made-to-Measure Clothing 

Heron and F Sts., Aberdeen, Wash. 

Tickets to and from Europe 
NOTARY PUBLIC 



Phone 263 

"Niels and Charlie" 

"THE ROYAL" 
"THE SAILORS' REST" 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 
219 EIGHTH ST., HOQUIAM, WASH. 



EUREKA, CAL. 



— For — 

A GOOD CUP OF COFFEE 

— or — 

A SQUARE MEAL 

— Try — 
EUREKA CHOP HOUSE 

Cor. Second and D Sts., Eureka, Cal. 
A. R. A BR AH AM SEN, Prop. 



126 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 1924 



Office Phone Main 5190 
Residence Phone Elliott 5825 



Established 1890 
COMPASSES ADJUSTED 



MARSHALL'S 

NAVIGATION SCHOOL 

WE GUARANTEE to teach you until you receive a LICENSE 

WE will save you TIME and MONEY 

203 Bay Building, First and University Sts. SEATTLE, WASH. 



L. V. WESTERMAN 

UNION LABEL 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 
Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney-Watson Go. 

FUNERAL DIRECTORS 
AND EMBALMERS 

Crematory and Columbarium in 
Connection 

Iroadway at Olive St. Seattle 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1S90 
MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS 

AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., Cor. University, 

SEATTLE, WASH. 



Union Store 

Best Line of Men's Suits 

Overcoats, Raincoats, Shoes, Hats 

and Men's Furnishings 

CARL SCHERMER 

103-107 First Avenue South 
Near Yesler Way SEATTLE 



THE HUB 

Shoe and Clothing Company 

UNION MADE HEAD TO FOOT 
OUTFITTERS 



615-617 First Avenue 

( >pp. Totem Pole 

Seattle, Wash. 



NOTICE! 

The exclusive agency here for the 
only C. T. & M. Tailors in the U. S. 
A., affiliated with the American Fed- 
eration of Labor and employing only 
members of the Journeymen Tailors' 
Union, is held by the reliable tailoring 
man 

S. G. SWANSON 

Established 1904 
Upstairs, Room 4, Bank of San Pedro 

Building 
110 W. 6th Street San Pedro 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim and Douglas Shoes 

And the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 Sixth Street, SAN PEDRO OPP. SAILORS' UNION HALL 



Martin's Navigation School 

128^4 SIXTH STREET PHONE 1805 

SAN PEDRO, CALIF. 



SEAMEN 

Visit 
Your Hatter 

FRED AMMANN 

UNION HATS 

at the right prices. I'll try and 
wait on you personally and show 
you a large assortment and give 
you your money's worth. 

JOHN B. STETSON hats, too 

If you want your Panama blocked 
right I'll do that. 

You'll find me at 

72 Market St., San Francisco 

next to Ocean Market 



MEAD'S 
RESTAURANT 

NO. 16 
EMBARCADERO 

NO. 3 
MARKET STREET 

"THE" Place to Eat 

in 

San Francisco 



FALGK'S 
COMFORT 

a 5 Cent Cigar 

a Blender of .Mi\n. 
Relsa Prumera Pipe laity 

HENRY FALCK 
533 Kearny St., San Francisco, Cal. 



"CHECKERS" 

Smoke Checkers To COOl, 

mild and smooth bi - 

2 oz. tins. L6c 
16 oz. canister, $1 

Weisert Bros. Tobacco Co.. 

H. Sergeson, Pacific Coast Agent 

219 Drumm Street, San Francisco, Cal. 






Evening Up. — He — "Is shf por- 
gressive or conservative?" 

She — "I don't know. She wears 
a last year's hat, drives a this 
year's car, and lives on next year's 
income." — Modern Grocer (Chi- 
cago). 



30 



April, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



127 



BOSS ™ TAILOR 

1120 MARKET STREET, SAN FRANCISCO 

OPPOSITE SEVENTH STREET 



SUITS AND 
OVERCOATS 

To Order at Popular 
Prices 




All Work Done 

Under Strictly Union 

Conditions 



We Furnish the 
Label 



Always Fair with Labor — Always Will Be! 



JENSEN & NELSEN 

Gent's Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 

Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 

110 EAST STREET Near Mission 

Kearny 3863 San Francisco 



H. SAMUEL 

THE OLD UNION STORE 
Established 1874 

Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 

Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, Bags, 

Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and Oil 

Clothing, Watches and Jewelry. 

Phone Kearny 519 

676 THIRD STREET, near Townsend 

San Francisco 



THE 
James H. Barry Co, 

The Star Press 

PRINTING 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "Tne Seamen's Journal' 



Palms on Every Hand. — First 
Guest — "I'm sure I don't know 
why they call this hotel 'The 
Palms,' do you? I've never seen 
a palm anywhere near the place." 

Second Guest — "You'll see them 
before you go. It is a pleasant 
little surprise the waiters keep for 
the guests on the last day of their 
stay." — The Watchman-Examiner 
(New York). 



"ALL NIGHT IN" 

A Sailor's Dream of Bliss 

Good Beds, Baths, Fine Lounges 
Stop and Meet Shipmates at 

LINCOLN HOTEL 



115 MARKET 



SAN FRANCISCO 



Telephone Garfield 594 

O. B. Olsen's 
Restaurant 

Delicious Meals at Pre-War Prices 

Quick Service 

98 Embarcadero and 4 Mission St. 

San Francisco, Open 6 a. m. to 1 a. m. 



Seamen, when in port, 
deal with 

W. P. Shanahan & Co. 

MEN'S SHOES 

Expert Repairing 

254 Market Street San Francisco 



ALAMEDA CAFE 

JACOB PETERSEN & SON 

Proprietors 

Established 1880 

COFFEE AND LUNCH HOUSE 

7 Market Street and 17 Steuart Street 

San Francisco 



D. Edwards & Sons 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Fair Prices. Reliable Goods 

92 EAST STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

GUARANTEED OIL CLOTHING 



We Never Thought of That — 
Mother — "There, now, I've read 
you the whole story of the ark 
and you must go to sleep." 

Tommy — "But what would have 
happened if Noah has sent out a 
sea-gull?" — The Humorist (Lon- 
don.) 

31 



TACOMA, WASH. 



SEAMEN — ATTENTION! 

When In TACOMA, Visit 

Brower & Thomas 

FOR YOUR 

CIGARS AND TOBACCO 

THREE STORES 

1103 Broadway 11th & A Streets 

930 Pacific Avenue 



Always with the 
Union Label 

DUNDEE 

Woolen Mills 

Popular Priced Tailors 

Tacoma, 920 Pacific Avenue 

Seattle, 312 Pike Street 

Bellingham, 1306 Dock Street 

Aberdeen, 204 E. Heron Street 



The Way He Looked.— "There's 
a man outside, sir, that wants to 
see you about a bill you owe him. 
He wouldn't give his name." 
"What does he look like?" 
"Well, he looks like you'd better 
pay it." — Life (New York). 



Keeping to the Point. — Porter — 
"This train goes to Buffalo and 
points east." 

Old Lady — "Well, I want a train 
that gets to Syracuse and I don't 
care which way it points." — Dry 
Goods Economist. 



INFORMATION WANTED 

Information is requested regard- 
ing Jack Dreger and E. Schmitt. 
Call or write Hammond Lumber 
Company, 260 California Street, 
San Francisco. 



Admiration Absent. — "I get as 
many as 20 or 30 telephone calls 
a day." 

"My, how popular! All admirers, 
I suppose?" 

"No, wrong: numbers." 



Word to the Wise. — An old 
flame makes things hot for many 
a man. — The Lyre. 



128 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 1924 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 

and Battery Sts., Opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Cal. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL, is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation 
and Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law, and is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




UNION-MADE 



A complete line of seamen's shirts and 
garments of all kinds, union made right 
SHIRTS ^ ere ' n California, sold direct from factory 
to wearer and every garment guaranteed. 

and UNDERWEAR Direct from Factory to You 



1118 Market Street, San Francisco 
112 South Spring Street, Los Angeles 
1141 J Street, Fresno 
717 K Street, Sacramento 



Since 1872 



Eagleson & Co. 



Established 1917 by U. S. S. B. 

School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 

FERRY BLDG., SAN FRANCISCO 



Puget Sound 
Nautical School 

Conducted by CAPT. H. S. SMITH, 
four years Assistant Inspector of 
Steamboats, Puget Sound District. 
Formerly Instructor in New York 
Nautical College. 

Room 303, Bay Bldg. 1213 First Ave. 
SEATTLE, WASH. 




Gifts That Last 



James Jt. Sorensen 

&res. and .Trees. 

Jewelers, W atchmakers 
Opticians 



Watches, Diamonds, Jewelry, 
Clocks and Silverware 

Largest Assortment, Right Prices 
All Watch Repairing Guaranteed 

715 Market Street, bet. Third and Fourth Sts. 



San Francisco, Cal. 



Established 1896 



Phone Kearny 2017 




A Good Place 
to Trade 



Courteous Service 

Broad Assortments 

Moderate Prices 



Market at Fifth 
San Francisco 



UNION LABEL 

IS IN EVERY ONE OF OUR 
Hard finished- — Hard wearing 



$ 



35 



WORSTED 
SUITS 

See Them in our Windows — 

9#dMr 

Og 

52-868 MARKET ST. 
SAN FRANCISCO 




Joint Accounts 

This bank will open accounts in 
the name of two individuals, for 
instance, man and wife, either of 
whom may deposit money for or 
draw against the account. 

HUMBOLDT 
BANK 

783 MARKET ST., Near Fourth 
SAN FRANCISCO 



32 




J ""&- 



Official Paper of the International Seamen's Union of America 

3iiiiiiiffifiC2iiiiiiiiniic3iiif niiiEiic:3iiiiiiiiiiiiC3iiiiiiiii[iicaii]iTiiiiiiic:3iif iimii rnc:3iiiiiiiiiiiic3iiiiiTiiffiiiiiTirc3iiiiiiiiiiric3iiiiiiiiii]ic:3iiiiiiiiTiric3[iiiii i mi iclsiiiii mil iic^iniiiif mic^i 1111 1 iitii < c^ 1111 m iiiil= 



A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 

Sea power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's tools. 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use them. 

Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



Contents 

ALASKA SALMON TRUST DEFIANT 131 

SHIPPING BOARD CREWS 132 

DUAL UNIONS (By Geo. W. Perkins) 133 

UNCLE SAM'S NEW CRUISERS 133 

EDITORIALS: 

MORE ABOUT "CO-OPERATION" 134 

" BRITISH SHIPPING LEGISLATION 135 

TRAINING FOR THE SEA 136 

CAPTAIN DOLLAR'S CREWS 136 

THE GENTLEMEN'S AGREEMENT T .... 137 

A STUDY OF ECONOMICS 139 

OVERLAND SAILINGS TO PERSIA 139 

SEAMEN'S INTERNATIONAL CODE (Continued) 140 

TONNAGE OF GERMAN COMPANIES 141 

"THINKING"— THE MOST DIFFICULT JOB 142 

JAPANESE FISHING INDUSTRY 142 

WORLD'S LONGEST SAILING SHIP ..142 

MEXICO'S EMIGRANTS 143 

UNITED STATES TONNAGE STATISTICS 143 

BOOK REVIEW (The Humanizing of Knowledge) 144 

OUR WASHINGTON LETTER 145 

CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 147 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 148, 149, 150, 151 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 152, 153, 154, 155 



Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice 

VOL. XXXVIII No. 5 as second-class matter. Acceptance for 

mailing at special rate of postage provided 

WHOLE No 1924 for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 

authorized September 7, 1918. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
MAY 1, 1924 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L. Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary-Treasurer 
355 North Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 

DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES: 

ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR Secretary 

1% Lewis Street 
Branches: 

NEW YORK, N. Y WILLIAM MILLER, Agent 

67-69 Front Street 

BALTIMORE. Md C. RASMUSSEN. Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa S. HODGSON, Agent 

108 Walnut Street 

NORFOLK, Va,- _ „ DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. JACOBSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex LOUIS LARSEN, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PROVIDENCE R. I RALPH RrVERS, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 

MARINE FIREMEN'S, OILERS' AND WATERTEND- 
ERS' UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y „ _.~.70 South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 
Telephone John 0975 

Branches: 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa ERNEST MISSLAND, Agent 

108 Walnut Street 

BALTIMORE, Md JAMES ANDERSON, Agent 

804 South Broadway 

GALVESTON, Tex JOHN CLAUSSEN, Agent 

32l Twentieth Street 

BOSTON, Mass TONY ASTE, Agent 

288 State Street 

NORFOLK, Va _ DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 

ATLANTIC AND GULF COOKS', STEWARDS' AND 

WAITERS' UNION 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretary 

4 South Street. Phone John 0975 

Branches: 

BOSTON, MASS _ JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

288 State Street 

PHILADELPHIA, PA ERNEST MISSLANK Agenl 

108 Walnut Street 

BALTIMORE, MD. CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

NORFOLK, VA DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, LA FRANK STOCKL, Agent 

106 Julia Street 

PROVIDENCE. R. I FRANK B. HAYWARD, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 

GALVESTON, TEX LOUIS LARSEN, Agent 

321 20th Street 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass WM. H. BROWN, Secretary 

288 State Street 

Branches: 
GLOUCESTER, Mass NEWMAN SHEA, Agent 

208 Main Street 
NEW YORK, N. Y. JAMES .1. FAGAN, Agent 

6 Fulton 8tre< t 



GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

CHICAGO, 111 357 North Clark Street 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary 

VAL. DUSTER, Treasurer 

Phone State 5175 

Branches: 

BUFFALO. N. Y PATRICK O'BRIEN 

55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E, J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1501 Columbus Road 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERTNG, Agent 

162 Reed Street Phone Hanover 240 

DETROIT. Mich WM. DONNELLY, Agent 

410 Shelby Street. Phone Main 0044 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 
COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 



Headquarters: 



.71 Main Street 



BUFFALO, N. Y._ 

THOS. CONWAY, Secretary 
ED. HICKS. Treasurer. Phone Seneca #048 

Branches: 

CLEVELAND, 0._ _ 819 Superior Avenue 

Phone Main 866 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

Phone South 598 

DETROIT, Mich 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO. ILL _ 357 North Clark Street 

Phone State 5175 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 35 West Eagle Street 

J. M. SECORD, Secretary 
Telephone Seneca 896 

Branches: 

CHICAGO, 111 357 North Clark Street 

CLEVELAND, 1501 Columbus Road 

MILWAUKEE. Wis —162 Reed Street 

DETROIT, MICH .410 Shelby Street 



PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal _. _ 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE C. LARSEN, Acting Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches: 

VANCOUVER, B. C G. CAMPBELL, 

305 Cambie Street 
P. O. Box 571, Telephone Seymour 8703 

TACOMA, Wash A. KLEMMSEN, 

22Q7 North Thirtieth Street 
P. O. Box 102, Telephone Main 3984 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL,, 

84 Seneca Street 
P. O. Box 65, Telephone Elliot 6752 

ABERDEEN, Wash CHAS. OLES EN, 

P. O. Box 280 

PORTLAND, Ore D. W. PAUL, 

243 Ash Street, Telephone Broadway 1639 

SAN PEDRO, Cal HARRY OHLSEN, 

267 Seventh Street 
P. O. Box 67, Telephone 2524J 

HONOLULU, T. H JOSEPH FALTUS, 

P. O. Box 314, Telephone 4495 



Agent 

Agent 

Agent 

Agent 
Agent 
Agent 

Agent 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 58 Commercial Street 

PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 3699 
(Continued on Page 27) 



May, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



131 



ALASKA SALMON TRUST DEFIANT 




FTER maintaining continuous con- 
tractual relations with the principal 
firms engaged in the Alaska Salmon 
industry for more than two decades 
the Alaska Fishermen's Union, with 
headquarters at San Francisco, has been un- 
able, up to the time of going to press, to 
negotiate satisfactory terms and conditions 
for the 1924 season. 

The companies affected locally are the 
Alaska Packers Association, Alaska Salmon 
Co., Bristol Packing Co., Naknek Packing 
Co. and the Red Salmon Canning Co. In re- 
viewing the negotiations for the Journal 
Secretary Peter E. Olsen of the Alaska Fish- 
ermen's Union, places the full responsibility 
for the situation on the representatives of the 
employers. 

"Our members will not sign up for the 
season," said Secretary Olsen, "unless our 
request for an increase of one cent per fish 
is given the consideration it deserves. 

"The members of the Alaska Fishermen's 
Union are practical fishermen, and know that 
the season of 1924 will be very much like 
that of 1920. In that year we received the 
scale we are asking for this season and our 
members had very low earnings, averaging 
$505 for the entire season. In fact, for the 
past nine years we have averaged only about 
$600 a year and we feel that inasmuch as 
our members are skilled fishermen of many 
years' experience and with families to sup- 
port, our wages must be brought up to a 
higher level. 

"We are not acting blindly or stubbornly 
in this matter. Before deciding whether or 
not an increase was possible a thorough in- 
vestigation of the facts was made at our re- 
quest by the Labor Bureau, Inc. of San Fran- 
cisco. The payroll for the fishermen was but 
12 per cent of the company's income for 
1923 and the increase we have asked for 
will take about one per cent additional. 
When we know that the net profit per case 
of salmon in 1923 was $1.39 and that this 
was 40 cents more than in 1922 and 48 cents 
more than the average of the last nine years, 
we feel that our request for an increase of 
one cent per fish is most reasonable." 



In reply to an inquiry as to what the ad- 
ditional payroll cost would be, Mr. Olsen 
estimated "that upon the basis of the 1920 
catch, the additional cost to the Alaska 
Packers' Association would amount to not 
more than $65,000 or about $60 per fisher- 
man." 

"The company can meet this increase with- 
out losing one cent profit. Last year, profits 
increased from $1,095,000 in 1922 to $1,201,- 
000 in 1923, although the pack was about 
190,000 cases less. This year, the increase in 
profits will be even greater. According to 
the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, 
the index number of the wholesale price of 
the Alaska Red Canned Salmon increased 
from 107.1 to 111.5 in one month from 
December, 1923, to January, 1924. 

"The public is paying a good price for the 
salmon, which at an average price of 31.2 
cents per can throughout the United States 
amounts to $15 per case. We fishermen are 
lucky to get more than $1 for the fish that 
goes into a case and we should have more." 

While the controversy over the Alaska 
salmon fishermen's percentages for the sea- 
son has almost reached a deadlock, grave 
charges have been made in Washington 
against the powerful private corporations 
that have virtually established a monopoly 
over the entire salmon fishing grounds of 
Alaska. 

The charges now formally made in Wash- 
ington are : 

That under the regulations drawn up by Secre- 
tary of Commerce Hoover's department, the most 
valuable fishing rights in Alaska have fallen into 
the hands of the big-four canning corporations, 
which today control the supply and the prices of 
nearly every pound of salmon that goes into an 
American home. 

That the fishing rights have been granted to 
corporations against whose growing monopolistic 
possibilities the government was warned years ago 
by the federal trade commission. 

That the regulations under which the government 
pretends to conserve the salmon supply and which 
have actually delivered that supply to the big 
canners were drawn in substance by the major 
members of the big four, the Alaska Packers' As- 
sociation, and approved in substantially that form 
by Secretary Hoover. 

That the hardy natives, the Aleutians, Eskimos 
and Indians, have been driven off the best fishing 
grounds and have been forced, by the practical 
results of the regulations, to sell the small catch 
thus left available to them to the neighboring can- 



132 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1924 



neries of the corporations for such price as the 
corporations cared to pay. 

That the native fishermen have seen fishing 
grounds taken from them by Hoover's department 
for the alleged reason of pursuing the "Roosevelt 
policy" of conservation, and those same grounds 
allotted to canneries which could catch and pack 
more salmon in one day than they could take in 
several years. 

That a nation-wide lobby, to which canners, 
tinplate manufacturers, banks and retail stores are 
contributing their influence, is today at work in 
Washington to defeat the attempt of the Alaskans 
to re-establish the old fishing principle of "fair 
field for all and favors for none." 

It is needless to state that the influence 
of the Alaska Fishermen's Union has always 
been against monopolization of the Alaska 
salmon supply. The March issue of the 
Journal contained the convincing argu- 
ment made by one of the fishermen's repre- 
sentatives before the House Committee on 
Merchant Marine and Fisheries. 

Time after time the organized salmon fisher- 
men have declared for true conservation of this 
great natural resource and insisted upon 
legislation tending to perpetuate the Alaska 
salmon supply. In doing so they have doubt- 
less incurred the enmity of the big packers. 
And it is not at all unlikely that the present 
deadlock over the season's working condi- 
tions is directly due to the packers earnest 
desire to eliminate the Fishermen's Union 
as a powerful factor against monopolization 
of the Alaska salmon industry! 



SHIPPING BOARD CREWS 



President Coolidge in his first message to 
Congress touched upon "Shipping" in the 
following language : 

The entire well-being of our country is dependent 
upon transportation by sea and land. Our govern- 
ment during the war acquired a large merchant 
fleet which should be transferred, as soon as pos- 
sible, to private ownership and operation under 
conditions which would secure two results: First, 
and of prime importance, adequate means for 
national defense; second, adequate service to Ameri- 
can commerce. Until shipping conditions are such 
that our fleet can be disposed of advantageously 
under these conditions, it will be operated as 
economically as possible under such plans as may 
be devised from time to time by the Shipping 
Board. We must have a merchant marine which 
meets these requirements, and we shall have to pay 
the cost of its service. 

If, as our President says, America's 
merchant fleet should be so operated as to 
guarantee "adequate means for national de- 
fense" why are private operators of Govern- 
ment-owned tonnage permitted to man these 
vessels largely with Filipinos, Chinese and 



other aliens ineligible to citizenship of the 
United States? 

No reply having been made to this query 
by any responsible Government official the 
San Francisco Labor Council during the 
month unanimously adopted the following 
self-explanatory resolution : 

Whereas, Years ago the United States Shipping 
Board informed the people of the United States 
that one of its most important purposes was to 
Americanize the personnel of the American 
Merchant Marine; and 

Whereas, For reasons that have never been ex- 
plained, the vessels belonging to the United States 
Emergency Fleet Corporation and allocated to 
private owners under contract for operation have 
been and are still carrying aliens or all descrip- 
tion, among whom Chinese and Filipinos are the 
favorites on the Pacific Ocean; and 

Whereas, It is of the greatest importance to the 
future of our country that men eligible to citizen- 
ship of the United States should be employed on 
the vessels of the United States, because the future 
officers of our Merchant Marine must serve in the 
unlicensed grades to acquire the experience neces- 
sarv to obtain a license and to be entrusted with 
the powers of command in any department of the 
vessel; and 

Whereas, Skill and experience as seamen cannot 
be acquired except at sea and it is a fundamental 
fact attested by history that in the final analysis 
a nation's share in the ocean-carrying trade and 
in the world's seapower is determined by the 
number of skilled and loyal seamen which any 
nation is able to furnish from among its own 
population; therefore, be it 

Resolved, By the San Francisco Labor Council, 
in regular meeting assembled, April 4, 1924, that 
we most earnestly and emphatically protest against 
the present policy of the United States Shipping 
Board and the Emergency Fleet Corporation in per- 
mitting operators of tonnage owned by the people 
of the United States to man these ships with 
Filipinos, Chinese and other aliens ineligible to 
citizenship of the United States; further 

Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be for- 
warded to the President of the United States, the 
United States Shipping Board, the Emergency 
Fleet Corporation, the United States Senators from 
California and the members of the House of Repre- 
sentatives from California. 



Production and distribution for use instead 
of for profit is the most revolutionary prin- 
ciple yet let loose in the economic world. 
When it prevails competitive profit-making 
business will no longer dominate the world, 
and the capitalist system will be destroyed. 



"When you are thinking about the union 
and your individual part therein, remember 
that the strongest rope is made of the 
slenderest of strands. In union there is 
strength. 



Peace hath higher tests of manhood than 
battle ever knew. — J. G. Whittier. 



May, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



133 



DUAL UNIONS 

(By George W. Perkins) 



UNCLE SAM'S NEW CRUISERS 



Even dual union advocates, one big union 
adherents, and I. W. W. followers all say 
that organization is necessary. They, how- 
ever, always say that it must be done this 
way, or it must be done that way, or that it 
must be coupled with socialism or doubled 
up with communism and the other 57 varie- 
ties of "isms." 

The real facts are that the great mass of 
the industrial wage earners are committed to 
the constructive trade union movement and 
to the American Federation of Labor pre- 
cepts and policies, which in the final analysis 
mean first organization along trade union 
lines. 

All movements* in opposition to the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor constructive trade 
union movement have proved to be absolute 
failures, chiefly because they are funda- 
mentally wrong. 

The movements, which divert the time, 
attention and energy of the workers from 
the real fundamental trade union movement, 
may have some earnestly inclined followers 
and some whose enthusiasm and impatience 
lead them into these wild movements. Be 
that as it may, as time goes on apace and 
enthusiasm wears off and experience broad- 
ens the mind, the most of them see the fu- 
tility of these movements and become sup- 
porters of the real trade union movement. 

There are unfortunately some (happily few 
in number) who have ulterior purposes in 
hading these movements, which are chasing 
after false gods. There is, too, always the 
profiteering manufacturer who under no cir- 
cumstances believes in any kind of move- 
ment that unites the workers. 

We sometimes find this gentry throwing 
their interests and their influence in favor 
of the dual movements. 

They know that such movements cannot 
succeed and perhaps foremost in importance 
they know that they divert the mind and 
efforts of the workers from the real trade 
union movement. 



Too many workers do with their thinking 
what the rich do with their washing — let it 
out.— J. H. Thomas, British Labor, M. P. 



Speedy as the biggest destroyer and seven 
times as large, the light cruiser Trenton, 
Uncle Sam's newest fighting ship, has passed 
her official trials with flying colors prior to 
being delivered to the United States Navy 
by the Cramp shipyard. According to the 
builders, the vessel which will carry the name 
of New Jersey's capital city to the seven 
seas, exceeded all government requirements, 
the official records showing that the engines 
developed 92,400 horsepower, and made a 
speed of 34.11 knots in a four-hour high 
speed test. Propeller revolutions per minute 
were 363.06. 

The general behavior of the vessel under 
stress is reported as highly satisfactory to 
both the builders and the navy officials who 
witnessed the various tests. Vessels of this 
type having been held by experts to be the 
most desirable ships in the navy today, it is 
expected that the Trenton will rank high 
among the warships of the United States be- 
cause of the splendid record made on her 
trial trip. Three outstanding features of these 
ships which place them upon the pinnacle 
of desirability are : First, the tremendous 
speed obtained ; second, a powerful offensive 
battery, and third, a cruising radius large 
enough to carry the good will and prestige of 
America to foreign ports seldom graced by 
the usual flow of tourists. 

The United States navy will have ten ves- 
sels of this type when all now under con- 
struction in shipyards throughout the coun- 
try are completed. The Cramp Company had 
contracts for five and the Trenton was the 
third launched. She left the ways April 16, 
1923, having been preceded by the Richmond 
and Concord. The Marblehead, launched 
October 9, 1923, is scheduled to go into com- 
mission next July. The Memphis, not yet 
launched, is expected to be completed in 
November of this year. 






Of what use are discoveries of scientific 
men into new modes and more ample ways 
of living so long as the laws of human nature 
turn all the difficultly won wealth into in- 
creased power of the few over the lives and 
labors of the many. — Professor Soddy. 



134 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1924 



Seamen's Journal 

Established In 1887 
Published on the first day of each month In San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW FURUSETH, President 

A. F. of L,. Building, Washington. D. C. 

PATRICK FLYNN. First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

V. A. OLANDER, Second Vice-President 

166 W. Washington Street. Chicago. 111. 

THOS. CONWAY. Third Vice-President 

71 Main Street. Buffalo. N. Y. 

P. B. GILL, Fourth Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street, Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR, Fifth Vice-President 

1% Lewis Street. Boston. Mass. 

WM. H. BROWN. Sixth Vice-President 

202 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Mass. 

OSCAR CARLSON. Seventh Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York, N. Y. 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary-Treasurer 

355-357 N. Clark Street. Chicago. 111. 

Office of Publication. 525 Market Street 
San Francisco. California 

Subscription price $1.50 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG Editor 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished in the JOURNAL, provided they are of general 
interest, brief, legible, written on one side only of the 
paper, and accompanied by the writer's name and 
address. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the 
expressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscript. 






>® 



MAY 1, 1924 



MORE ABOUT "CO-OPERATION 



Reports, very likely spread by would-be 
union busters and foes of organized labor, 
that the co-operative shop plan on the Balti- 
more & Ohio Railroad is not working will, 
are emphatically denied by Daniel Willard, 
president of the railroad. Speaking of the 
plan, which was tried successfully a year in 
the Glenwood shops of the railroad and is 
now in operation in the other shops of the 
system, Mr. Willard said: 

In the six weeks, the plan has been in general 
operation in the forty-live shops of the system. It 
has succeeded beyond our expectations. Experience 
has convinced me that the plan will succeed in a 
large way. 

The co-operative plan provides for recog- 
nition of the shopmen's unions as essential to 
the management of the railroad and the full- 
est measure of co-operation between workers 
and management in the operation of the 
shops. The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad is 



finding that the plan is giving general satis- 
faction and is demonstrating the truth that 
it pays employers to work in harmony with 
organized labor. 

The American shipowners' idea of co-opera- 
tion is quite different from the plan found 
so workable by Mr. Willard of the 1',. & < >. 
Railroad. 

Instead of recognizing the Seamen's Uniofl 
as the first requisite to true co-operation, the 
shipowners are wasting thousands of dol- 
lars to maintain scab shipping offices, also 
called slave markets. Additional thousands 
are squandered to force each seaman to carry 
a blacklisting discharge book as a constant 
reminder that his future will be made mis- 
erable if he should resent any imposition 
aboard ship or insist upon his rights at any 
time. 

According to the annual report of the or- 
ganized shipowners' "general manager." 20,- 
736 assignments to jobs were made in the 
San Francisco shipping office during the year 
1923. The cost of this service was $35,251.20, 
or $1.70 per assignment. Remember, this tidy 
little sum was spent in the San Francisco 
shipping office. A similar amount was prob- 
ably wasted in the San Pedro office, although 
figures are not given. And that is not all, 
for the "general manager"' earnestly recom- 
mends the establishment of shipping offices 
in the Xorthwest. So the future looks any- 
thing but bright for the parsimonious ship- 
owner who must "put up" until it hurts! 

Of course, the shipowners' hope is that 
the unions will ultimately be crushed. And 
then the shipowner will be able to.- take it 
all back in reduced wages and long working 
hours. The abortive and disruptive tactics of 
the wobblies do not seem to bother the ship- 
owners half as much as the lawful and legiti- 
mate activities of the seamen's unions. To 
be sure, there is a reason for this frame of 
mind. The unions have time after time dem- 
onstrated their sustained fighting capacities. 
The wobblies have no such record. In fact, 
their brief history is singularly void of tangi- 
ble achievement. It is a flash in the pan 
movement, pure and simple. No one knows 
this better than the American shipowner. 
Besides, the shipowner figures that if he 
could only crush the Seamen's Union there 
will be little difficulty in disposing of the 



May, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



135 



wobbly outfit by invoking the criminal Syn- 
dicalism law. 

In the meantime, the shipowner is putting 
up his good hard cash to pay for this pros- 
pective annihilation of the seamen's unions. 
The "general manager," in his report, does 
not hold out much hope for an early demise 
of the unions. In fact, he reluctantly admits 
that they (the seamen's unions) "have made 
some increase in their membership and ap- 
pear to be encouraged for the future." 

The "general manager's" deductions in 
this respect are quite correct. The seamen's 
unions have never grown weak in the face 
of opposition. To the contrary the unions 
have always developed real strength during 
a prolonged fight. Some day in the future 
the shipowner will acknowledge this fact. 
And when he does there may be a prospect 
of duplicating the co-operative plan now in 
vogue on the B. & O. Railroad system. 



BRITISH SHIPPING- LEGISLATION 



An interesting discussion of the status of 
workers, other than seamen, who are injured 
on or near ships when in port, is found in 
the current Monthly Labor Review published 
by the U. S. Department of Labor. These 
workers, particularly longshoremen, and car- 
penters and others engaged in the repair of 
vessels in port or in dry docks, have come 
to occupy an anomalous position through be- 
ing classed as maritime workers although 
they never leave port or work in a vessel 
while under steam. The total failure in estab- 
lishing a status for such workers under the 
compensation laws of the States in which the 
ports are situated is shown by numerous 
court decisions which are cited in the article. 
In fact, it would seem as if longshoremen 
and others who work at or near ships but 
do not go to sea for a livelihood are in a 
worse predicament than seamen when re- 
covery is sought for accidental injury. 



Secretary Nolan reports that a great many 
sailors who were never on the Lakes before 
come into the Seamen's Hall at Chicago 
daily looking for employment. There are 
more men idle in Chicago now than at any 
time this year and it looks as though there 
will be more men than jobs on the Great 
Lakes this season. Stay away from the 
Lakes! 



Secretary Cathery of the National Sailors 
and Firemen's Union of Great Britain and 
Ireland, has supplied the Journal with a 
copy of a bill containing various amendments 
to the British Merchant Shipping Act. The 
bill was introduced in the House of Com- 
mons by James Sexton and backed by sev- 
eral members of the Labor party. The clause 
in the bill, with reference to the hours of 
labor at sea, provides that, except in cases of 
grave emergency, no seaman or apprentice 
on a British ship is to be employed for more 
than eight hours a day, or more than forty- 
eight hours a week. The provision, however, 
does not extend to registered fishing-boats. 
Contravention of the section renders the mas- 
ter of a vessel liable to a fine of £10, and 
the owner, if privy to the contravention, to 
a penalty of £50. Another clause extends the 
obligations to carry a certificated cook, and 
provision is made for improving the accom- 
modation for seamen and apprentices, espe- 
cially in the case of new ships. Clauses for 
the attainment of greater safety provide that 
"wood goods" must not be carried as deck 
cargo during winter, and in summer restric- 
tions are imposed. The maximum punish- 
ment for sending to sea a ship in an unsea- 
worthy state is increased to penal servitude 
for ten years. 

Another bill of importance to seamen has 
been introduced in the House of Lords by 
Lord Parmoor. The object of this measure 
is to give effect to certain draft conventions 
adopted by the International Labor Confer- 
ence, relating respectively to an unemploy- 
ment indemnity for seamen, in the case of 
loss or foundering of thefr ship, the minimum 
age for admission of young persons to em- 
ployment as trimmers and stokers, and the 
compulsory medical examination of children 
and young persons employed at sea. 

The bill applies to ships registered in any 
British possession outside the United King- 
dom (other than India, Canada, Australia), 
including Papua and Norfolk Island, New 
Zealand, South Africa, Irish Free State, and 
Newfoundland. 



Ignorance and poverty are the two greatest 
evils in the world, and one breeds the other. 



136 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL M ay. 1924 

TRAINING FOR THE SEA CAPTAIN DOLLAR'S CREWS 



The Norwegian Shipowners' Association 
has just purchased the three-masted steel 
auxiliary bark Statsraad Lehmkuhl for use as 
a training-ship for the Norwegian mercantile 
marine. This fine vessel, before passing into 
Norwegian hands, was a training-ship for 
German merchant officers. She was built in 
1914 for the Deutscher Schulschiff Verein 
(German training-ship association). Her di- 
mensions are : Length, 277 feet ; breadth, 40 
feet ; depth, 24 feet, and deadweight carrying 
capacity, 2100 tons; while she has accommo- 
dation for 200 apprentices and a crew of 58. 
She has auxiliary propelling machinery con- 
sisting of a Diesel motor of 600 horse-power, 
and her speed under full power is about 9 
knots. In all probability she will be managed 
for her owners by the Gregen Shipowners' 
Association. 

It is certainly interesting, and perhaps sig- 
nificant, in view of the great expansion of 
Scandinavian shipping which has taken place 
in the last quarter of a century, to note that, 
with all the Scandinavian countries, and Nor- 
way in particular, training in sail is still re- 
garded as an indispensable part of the early 
experience of all who wish to take up the 
mercantile marine as a profession. 

American shipowners, or at least most of 
their spokesmen, profess to believe that skill, 
training and experience are no longer of real 
importance in vessel operation. Their one 
overpowering ambition is to secure cheap 
crews, even though cheap crews have often 
proved to be far more expensive than higher- 
priced crews possessed of skill and expe- 



The Labor party of Great Britain is going 
to have some friendly rivalry in Denmark. 
Official returns from the recent Danish par- 
liamentary elections show that the existing 
administration suffered defeat and that labor 
elected the largest number of members in 
the Folketing, or Congress. The Labor party 
will have 55 members, liberals 44, conserva- 
tives 27, and independent liberals 20. The 
indications are that laborites and independent 
liberals will combine to organize the new 
government. 



The office staff of Captain Dollar's 

"around the world" service has just sent a 

circular letter to various American business 

interests soliciting patronage and support. 

The following paragraph in the letter is 

noteworthy : 

We ask your support for the Dollar Steamship 
Line, an American concern which has been operat- 
ing for the past thirty-eight years, and incidentally 
help to build up the American Merchant Marine. 

When the Dollar letter writers brag of 
Americanism and hint that patrons of the 
Dollar concern will help "to build up the 
American Merchant Marine" it is high time 
to sound the fire alarm. 

When the A\ T < >rld A Yar started two <>f Cap- 
tain Dollar's vessels were flying the British 
flag. Stories of a German submarine on the 
West Coast brought the British flag down, 
and then, for protection purposes only, this 
100 per center raised the Stars and Stripes, 
which was neutral at that time. 

This, of course, is merely an incident in 
Captain Dollar's long career as a patriot. 
The captain at this moment is a leader of the 
Pacific Coast 100 per centers. He is so 
patriotic that he will only employ "free and 
independent labor." And to be sure that his 
crews are not tainted with unionism, he 
selects Orientals whenever possible. 

Once in a while even his Asiatic pets ob- 
ject to the Dollar exploiting system, as prac- 
ticed on Dollar ships, and when an entire 
Filipino crew quit one of his vessels at San 
Francisco recently the daughty captain was 
forced to pick up another "independent" 
crew in great hurry. 

Just how these independent, non-union 
Dollar crews behave is told in the columns 
of the San Francisco newspapers under date 
of April 24: 

Mutiny on board the Dollar Line around-the-world 

Steamship President Harrison, in the port of Mar- 

seilles, resulted in serious injuries to the first engi- 

f the ship, L. S. Honing, and a free-for-all 

fight in which the entire crew of the vessel joined. 

The President llarrinson reached port today with 
a vivid story of the affair. 

The mutineers were negroes from Mexico and 
Central America and all members of the engine-room 
crew. They were allowed to go ashore at the 
Southern France port, where they immediately be- 
came hopelessly intoxicated. First Assistant Engi- 
neer Honing was at the gangplank when the nun 
came aboard. He began searching them for liquor, 
and the entire crew attacked him. One drew a 



8 



May, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



137 



knife and slashed Honing from the top of his head 
to his chin. The white officers then sailed in in 
an attempt to subdue the mutineers. 

One of the engine-room crew got a hold of a 
cleaver and chased Captain K. A. Ahlin off the 
bridge of the ship. The skipper fought with the 
man, and after a desperate battle subdued him. 

Another negro with a razor attacked Purser C. N. 
Ludvigsen and was disarmed only after a hard strug- 
gle. With the aid of the French police the mutineers 
were finally beaten into submission and put in irons. 
Oh, yes, Captain Dollar is performing 
wonders in building up the American Mer- 
chant Marine. He is advertising to all the 
world that a 100 per center, like himself, 
will never under any circumstances give em- 
ployment to an -American seaman as long as 
he can get away with something cheaper. 



THE GENTLEMEN'S AGREEMENT 

The New Republic, The New York Nation, 
and a few other maudlin "liberal" sheets 
have been waxing frothy in their editorial 
columns because the Congress of the United 
States has finally concluded to regulate 
Japanese immigration by law. 

We have been doing precisely that sort of 
regulating with every other nation on earth. 
Japan alone under the mysterious Gentle- 
men's Agreement has been permitted to at- 
tend to that matter herself. And since Japan 
has enjoyed special privileges in this respect 
for a number of years these alleged liberals 
of New York are trying to make themselves 
believe that the Japanese are unjustly 
treated and have a genuine grievance just 
because Congress proposes to treat them 
exactly the same as all other nations whose 
nationals are not eligible to citizenship of 
the United States. 

Let us see what this marvelous Gentle- 
men's Agreement has done to us and particu- 
larly its effect on an American territory. 

Under the Gentlemen's Agreement the 
American immigration authorities are re- 
quired to honor and accept, at face value, 
every passport issued by Japan. Adminis- 
tration and interpretation of the agreement 
has been all on one side, i. e., the Japanese 
side. 

The essence of the agreement is that labor- 
ers shall not be permitted to leave Japan for 
American territory, yet, 9717 "picture brides," 
nearly all of whom at once went to work as 
agricultural laborers or as domestic servants, 



came to Hawaii during the last decade. And 
although the Japanese government has volun- 
tarily stopped the departure of picture brides 
for the mainland, these brides are still com- 
ing to that American territory. 

In addition to these "brides," thousands of 
male laborers came over during the 10 years 
with passports. They obtained passports be- 
cause of peculiar family relations. Under the 
regulations, a Japanese in Hawaii may bring 
over his wife, his father and mother, his 
children. That opens the gate. A plantation 
laborer may bring over a "picture bride," who 
is a laborer exept for the few weeks annually 
at her period of childbirth. He sends for 
his father or mother, or both. They arrive, 
and immediately send for all their remaining 
sons and daughters. Hundreds of cases are 
said to have occurred in which the old father 
was on his way back to Japan before these 
sons and daughters had arrived, having 
stopped only long enough for the necessary 
formalities of "calling" over the younger 
generation. 

These sons and daughters, of course, may 
bring their wives and husbands and children. 
A "picture bride" may call over her mother 
or father, and that parent may bring her 
sturdy sons, laborers, and they may bring 
wives or send for picture brides, and so 
forth. 

The Japanese custom of "adoption" starts 
another leak. For example, by agreement a 
laborer in Japan whose elder- brother is head 
of the family, applies for and receives per- 
mission to withdraw from the family and set 
up a cadet family. Then he adopts as his 
son a nephew in Hawaii who is the son of 
that elder brother. The young man in 
Hawaii accepts that adoption and through 
the consulate sends for his "father," who 
upon arrival proceeds to send for his real 
sons. Clearly, this arrangement works like 
an endless chain or a revolving bridge that 
constantly pours more laborers into Hawaii. 

During the last decade there were 37,271 
alien Japanese admitted to the islands. This 
figure does not include Flawaiian-born Jap- 
anese returning from visits or schooling in 
Japan, since they are American citizens. In 
the same period 27,993 aliens departed for 
Japan. Japan's statistics of departures to 



138 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1924 



Japan for the ten years give a total of 41,062. 
A truly remarkable discrepancy between our 
total and theirs, 13,069. The explanation, 
however, is quite simple. In the decade, 
13,069 Japanese children born in the islands 
and endowed with all the rights of American 
citizenship went back to Japan for education. 

American immigration statistics classifies 
them as Americans, not "aliens." Japan 
counts them as Japanese. American by birth, 
they are in fact registered at the Japanese 
consulate in Honolulu and in Tokyo as Jap- 
anese subjects. 

Thus, during the last decade alone, more 
than 13,000 children born in an American ter- 
ritory were sent back to Japan for education, 
and Japan counts them in and makes a show- 
ing that there was an excess of departures 
over arrivals during this ten years under the 
"Gentlemen's Agreement." Surely, there 
could be no more misleading deduction. 

Still, the pro-Japanese "Liberals" have 
gladly accepted and joyfully published any 
set of figures indicating that "the Japanese 
menace is a myth." 

Well, let us be thankful that the actual in- 
fluence of these "liberals" is negligible. It 
would surely be a sorry day for America and 
especially for American workers if things 
were otherwise. For under the guise of their 
high-brow liberalism these fake reformers 
who guide the editorial policy of the New 
Republic and The Nation would not hesitate 
to open our ports to the teeming millions of 
the Orient. It is evidently no concern of 
theirs if the Oriental hordes should by sheer 
weight of numbers crush the very life of the 
American labor movement. 



Definite information was received from 
Norfolk, Va., recently to the effect that the 
United States Steamboat Inspection Service 
was certifying two wipers instead of three 
oilers in coal burning vessels, thus evading 
the clear provisions of the Seamen's Act, 
that firemen, oilers and watertenders must be 
divided into three watches. President 
Furuseth took the matter up with the In- 
spector General of Steam Vessels, who, after 
having an investigation made, instructed the 
inspectors at Norfolk to correct the certificates 
and to enforce the three watch system for 
oilers and watertenders. 



The annual payroll of the organized work- 
ers of America exceeds $5,000,000,000. The 
figures are majestic, but what do they do with 
the money? Do they spend it on friends or 
enemies? Let it all be spent on enemies and 
no union man will have a job. If you want 
to work, and to receive union wages, then 
spend your wages to employ other union men 
so they in turn can buy your product and 
employ you. Every cent counts on the right 
side <>r wrong side. Let's begin to be on the 
right side and get others with us. Let's 
never purchase an article, be it cigars. 
tobacco, hats, shoes or other wearing apparel, 
that does not bear the union label. 



It is reported that no less than six old 
sailing ships are now in Los Angeles harbor 
to be remodeled as tall frigates and stately 
galleons to figure in thrilling sea adventures 
on the screen. When they put to sea again 
real actors masquerading as swashbuckling 
pirates will walk the quarter-deck and modern 
A. TVs, hired by the hour and suitably dis- 
guised as galley slaves, will do their share to 
entertain the movie fans. Only a few days 
ago motion picture interests bought the old 
schooner Dauntless, of 478 tons net, built at 
Hoquiam, Wash., in 1808, and the wooden 
schooner Fox, of 226 tons net. built in 1888 
and for years engaged in fur-trading expedi- 
tions to the Arctic. 



Non-union men are often heard to remark- 
that they would join the union if the union 
would abolish certain objectionable condi- 
tions and force the workers to abide by cer- 
tain rules and regulations. They do not 
seem to realize that, by staying out, they 
are doing their proportionate share in defeat- 
ing the very thing they want to see done. 



A Labor exchange says: "If you don't 
think co-operation is necessary, watch what 
happens to a wagon when a wheel comes 
off." Yes, and if you are still unconvinced 
just watch what happens when men try to 
tow a boat or do some heavy rope pulling 
without co-operation! 



Oh, that moral science were in as fair a 
way of improvement that we would cease to 
be wolves to one another. — Ben Franklin. 



10 



May, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



139 



A STUDY OF ECONOMICS 

(By Professor Lloyd M. Crosgrave, formerly Pro- 
fessor of Economics, Indiana University; Lec- 
turer, Workers' Study Classes) 



If, as we said in our last issue, 85 
out of every 100 persons receive 60 per cent 
of the wealth produced each year in the 
United States, why do we have ten million 
of our people living in poverty each year? 

The answer to this question turns not on 
how much wealth they produce, but on how 
much this group is able to save each year. 

While the poor, as a group, receive three- 
fifths of the wealth produced annually, they 
are the most numerous group. Their in- 
dividual share is therefore much smaller. 
And they spend every year about all they 
receive for immediate needs such as food, 
clothing and shelter. They are able to save 
almost nothing. 

The moderately well-off people, who are 
much fewer in number, receive one-fifth of 
the annual production. Their individual 
share is larger and they can save some wealth 
each year. 

And the wealthy, who are very few in 
number, receive one-fifth of the wealth pro- 
duced each year. They cannot spend all 
they receive each year. Saving is a necessity 
and not a virtue. 

We have so far been talking about what 
is done with the wealth produced in the 
country each year. That is the annual 
production. Let us now turn to the wealth 
that is actually existing in the country at 
any particular time — say on January 1, 1924. 
This is what is meant by wealth when 
that term is used without further qualifica- 
tion. 

The wealth of the United States on January 
1. 1924 is, of course, made up of what was 
produced during 1923 and that was not con- 
sumed ; also of what was produced in 1921 
and that has not been consumed, and so on. 

Wealth at any given time is simply what 
has been produced in the past minus what 
has been consumed. 

Who owns the wealth existing in the coun- 
try at the present time? We have seen that 
the large proportion of the population, which 
is poor, consumes nearly all it receives in 
contrast to the few who are rich. The result 



is that, so far as the wealth existing at any 
particular time is concerned : 

The very few who are rich own as a whole 
six-tenths or 60 per cent of the wealth. 

The people who are moderately well off 
and who are much more numerous than the 
rich own three-tenths or 30 per cent of the 
wealth. 

The people who are poor, although they 
make up nearly all of the population, own 
only one-tenth or 10 per cent of the wealth. 

The 2 per cent of the total population that 
may be called rich own, as a whole, many 
times as much as the 85 per cent who are 
poor own. That is what is meant when the 
"unequal distribution of wealth" is spoken, of. 



OVERLAND SAILINGS TO PERSIA 

The undertaking by a German-Russian 
commercial organization to re-establish the 
old trade route from Petrograd to Persia, 
via the St. Mary Canal system and the Volga 
River is being carried on with increased ac- 
tivity, says Consul Gotleib, Teheran, and 
Consul F. V. Richardson, Berlin. The ven- 
ture began with the dispatch of a 200 : ton 
vessel from Hamburg on June 24, 1922, which 
took almost six months to reach Enzeli, on 
the Persian coast of the Caspian Sea. 

The success of this trip led to the forma- 
tion of the Russisch-Deutsch Transit and 
Handelsgesellschaft, capitalized at 250,000 
gold rubles, of which half was paid in by a 
consortium of German firms. The other half 
of the capital represents the share of the So- 
viet Government, which has reserved the right 
to one-half of the cargo space on the boats. 

During the 1923 season some half dozen 
German vessels arrived at Enzeli, the termi- 
nus of the route, heavily loaded with German 
merchandise. The greater part of the con- 
signments are being taken by the local agents 
of the Robert Wonckhaus Company, which 
has been granted certain exclusive privileges 
by the Soviet Government over this route. 

The three specially designed one-deck sis- 
ter motorships Ispahan, Chamadan and En- 
zeli, of 822 gross tons, have been recently 
completed and placed on this route. In addi- 
tion to cargo space the new vessels have three 
two-passenger staterooms, a smoking room 
and a hospital. The first-named of these boats 
reached Enzeli in November, 1923. 



11 



140 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1924 



SEAMEN'S INTERNATIONAL CODE 

(Continued from April Issue) 



Andrew Furuseth's comment and criticism 
of the proposed Seamen's International Code, 
tentatively drafted by the International Labor 
Office (functioning by authority of the League 
of Nations), is continued herewith: 

IV 
I have already agreed that an International Code 
for seamen is feasible, providing it leaves no room 
for "Party Agreements." There are indeed good 
reasons, both from a national and a racial point 
of view, to maintain that it would be beneficial 
both to the shipowners, the seamen and to occi- 
dental civilization. It might tend to reduce the 
cut-throat competition which is gradually driving 
the sea-power into the keeping of the people of 
Asia. This presupposes, however, that the Code 
mus"t be based upon such principles that the occi- 
dental man, brought up in an occidental school, 
will be willing to have his son become a seaman 
and that the occidental boy shall be willing to 
choose the calling of a seaman as his lifework. The 
question is: 

Is sea-power of sufficient importance to 
the nations and people to make them will- 
ing to bear the burden, if they shall so 
consider it? 

"What are the advantages that would reasonably 
accrue? 

Sea-power has always been world-power. Those 
who controlled the sea went where they wanted to 
go, stayed where they wanted to stay, took what 
they wanted and brought it home. The sea has 
been a prison-wall to the weak and timid, a high- 
way to the strong and a field of wealth and honor 
to the daring and venturesome among men. The 
share which any particular nation, in the past, had 
in the use of the sea depended always on the num- 
ber of its people, who obtained their living by fol- 
lowing sea occupations. Politically, it meant pro- 
tection to the seacoasts and safety to its inhab- 
itants; industrially, it meant to share in the earn- 
ings of commerce and carrying trade and, there- 
fore, to develop a large body of trained seamen, 
to foster and develop a tendency to the sea in the 
population, has ever been the care of statesmanship. 
Nations have fought over fishing grounds, not so 
much because of the food to be caught, as because 
of the seamen to be trained. In the wars between 
England and France, as in the wars between Eng- 
land and Spain, the victory went to England, be- 
cause she had the seamen in such number and of 
such skill, that the victory became hers. Colbert, 
the great Finance Minister of Louis XIV, under- 
stood this, hence he tried to develop seamen for 
France by his system of "inscripts maritime." To 
the shipper and traveler it meant increased safety. 
That risk and danger decreased as skill and cour- 
age increased was so well known that the shipper 
and the shipowner insisted upon, and from all gov- 
ernments received, the right to disrate such men as 
failed to come up to the standard developed in the 
struggle with the sea. 

Contrasting the above with modern conditions, 
we find that the sea has not changed. The danger 
is still there. Notwithstanding the improvements in 
shipbuilding, the soundings and chartings of the 
seas, the lighting of the shore lines and marking of 
dangerous waters, the loss of life and wealth by 
disasters at sea are steadily increasing. The reason 
for this is so simple, that all seamen know it. The 



steady downward trend of skill and strength is 
felt by the seaman, not only in hours of especial 
danger, it is felt every day in the added labor and 
hardship which come as the result of having ship- 
mates, who cannot do the work, that a seaman must 
be able to do, and which must be done for the 
safety of the vessel, passengers, cargo and crew. 

The development of the different forms of in- 
surance and the adoption of limitation of liability 
have made the owners of vessels independent of the 
dangers of the sea. The financial losses are thereby 
transferred to the public which pays it in the addi- 
tional price of goods carried. The distinguished 
British statesman, Joseph Chamberlain, gives the 
real reasons for the increasing loss of life and 
wealth as follows : 

"Bear in mind, when a ship is lost the 
shipowner may make a profit, the owner 
may get more than the value of his ship; 
the merchant may lose nothing, but may, 
and very often does, get more than the 
value of the cargo back. In the same way 
the underwriter averages his losses, and 
on the whole makes a profit on the insur- 
ance on the ship out of his premium." 
The average shipowner is no longer seriously 
interested in safety, either to the nation or to his 
ship. His chief interest is in the cheapest possible 
crew, and if he cannot find them among capable 
seamen, he seeks them in the social cesspool of the 
unemployables. If he cannot find them there, he 
seeks them among, what we call the lower races, 
who are thus taught seamanship and are becoming 
prepared to take charge of the tools, which we 
either cannot or will not any longer handle. 

The seaman used to be married. He used to 
have a home. It is so no longer. The wages of 
men on shore have, as a result of freedom and 
organization, at least to some extent, followed 
increasing prices upward, while the seaman's wages, 
as a result of bondage and competition, have stood 
still, making him unable to maintain a family. The 
seaman's social status has thus been destroyed, and 
the young refuse to become seamen while the men 
arc having the sea. As the seaman's life has be- 
come less and less able to attract the physically 
capable youth and also less and less able to hold 
the industrially trained man, safety has been passing 
away. As an inevitable result, the nations have set 
up expensive bureaus to regulate sea life and ships 
so as to have at least a semblance of safety. It 
has been of little avail, as testified to by Joseph 
Chamberlain, as follows: 

"We have established a great and., elab- 
orate machinery; we have set up a compli- 
cated system under which we have pre- 
tended to supervise every shipowner, good 
and bad alike, and under which we have 
tried to make negligence, carelessness, and 
apathy impossible, but we have never tried 
to make it unprofitable." 
Here we have an acknowledgment, and from a 
man who, from his position, knew that safety did 
not come nor could it come from supervision ap- 
plied to the owner and from force and fear imposed 
on the seamen. Safety at sea comes from courage, 
loyalty, skill and a feeling of responsibility; but 
these are qualities and characteristics of the moral 
man, who feels himself free. The bondman cannot 
have those qualities, because he has no individual 
will. Modern civilization is badly served at sea 
now; but it will be more and more badly served, 
as the seaman becomes more and more conscious 
of his bondage. This bondage does not arise from 
military necessity as is sometimes claimed. It arose 
from the common hazard and the feeling enforced 
bv common law. which neither on land nor at sea 



12 



May, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



141 



permitted a man to desert others in danger, and 
which created the feeling expressed in "Women and 
children first." Often the danger was as great in a 
harbor in a strange country and among strange 
men, as at sea and to remain with the vessel and 
to defend her was to defend one's shipmates and 
oneself. 

The wrong to the seaman and to occidental civ- 
ilization was done when merchants and shipowners 
persuaded the different nations to continue, as a 
legal obligation based upon profit, a system which 
no longer could have any basis in the moral law. 
The shipowner then became the master and the 
seaman became, while under contract, the serf. As 
long as serfdom remained on shore and the seaman 
was free when not under contract, the seaman did 
not feel his status, and even when he did, he was 
not able to voice his protest in such language that 
it could get attention. He simply quit and then 
gave the sea life such a reputation as to cause it 
to be shunned. Strength and skill are passing from 
the sea and with those qualities passing away safety 
diminishes, regardless of supervision and laws at- 
tempting in vain to force the qualities of free men 
upon serfs. 

If occidental civilization wants efficient service 
and reasonable safety at sea, the wrongs done to 
the seaman must be righted. The seaman has 
been robbed of his self-respect, he has been made 
unable to follow the upward trend of human so- 
ciety, he has been made unable to maintain a home, 
he cannot live like other normal humans, he has 
nothing really worth working for, and he is be- 
coming an inefficient servant. Contracts to labor 
in private employments are no longer enforceable 
by imprisonment or other compulsion in other 
callings, but they are maintained on the seaman, 
and yet more is demanded of him than of others. If 
the seaman is to be a real service in war, if he is 
to be entrusted with safety to passengers at sea in 
peace, he must have his freedom restored as a pri- 
mary condition. Real efficient seamanship does not 
grow in conscious bondage. The United States 
has made the beginning; but now comes the 
League of Nations — organized to bring justice and 
peace into the world — with a proposal that the 
seaman's status of bondage is to be perpetuated. 
There seemed to be at least some hope that some 
other nations might follow the lead of the United 
States, but if there is to be an International Code 
for seamen, in which bondage is to be one of the 
main features, then were it better that the League 
itself be sunk to the deepest depths of the sea, be- 
fore it be permitted to destroy that which is best 
and most hopeful in existing civilization — its ten- 
dency to a steadily growing freedom. 

If the League of Nations is to furnish an Inter- 
natonal Code for seamen, it must be such that it 
will tend to restore to the seaman his self-respect 
and his proper place among men. It must be so 
drawn that it will assist in the development of a sea 
personnel that can serve the nations and our race 
as a defense in war, and that will furnish such 
safety at sea as is humanly possible. It must pro- 
vide for each vessel a crew sufficient in skill and 
in numbers to take proper care of the vessel while 
she is afloat, to lower and manage the vessel's boats 
when the vessel must be abandoned. Nothing less 
is reasonable safety and it cannot be had unless 
the nations and the people are willing to pay the 
cost in skilled, loyal and courageous seamen. The 
seamen must, therefore, be placed in position to be 
able to fight for and at least gradually attain to an 
income from his labor that will enable him to be a 
homebuilder, able to care for a family in a manner 
done by other skilled men. Nothing less will bring 



the boy brought up in a modern school to the sea; 
nothing less will hold the skilled man. 

Of course there are some people who will main- 
tain that transportation under such circumstances 
will be so expensive as to make it impractical; but 
this is given a direct denial in all other business, 
where it is claimed that efficiency and skill lower 
cost, and it takes no thought of the fact that the 
wage cost is now about the smallest item of cost 
in the operation of a vessel. Skilled men do not 
only increase safety, they do also decrease cost of 
fuel, and they lessen repair bills, while they speed up 
the turn around. Be that, however, as it may; such 
are the conditions, such is the price, and when all 
pay alike the shipowners pay nothing. It is the 
public which does the paying. 

(Continued in next issue) 



TONNAGE OF GERMAN COMPANIES 



The six leading German steamship com- 
panies now have a combined gross tonnage 
of approximately 1,250,000, of which two- 
thirds has been built since the war, ac- 
cording to figures recently published in Ger- 
many. The Hamburg-American Line, which 
has the largest fleet, was reported to include 
384,734 gross tons at the end of 1923, com- 
prising 348,858 tons of steamships and 35,876 
tons of motor ships. 

Comparative figures for the six principal 
companies for 1907, 1913, and 1923 are, as 
follows : 

Name of Company 1907 1913 1923 

Tonnage Tonnage Tonnage 

Hamburg- American Line 955,742 1,360,360 384,734 

Norrdeutscher Lloyd 804,060 982,951 279,713 

Deutsch-Austral & Kosmos... 308,351 527,718 173,583 

Hansa 244,985 440,544 148,993 

Hamburg-Sud Amerika D. G. .. 197,600 384,982 129,464 

Hugo Stinnes Lines 30,052 125,083 

Total 2,510,738 3,726,607 1,241,570 

Including the six new ocean liners nearing 
completion, the Berlin, Dresden, Trier, Fulda, 
Sierra Morena, and Bonn, it is estimated that 
the Norddeutscher Lloyds total seagoing 
tonnage at the end of 1924 will equal 400,000 
gross tons. 



Labor alone produces the necessaries of 
life, and on the enslavement of that class is 
the whole world system of capital and 
finance based. There is no property on earth 
and nothing owned, save the workers, for 
nothing else will pay a revenue to the 
owner, and it is only through the exploiting 
of the slaves of any age that the wealth of 
the world is produced. — E. T. Kingsley. 



A man must stand erect, not be kept erect 
by others. — Marcus Aurelius. 



13 



142 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL May, 1924 

THE MOST DIFFICULT JOB JAPANESE FISHING INDUSTRY 



The most difficult job in the world is to 
think. I find it so. 

The mind is a born wanderer. It hates 
to be fastened down to any task. It wants 
to gad about the world, staying nowhere long 
and doing nothing in particular. 

And with this vagrant, unstable trifler and 
truant we have to do our thinking! 

As soon as I sit down to write on any 
given subject, my mind is off, and dancing 
hither and thither like any will-o'-the-wisp. 

What a chase to catch it! Into all sorts 
of queer places I have to plunge in the 
pursuit. And when I have dragged it back, 
and sternly set it to its task, it must be 
watched closely, or in a flash it is away 
again. 

I can't imagine that my mind is singular 
in this respect, or that it is one of an un- 
fortunate minority. 

Most minds are like that. I'm certain — 

probably all. 

Man\ people pass through life without 
even having known the process of thinking. 

They have opinions, which they have 
picked up second-hand, and prejudices which 
they have contracted pretty much as they 
contract a cold, by breathing infection in the 
air. 

But thought in its true sense, involving 
concentrated mental effort, is something of 
which they are utterly incapable. 

Their minds go flitting aimlessly from 
one useless point to another, in a never- 
ending maze of futility. 

There are others, like myself, who think 
with great difficulty, because of this wan- 
dering habit of the mind. 

Even while I have been writing this simple 
little piece, my mind lias three times tried t<> 
break from control, and I have had to grab it 
by the coat-tails, and determinedly keep its 
nose to the grindstone of duty. 

If there's anything harder than thinking. 
I'd like to be told what it is. — The Australian 
Worker. 



Fishing ranks among the most important 
industries of Japan. The annual catch is 
valued at approximately $230,000,000. The 
waters surrounding Japan and to the north 
constitute one of the three greatest fishing 
areas of the Northern Hemisphere, and, con- 
sequently, the people have a plentiful supply 
of fish, which almost takes the place of meat. 
This abundance of fish so close at hand has 
been a saving factor in the development of 
the Japanese Empire, since meat animals are 
raised on so small a scale. 

The fish catch of 1921 in Japan proper 
amounted to 1,755,965 long tons. 1.124,977 
tons of which were for table use. while the 
remainder was taken for the oil content and 
for manufacture of fertilizer. In addition to 
fish caught in the open sea, a considerable 
amount is raised in small ponds on farms. 
This industry is quite an important one on 
the island of Taiwan, where many fish-breed- 
ing pools are found, some of which cover an 
area of 250 acres. The annual production of 
fish raised in this manner i> \alued at about 
$1,000,000. 

Japan exports annually about $8,000,000 
worth of fish and fish products, the bulk of 
which goes to China, Hongkong and Kwang- 
tung. About $225,000 worth is sent to the 
United States and consists principally of 
dried cod and cuttlefish and canned goods 
such as crabs. 



WORLD'S LONGEST SAILING SHIP 



Every institution, whether political or re- 
ligious, represents in its actual working the 
form and pressure of the age. — Buckle. 



According to "Lloyd's List" the longest 
sailing ship afloat is the iron four-masted 
full-rigged Norwegian ship Lancing <>f 27S5 
tons. Her over-all dimensions are 405 feet, 
while the height from the main truck to the 
keel is about 200 feet. She was originally the 
steamer Pereire of the Erench Line, and was 
built by R. Napier & Co. at Glasgow in 1866. 
For two decades or more she was engaged 
in carrying passengers and. mails between 
Havre and Xew York, and was then sold and 
converted into a sailing ship. 

The present owners of the Lancing are 
Melson & Melson, of Christiania. Despite 
her great age the vessel ranks as one of the 



14 



May, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



143 



fastest sailing ships afloat. Her best run 
across the Atlantic was made in February, 
1916, with a cargo of oil cake, her time being 
six days and eighteen hours from the eastern 
end of Newfoundland to the north of Scot- 
land. On one occasion she is said to have 
sailed 76 miles in four hours. 



'RADICALS" WORK IN SWEAT SHOPS 



MEXICO'S EMIGRANTS 

(By Canuto A. Vargas, Spanish Language Secretary 
Pan-American Federation of Labor) 



The Mexican Government is seriously con- 
sidering the problem of immigration of work- 
ers to the United States, and an extensive 
study is being made with the purpose of hav- 
ing the National Congress in some way regu- 
late immigration or authorize the Executive 
to regulate it by decree. 

All Mexican consuls along the border 
States are instructed to study the situation 
in their localities and render a detailed report 
to the Mexican Government. 

The Foreign Relations department has been 
especially active in this respect, and two spe- 
cial agents have been sent by the depart- 
ment to Arizona, Texas, and California to 
gather first-hand information that will enable 
the Mexican Government to cope with the 
problem of the thousands of Mexicans who 
come to the United States in search of the 
"golden times" promised by the unscrupulous 
recruiting agents sent by American employers 
to the interior of Mexico. 

To offset the mischievous work of the re- 
cruiting agents, the Mexican Government is 
contemplating the establishment of a number 
of central recruiting stations in the northern 
part of Mexico, supervised by government 
agents. It is also contemplated to establish 
certain rules and regulations for recruiting 
workers, paramount among which will be 
that no laborer shall be permitted to emigrate 
unless he has an employment agreement that 
will protect him from the unscrupulous agent 
and the no less unscrupulous employer. The 
conditions recently unearthed by Mexican 
consuls in the Alaska canneries have spurred 
the Mexican officials to further activities, and 
it is very likely that before long the immigra- 
tion of Mexican workers will be regulated 
by the Mexican Government by appropriate 
legislation and close supervision. 



The bookworm "radical" who talks of the 
"social revolution" and who works in a sweat 
shop does not appeal to Max Danish, editor 
of Justice, official magazine of the Interna- 
tional Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. 

This element professes to be the "vanguard 
of progress." They can see nothing intellec- 
tual in organized labor. The workers' strug- 
gles are unaesthetic to these souls who live in 
a rarefied atmosphere, as they labor in anti- 
union shops, under sweating conditions. 

The "radicalism" of these workers can not 
be questioned, says Editor Danish. "They at- 
tend lectures on questions of high political 
and literary import with a zeal that is well- 
nigh religious," he says. "Their enthusiasm 
for the 'social revolution' is as burning as it is 
unbounded." 

The labor editor refers to one group of 
these "radicals" who developed to such a point 
"intellectually" that none belonged to the 
union. An attempt to organize them brought 
an injunction against the union. The boss 
then asked these "revolutionists" to sign an 
agreement that they would not join the union. 
All but two signed that agreement. The boss 
continues to enforce his anti-union conditions 
while the "vanguards of progress" talk and 
dream of the "social revolution." 



U. S. TONNAGE STATISTICS 



The latest available statistics show that on 
March 1, 1924, seagoing merchant vessels of 
500 tons gross and over flying the American 
flag (exclusive of United States Shipping 
Board tonnage), numbered 2018 of 6,293,165 
tons gross against 2016 of 6,265,384 tons on 
February 1, 1924, an increase of two vessels and 
27,781 tons. In addition, 1380 vessels of 
6,389,668 tons were owned by the Lnited 
States Shipping Board, against 1390 vessels 
of 6,451,983 tons on February 1, 1924. Al- 
together 3398 merchant vessels of 12,682,833 
tons gross were under the American flag 
on March 1, of which 2468 vessels of 11,402,- 
753 tons were built of steel. Of the latter 
number 1202 vessels of 5,321.648 tons were 
privately owned. 



15 



144 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1924 



BOOK REVIEW 



The Humanizing of Knowledge by James 
Harvey Robinson. George H. Doran & Co., 
New York. The Workers' bookshelf is to be 
congratulated on its third volume. Professor 
Robinson is always a stimulating writer, and 
his new book is a clear challenge to our 
thinking. The central theme, as the title 
indicates, is a plea for the humanizing of 
knowledge — and by this, Professor Robinson 
means that the great treasure of information 
piled up by scientific research should be put 
in terms which all of us can understand and 
made available to the general reader. He 
not only demonstrates the necessity for so 
doing, but suggests a way by which it may 
be accomplished. 

Professor Robinson states, what most of 
us realize but very vaguely, that experi- 
mental science has, bit by bit, accumulated 
a tremendous mass of exact information of 
incalculable value to men if they are able 
to take advantage of it. In the laboratories, 
examining tiny bits of matter through the 
microscope, analyzing, and studying, import- 
ant discoveries have been made in the fields 
of physics, chemistry, and physiology and 
psychology. We now have much new knowl- 
edge about the origin and functioning of our 
bodies and minds which should enable us to 
live more easily, comfortably, and happily 
than ever before. 

Unfortunately, much of this information is 
not usable because it is published in scat- 
tered articles in scientific journals, written in 
language understandable only to the man 
with a highly technical vocabulary. Its very 
existence is almost unsuspected until we 
stumble across something in our reading 
which gives a hint of new and wonder stores 
of knowledge. This is all so important to 
our welfare that Professor Robinson urges 
its translation into the common language, and 
its publication, little by little, in accessible 
form. An extract from the last chapter may 
suggest how he believes this could be ac- 
complished. 

"A whole series of convenient and inex- 
pensive little volumes might be issued — say 
six or eight yearly — in which new discover- 
ed novel and promising ways of put- 



ting things together, could be embodied. 
. . . The kind of topics I have in mind all 
have to do with the newer knowledge and 
guesses about man and his world. Every 
reader will immediately supply for himself 
topics about which his curiosity has been 
aroused. . . . One might have come to 
wonder whether, after all, it is money alone 
that 'makes the mare go.' The man who 
must read as he runs would be glad to have 
the whole notion of evolution sufficiently ex- 
plained to understand that no well-informed 
person supposes that we are descended from 
monkeys. The discoveries relating to hered- 
ity, to youth and to old age, could be brought 
together in their bearing on the lives and 
fate of each and all of us. . . . " 

It is difficult, perhaps, to see how all this 
technical knowledge, apparently unrelated to 
the work of our everyday world, can help us 
or why it is impotant that we be aware of 
its existence. Yet it is exactly as necessary 
for us to know the laws controlling our 
actions, emotions, and thoughts, as it is for 
an engineer to know the forces involved in 
the working of his engine, for the chemist 
to understand the composition of his mix- 
tures, or for the electrician to know the 
formulas used in his machines. Under favor- 
able circumstances we can conduct our lives 
fairly satisfactorily to ourselves and to the 
community. When something untoward oc- 
curs, when we suffer reverses, disappoint- 
ments, or disaster, we must have some kind 
of philosophy to guide us. If this philosophy 
is based on accurate knowledge of our own 
nature and the functioning of our physical 
and mental structures in their relation to the 
world, we are apt to arrive at a more satis- 
factory solution of the problem than if we ac- 
cept a philosophy based only upon supersti- 
tion and tradition. 

While we are children life is comparatively 
simple. Right is right and wrong is wrong, 
and the difference between the two is easily 
distinguishable. To do right we need only 
do what our parents and elders tell us we 
should do. If we disobey them we do wrong 
— and that is that. No bother, no trouble. 
As soon as we begin to think for ourselves 
the whole matter becomes much more com- 
plicated. Amazingly enough, the beliefs 



16 



May, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



145 



which we have been taught to hold concern- 
ing right and wrong, good and bad, some- 
times seem stupid, sometimes untrue, and 
very often appear to have little to do with 
the manner in which we conduct our lives. 
Shall we drop these old faiths, adapt them to 
changed conditions, and work out our own 
formulae of right and wrong, or shall we 
cling to the old beliefs, whatever the cost? 

Professor Robinson does not suggest that 
we throw away old faiths without carefully 
examining them. What he does say is that 
we could make our lives more worthwhile 
and more comfortable if we took pains to 
think out carefully why we believe the things 
we do, and whether our beliefs are tenable 
in view of all the knowledge which science 
has accumulated. 

"The Humanizing of Knowledge" is a 
most earnest argument for open-minded toler- 
ance and readiness to accept new truths in 
all their implications. Like "Mind in the 
Making" it brings home to us forcibly how 
frequently our thinking is lazy and super- 
ficial, and compels us to examine the pos- 
sibilities of a fresh point of view of life. — 
M. T. H. 

KIEL CANAL TRAFFIC 



' OUR WASHINGTON LETTER 

(By Laurence Todd) 



In 1923, 29,018 steamers, 11,035 sailing ves- 
sels and 4274 other craft, or a total of 44,327 
ships aggregating 15,404,919 net tons, trans- 
ited the Kiel Canal, as compared with 39,- 
210 vessels of 12,575,987 net tons in 1922. The 
vessels transiting the canal last year flew the 
following flags : 

Flag- No. Ships 

German 32,405 

Swedish 3,099 

Danish 2,975 

Dutch 1,559 

Norwegian 1,430 

British 1,263 

Finnish 492 

Danzig 298 

Russian 171 

French 165 

United States 98 

Belgian 75 

Japanese 23 

Others 371 

Scientists say it required hundreds of thou- 
sands of years to evolve the human race, such 
as it is. Wonder how many thousands of 
years more will be needed to make the human 
race humane. 



Washington, April 15. — Andrew Furuseth 
has been fighting one of the hardest battles 
of his life, these past few weeks, to safeguard 
the Seamen's Act from the deadly attack 
aimed at it by Secretary of Labor Davis 
through the Immigration bill. At the moment 
of this writing he has made important gains, 
but the crisis is not past. The Senate com- 
mittee on immigration is willing to drop the 
proviso that would give the Secretary of 
Labor the specific privilege of requiring a 
heavy bond from any alien seaman who 
should come ashore in an American port to 
hunt a job on another ship. But the King 
amendment, providing that bona fide seamen 
should be under no penalties, while bogus 
seamen should be shipped back home and 
their vessels required to take a competent 
crew, has not been accepted. The same pro- 
posal, made in the House by Representative 
Schneider of Wisconsin, was rejected by that 
body. 

Japanese exclusion has suddenly become a 
big issue in Congress, and since Ambassador 
Hanihara issued his formal protest, which 
was received as a veiled threat from Japan, 
the Senate has almost unanimously decided 
to vote — as the House has voted — for positive 
exclusion. Secretary Hughes' action in for- 
warding this letter to Congress is probably 
one of the biggest political blunders of the 
entire Harding-Cooliclge administration. The 
Democrats, who had not been very keen on 
barring the Japanese until Hughes interceded 
for the Mikado's government, realized that 
here was a good starting point for the crea- 
tion of a brand new foreign policy. They 
voted unanimously in the Senate to abolish 
the "gentlemen's agreement" between Wash- 
ington and Tokyo. 

Their view was this : Japan and France 
are the chief remaining military powers on 
the earth today. Japan has been crippled 
severely by her earthquake, and her ability 
to seriously threaten the United States is less 
than it has been for many years yast, and 
less than it will be in the future. The Demo- 
crats will demand from France the payment 
of interest on her debt to America, thereby 
winning the gratitude of England and the 



17 



146 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1924 



rest of Europe. Why not, at the same time, 
reduce the prestige of Japan, by the per- 
fectly legal act of excluding her immigrants 
from this country? Why not force Coolidge 
to veto the bill and thereby alienate his last 
handful of friendly voters in California. Ore- 
gon, and Washington? For. if he signs the 
bill in order to save votes on the Pacific 
slope, Secretary Hughes will probably have 
to resign. Hughes, who jumped when the 
Japanese Government stamped its foot, must 
resign or become the center of a storm that 
will finish off the Republican organization. 

As the weeks pass and the convention 
dates draw near, Congress debates the graft 
and corruption which is disclosed in the naval 
oil lands scandal inquiry, the Department of 
Justice investigation, the aircraft frauds 
probe, the Treasury Department inquiry, and 
various other attempts by Senate or House 
to learn what the "invisible government" has 
been doing since March 4, 1921. Just when 
the Treasury probe, which had been very 
quiet, was becoming interesting, through 
Senator Couzens' employment of Francis J. 
Heney to look into the tax returns made by 
Secretary Mellon's many corporations, Presi- 
dent Coolidge jumped into the affair. He sent 
to the Senate a letter from Mellon to him- 
self, and one from himself to the Senate, pro- 
testing against the employment of Heney and 
against the investigating of Mellon *s depart- 
ment. Coolidge talked as though the Senate 
had no right to inquire into the truth of re- 
ports that Mellon was using the Treasury to 
fatten his own pockets and those of his mil- 
lionaire associates, at the expense of the mass 
of the people. 

This amazing move on the part of "Cau- 
tious Cal" was the result of a threat from 
Andy Mellon himself. It arose from Mellon's 
knowledge of Heney \s record in Oregon, San 
Francisco, and in the Federal Trade Commis- 
sion investigation of the Chicago meat pack- 
ers' combine. The fourth richest industrial 
magnate in America had no wish to have 
Heney look into the income tax division of 
the Internal Revenue Bureau, nor into the 
workings of the Prohibition Unit. 

It happens that Mellon owns a large share 
of the Overholt Distillery business, and that 
floods of bootleg whisky that have found a 
profitable market in Western Pennsylvania 



are supposed to have come from its ware- 
house, in violation of the law. It happens 
that Governor Pinchot of Pennsylvania, who 
is determined to enforce the dry law in that 
Mate, was asked by Senator Couzens as to 
his opinion of Heney as the man to be em- 
ployed in the investigation which Couzens' 
committee had begun. Other men had first 
suggested Heney's name, but when Pinchot 
endorsed him, Couzens settled the matter. 
Couzens had developed evidence that Mellon 
had permitted rebates of taxes and claims 
amounting to $1,700,000,000. Also, he had 
evidence that the Prohibition I nit was 
packed with members of whisky rings, who 
were making fortunes out of flagrant viola- 
tions of every part of the prohibition law. 
Couzens is a wet, but he decided to go after 
both kinds of graft at once. 

It is with that $1,700,000,000 in mind, and 
with the rotten mess in the mockery of dry 
enforcement in mind, that Coolidge sent to 
the Senate his letter, vehemently declaring 
that the investigation should be stopped. 
Then Senator Jim Watson, chairman of 
Couzens' committee, offered a motion to dis- 
miss the committee. Declaring that the pro- 
hibition amendment could not be enforced, he 
said he would never agree to an investigation 
as to why it had not been enforced. There 
would be new scandals, and the Democrats 
would keep the disclosures going until elec 
tion day! 

This admission sums up the position of the 
Old Guard as to the whole fabric of govern- 
ment at this time. They have tried to block 
the Daugherty investigation by framing up 
an indictment against Senator Wheeler, who 
has forced Daugherty out of the Cabinet. 
They have employed the injunction t<, con- 
ceal the evidence of Daugherty's secretly ac- 
quired wealth which would be revealed by 
the books of his brother's bank. They have 
broadcasted through the Republican National 
Committee'- press service a series of scurri- 
lous statements concerning Wheeler and 
Brookhart and their helpers, while one after 
anotl r the crooks in the oil and Daugherty 
crowds have refused to testify and have 
stayed out of jail. Faithful public servants 
who have testified to violations of law by 
this crowd have been dismissed or trans- 
ferred. Paroled prisoners have been sent back 



18 



May, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



147 



to prison when they talked too much. The 
warden at Atlanta penitentiary who tried to 
stop the traffic in habit-forming drugs among 
the prisoners, was removed by Superintend- 
ent Votaw, brother-in-law of Harding, acting 
in concert with Daugherty. 
The gang is sitting on the safety valve. 



CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 



Seamen's Right to Choice of Remedy — In 
the case of Johnson vs. Panama Railroad 
Company, the United States Supreme Court, 
on April 7, 1924, handed down a unanimous 
decision, sustaining the law adopted in Sec- 
tion 33 of the Jones Shipping Act. Section 33 
of the Jones Shipping Act amended Section 
20 of the La Follette Seamen's Act, by apply- 
ing to seamen the Employers' Liability Act, 
applicable to railroad men. 

The court upheld every phase of the law 
and thus gives the seaman the right to choice 
of remedy after the accident has occurred. 
The seaman can go into the court of admir- 
alty, and have the benefit of the principles 
laid down in the Employers' Liability Act, 
with the exception of trial by jury; or he can 
go into the common-law side of the court and 
have the benefit of a jury trial. 

Incidentally, by the same ruling, the Su- 
preme Court declined to reverse a judgment 
for $10,000 obtained against the Panama Rail- 
road by Andrew Johnson, a seaman who had 
his leg crushed on the steamship Allianca. 
The company appealed on the ground that 
Section 33 of the Jones Act, which gives sea- 
men or their heirs the same privileges as rail- 
way employes in seeking legal remedy for 
personal injury, was in contravention of Sec- 
tion 2, Article 3,. of the Constitution, because 
it was destructive of maritime jurisdiction ; 
also because it contravened the Fifth Amend- 
ment by denying due process of law, in that 
it withheld from the shipowner the benefit of 
a new process of law created by the Act. 

The Supreme Court decision in this case is 
a distinct victory for seamen, and will vir- 
tually settle many similar pending cases in 
favor of the seamen. Moreover, in the future, 
it will not be quite so easy to sweep aside a 
seaman's complaint involving personal injury 
sustained aboard ship. 



Extra Wages for Illegal Discharge — The 

steamship Wilhilo came into San Francisco 
during April, 1921, and the crew all quit as 
working conditions were not satisfactory. 
The master shipped a new crew. Later he 
made terms with the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific and shipped still another crew. One 
of the members of the crew first shipped in- 
sisted on being paid his wages, but the mas- 
ter said he had deserted. This seaman then 
filed a libel for $9.68 and one month's pay 
for being discharged before he had earned 
a full month's wages and the United States 
District Court at San Francisco, Judge Bour- 
quin presiding, has finally given judgment in 
his favor for wages earned, one month's ad- 
ditional pay, and interest from April, 1921, to 
date. The judgment was paid. 

A cook shipped on the steamship Ohian in 
San Francisco for the continuation of a voy- 
age which had commenced in New York. 
The vessel went to Puget Sound and re- 
turned to San Francisco when the cook left 
the vessel because the stove smoked and he 
had also contracted rheumatism. Before 
leaving he obtained a certificate to go to the 
Marine Hospital but decided not to go there 
because he preferred to be treated by a pri- 
vate doctor. He was thereupon charged as a 
deserter because he preferred not to go to 
the Marine Hospital. A libel was filed and 
Federal Judge Bourquin at San Francisco 
has just decided in his favor. Attorney 
Huttt n represented the seamen in both of 
these cases. 

Shipowners Duty to Inspect Apparatus — 
During the late war the steamer Crescent 
City carried a wireless apparatus, which was 
taken down when she began to run on the 
coast, excepting for a six-inch block which 
was suspended about a foot and a half below 
her main truck. The block came down while 
they were lowering the cargo booms, and 
struck the second mate on his right arm, 
fracturing one of the bones. The United 
States District Court at San Francisco, Judge 
Bourquin presiding, has now rendered judg- 
ment in favor of the second mate for $2850. 
Judgment was rendered upon the theory that 
it is the duty of the shipowner to inspect the 
ship's apparatus, w r hich it appears was not 
done, hence the mousing on the hook rotted 
or chafed ofr" and allowed the block to fall. 



19 



148 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1924 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The Bureau of Navigation, Department of ■ 
Commerce, reports 84 sailing, steam, gas, and 
unrigged vessels of 21,782 gross tons built in 
the United States and officially numbered 
during the month of March, 1924. 

Ira C. Sparks, navigating his 25-foot sail 
boat, in which he is making a pilgrimage 
to the Holy Land, arrived safely at the vil- 
lage of Tandag, in Mindanao island (Philip- 
pine Islands). Sparks crossed the Pacific 
from Honolulu to the Philippines in 73 days 
without sighting land. His next port is 
Singapore. 

For the year ended December 31, 1923, the 
New York Shipbuilding Corporation's report 
shows a net income of $92,040 after charges 
before deducting Federal taxes. This com- 
pares with $962,866 for the preceding year, 
after Federal taxes. Earnings on the 300,000 
sharjs are put at 46 cents, as against $4.81 a 
share the previous year. 

With the materialization of plans of the 
Canadian Government for the construction 
of 600-foot wharf at Port Hardy, another 
British Columbia port will be developed at 
this point. Port Hardy is at the northern 
end of Vancouver Island and will be used 
for the accommodation of passengers and 
freight vessels in the trade between British 
Columbia and Alaska. 

The Norfolk & Washington Steamboat Co. 
has awarded a contract to Pusey & Jones, 
of Wilmington, Del., for the construction of 
a new vessel to replace the Midland, which 
was damaged by fire while at her dock in 
Washington several months ago. The new 
boat will be similar in design to the steamers 
Northland and Southland, now operated by 
the company in its Norfolk and Washington 
service, and will cost about $900,000. 

The California-Mexico service of the Mexi- 
can Navigation Co., operating Mexican gov- 
ernment steamers, has been taken over by the 
Mexican Freeports Commission, and will be 
merged with the service of the Mexican States 
Line, a subsidiary of the British Clan Line. 
Williams, Diamond & Co., San Francisco, have 
been appointed general agents of the Free 

20 



Ports Commission. The steamers will extend 
their calls to Seattle and Vancouver, B. C. 

The Fuel Conservation Committee of the 
Shipping Board has just concluded success- 
ful trials of an electric periscope for the 
detection of smoke. By means of this new 
apparatus, which will soon be tested at sea, 
the engineers will at all times have a view of 
the smoke flowing from the smokestack, and 
this will enable them to regulate the mixture 
of fuel and air. Savings in fuel costs and a 
decrease in the smoke nuisance in harbors are 
expected to accrue from the adoption of the 
device. 

A survey of the ocean travel through 
United States ports made by the Bureau of 
Research of the Shipping Board shows that 
during 1923 more than 1,500,000 passengers 
moved through all the ports of the United 
States. Of this total the port of New York 
alone handled more than one-half the num- 
ber of passengers arriving or departing on 
ocean voyages. More than 90 per cent of 
the country's ocean passenger traffic last year 
passed through the gateways of Xew York, 
Seattle, Boston and San Francisco. 

An order for two coastwise freight and 
passenger steamers has been placed by the 
Clyde Line with the Newport News Ship- 
building Co. The boats will be fitted with 
refrigerating appliances for the carriage of 
fruits and vegetables. They will measure 
402x54 feet, with a loaded draft of 18.9 feet. 
The speed will be 16 knots, the steam plant 
consisting of single-screw reduction gear tur- 
bines with oil-fired Scotch boilers. The 
deck machinery will be electrically driven. 
Delivery is to be made in 14 months. 

The British Steampship Zinal, owned and 
operated by Turner, Brightman & Co., and 
chartered by the Commonwealth & Dominion 
Line, recently made her first transit of the 
Panama Canal, en route from New York to 
Australia, carrying 5440 measured tons of 40 
cubic- feet. Four thousand measured tons 
were automobiles from Xew York, the re- 
mainder being ("40 tons of asphalt, and 800 
tons of general cargo. The shipping measure- 
ment of automobiles ranges from 275 cubic 
feet per machine upward. At 400 cubic feet 
each, the shipment would be 400 machines. 

Statistics compiled by the American 
Petroleum Institute show that 63,129,137 



May, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



149 



barrels of fuel oil were delivered for ships' 
bunkers at United States ports and at United 
States Insular possessions in 1923, compared 
with 50,666,494 barrels in 1922, an increase of 
12,462,643 barrels, or 24.6 per cent. This is 
exclusive of fuel oil delivered to the United 
States Navy. Of the total deliveries of 63,- 
129,137 barrels to merchant vessels in 1923, 
43,430,470 barrels were domestic fuel oil, com- 
pared with 16,988,172 barrels in 1922, an in- 
crease of 26,442,298 barrels, and 19,698,667 
barrels were Mexican fuel oil, compared with 
33,678,322 barrels in 1922, a decrease of 13,- 
979,655 barrels. 

President Palmer of the Fleet Corporation 
has announced the following sale of tonnage, 
and in this connection stated it would be the 
future policy to announce publicly the sales 
price of all vessels. This was decided upon 
in view of the recently adopted policy of the 
Shipping Board to sell its vessels on an in- 
dividual value basis, and in view of the 
general interest in the selling price of Ship- 
ping Board tonnage. The ships sold were : 
Lake Fillion, 4046 deadweight tons, 2559 
gross tons, and the La Crosse, 4145 dead- 
weight tons, 2606 gross tons, purchased by 
the Southern Steamship Co., Philadelphia, 
Pa., for $110,461; the Colthraps, 7825 dead- 
weight tons, 5136 gross tons, purchased by 
the Allied Corporation, 60 State street, Bos- 
ton, Mass., for $9000. 

The War Department will not oppose the 
spanning of San Francisco at the Golden 
Gate, or at any other point, provided the 
proposed bridge and piers do not interfere 
with navigation, is the assurance of Briga- 
dier-General Harry Taylor, president of the 
Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors 
and assistant to the chief engineer. With 
a clearance of 210 feet between the water 
and the bridge, the proposed Golden Gate 
span would more than meet the rquirements 
of the War Department in this phase, enab- 
ling the biggest battleships afloat to pass un- 
derneath with ample clearance. Even the 
Leviathan, which is 220 feet to the topmast, 
could pass beneath the bridge by merely 
lowering the wireless aerials, General Taylor 
said. Relative to the piers, General Taylor 
declared it would be necessary to start a con- 
siderable distance inland because of the depth 
o r the water near the shore. By rising to 



an elevation of 210 feet at the water's edge, or 
near it, it would leave the channel open for 
its entire width and would seemingly remove 
any objection on that score. 

Steel construction work on the passenger 
steamer Catalina, being built for the Wil- 
mington Transportation Co. by the Los An- 
geles Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co., is about 
completed. From the present rate of prog- 
ress it is thought that the vessel can be 
launched in the latter part of May, which will 
make it possible for her contract completion 
date of July 1 to be met. This will enable 
the steamship company to take care of some 
of the heavy summer traffic between Los 
Angeles to Catalina Island, an amusement 
resort owned by William Wrigley, Jr., who 
is also chairman of the board of directors of 
the Wilmington Transportation Co. This 
vessel, which is of the twin-screw excursion 
type with a carrying capacity for 3000 pas- 
sengers, will cost over $1,000,000. She is 300 
feet in length over-all, 50 feet in beam, and 
her two sets of triple expansion engines and 
water tube boilers will enable her to main- 
tain a sea speed of 17 knots. 

The House of Representatives has passed 
the bill authorizing the Shipping Board to ex- 
pend $25,000,000 a year out of its loan 
construction fund amounting to $66,000,000, 
for the purpose of converting its 
own steamers into motor ships, provided the 
ship to be converted is chartered for not less 
than five years. The bill also authorizes the 
Board to loan shipbuilders up to 50 per cent 
of the cost ' of installation of Diesel motors 
into privately owned vessels, and up to two- 
thirds of the cost, provided sufficient security 
is given. The bill provides a higher rate 
of interest on loans for the conversion of ves- 
sels to be used in the domestic trade. It 
is believed there are about 100 Shipping 
Board boats suitable for conversion, and as 
the cost of each installation with the neces- 
sary structural alterations cannot fall short of 
$400,000, the appropriation of $25,000,000 per 
annum for 10 years would not be sufficient to 
convert all of this fleet at once. It can be 
expected that if the bill is approved by the 
Senate there will be fierce competition be- 
tween the makers of the various types of 
Diesels for the adoption of their own par- 
ticular design. 



21 



150 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL May, 1924 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



the United Fruit Co., with option of a further 
three years' extension. 

Antwerp is under a cloud by reason of 
the heavy increase in casualties in the 
Scheldt during the last few months, which 

An unusual kind of casualty has happened bespeaks neglect in the maintenance of the 

to the Italian steamer Tebe. On entering the channels> During the period October 1, 

harbor at Civita \ ecchia she dropped her 1922> to March ; i92 3, 50 ships grounded or 

starboard anchor and commenced maneuver- touched bottom, against 69 during the same 

ing to reach her berth. But the anchor fell period of 1923 _ 4; the number of ships which 

on a rocky bottom, and remained with its strnck quavs dolphins or buoys increased 

point upward. The vessel thus ran upon during the perior , fr()ni 15 tQ l9> whi , e C() ,_ 

her own anchor and scraped a hole in her ]ision? rQse ifl number from 113 to 192 . 

bottom. Hamburg, which is now recovering from 

Four British aviation companies which the effects of the recent dock workers' strike. 

have hitherto carried on separately — Messrs. was visited last year by 13.102 vessels of 

Handler Page, Limited, Instone Air Line, 15.344.000 tons net. as compared with 10,707 

Daimler Hire, and British Marine Air Navi- ,,f 12,979,000 tons in 1922. and 15.073 of 

gation Co. — have ceased to exist as such, and 14.185.000 tons in 1913. Of last year's total. 

merged in the new Imperial Air Transport the German share was 7001 vessels of 5.177.- 

Co., which, with a capital of £1.000.000, is 000 tens: British, 2692 of 4.748.000 tons; 

to be subsidized for the next 10 years by an- Dutch. 1036 of 1.596.000 tons; American, 

other million contributed by the Government. 199 of '46,000 tons: Norwegian, 764 of 804,- 

According to the Norwegian Mercantile 000 tons ; Danish, 669 of 398,000 tons ; French, 

and Shipping Gazette. Norwegian shipowners 119 of 347.000 tons; and Japanese, 5 of 285.- 

have placed orders for the construction of 000 tons. 

61 new vessel units of 326,400 tons dead- The East Asiatic Co., Copenhagen, pays a 

weight involving an expenditure of 130 mil- dividend of 14 per cent for last year, against 

lion kroner. Of these prospective vessels 33 12 per cent for 1022. The company's services 

of 256,950 tons are to be fitted with Diesel to r iam, China. Japan, Australia. South 

engines, all of which are to be constructed Africa, and the North and South I'acific 

abroad as Norwegian yards are not equipped coast- were worked satisfactorily. Through 

to build motorships. ownership of the Baltic-American Line, the 

The liner Duilio, of the Navigazione Gen- company is also interested in the emigrant 

erale Italiana, which sailed from New York traffic to the United States. The share capi- 

March 27. arrived at Naples April 5. after a tal amounts to kr. 50.000.000. and the reserve 

passage of 8 days 16 hours, during which the funds total kr. 62.500.000. The fleet- consists 

minimum speed was 20.20 knots. Such swift of 22 vessels, chiefly motor-driven, totaling 

transit to Naples cannot be made by the 167,370 tons 

northern route to the Channel ports, even in The captain of the Russian ship Jupiter is 

connection with the fastest liners on the stated to have telegraphed from England to 

North Atlantic route and the air route across the Russian authorities that he had replaced 

France and Switzerland. the old Russian flag by the Soviet ensign. 

Chr. Gundersen, a Norwegian shipowner and placed his vessel at the disposal of the 

interested in the West India fruit trade, has Russian Government. The vessel has for 

contracted for a new and specially designed some time been in the French service, flying 

fruit steamer to be built at Bergen, with a the old Russian flag, and it is expected that 

cubic capacity of 90,000 ft.. 13^-knot speed. she will now be taken over by the Soviet and 

and oil-burning. The vessel will be delivered sent to Russia. The Jupiter was originally 

January-February. 1925. at a price of kr. a trailing vessel, and up to October. 1920, 

1.400,000 ($196,000). The ship will be owned was in the employ of General Wrangel, who 

by a new company named A. S. Castillo, handed her over to the French Government. 

which will undertake a 5-year charter with Finding himself in a port of Great Britain. 

22 






May, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



151 



where the Soviet Government is recognized, 
the captain apparently availed himself of the 
opportunity to take the action indicated. 

The volume of shipping entering and 
clearing from Finnish ports in 1923 increased 
approximately 13 per cent, while the ton- 
nage of vessels carrying cargo to or from 
Finnish ports increased 20 per cent. During 
1923, a total of 7647 ships of 3,459,573 net 
tons, entered the ports of Finland, of which 
4158 ships aggregating 1,696,141 net tons, 
entjred with cargo. The number of ves- 
sels departing from Finland in the same 
year was 7450, and their net tonnage 3,459,- 
211, of which 5945 ships, representing 3,266,- 
278 tons, cleared with cargo. Ships from 
German, Swedish and English ports ac- 
counted for more than half of the entrances, 
while vessels bound for Sweden, England 
and Denmark comprised over half the 
clearances. 

The treaty recently concluded between 
Russia and Italy contains a clause conced- 
ing the right of coastwise traffic to Italian 
boats for the port of Odessa, Novorossisk, 
Poti, Batum and Rostow, a similar grant 
being made to the Russian flag for the ports 
of Trieste, Catania, Naples, Leghorn and 
Genoa. The concession made by Italy is 
purely on principle as Russia is incapable 
of taking advantage of it. The clause will, 
on the other hand, be of benefit to Italian 
boats, though it is limited to two years. 
Provision has been made for the import into 
Italy of certain Russian products, chiefly 
grain and cereals, for which a minimum 
quantity of 300,000 tons of wheat per annum 
is stipulated. Russia is to buy Italian prod- 
ucts, using the available credits. 

Lamport & Holt, Ltd., Liverpool, one of 
the companies controlled by the Royal Mail 
S. P. combination, and which is largely en- 
gaged in the South American trade, reports 
a net profit after depreciation of £51,131 for 
last year, against £134,472 for 1922 and 
£314,665 for 1921. The profit, added to the 
balance brought in, falls £7044 short of 
the £125,000 required to pav the dividend 
on the preferred shares, and the directors 
are taking £200,000' from the reserve fund 
in order to make up the preferred dividend, 
to pay a dividend of 4 per cent on the ordi- 
nary capital against 6 per cent in 1922 and 



8 per cent in 1921 and carry forward to the 
current year £103,356, against £66,825. It 
is due to the past abstention from the pay- 
ment of high dividends that the company is 
now able to present a strong financial posi- 
tion, in spite of difficult times. The com- 
pany's fleet aggregates 320,039 tons and 
investments total £8,411,665. 

The Steamship Italia, Italy's floating ex- 
hibition, sailed from Spezia, February 27, on 
a 210-day cruise expanding over 23,000 miles, 
and including a complete circumnavigation 
of South America, with lengths of stay rang- 
ing from 10 days at Buenos Ayres to one 
day at Punta Arenas, and Colon. The cruise 
is largely commercial, but it has also been 
conceived as propaganda for Italy and the 
Italians. The ship herself has been donated 
by the Italian Government and is manned 
by a naval crew, victualled by the Italian 
Ministry of Marine. The cost of outfitting 
the ship and the exhibits is said to be about 
5,000,000 lire ($220,000). The decorations are 
very elaborate, being the best Italy can pro- 
duce in the way of wood carving, painting, 
stained glass, hangings, mosaic pavements, 
and marbles. The exhibits cover the whole 
range of Italian manufactures and handicraft. 
Each exhibit is in charge of a representative 
to display the wares and take orders. 

In evidence of the cheapness of ship-repair- 
ing at Shanghai, as compared with other Far 
Eastern ports, the North China Daily News 
states that the steamship GlenirTer, after hav- 
ing been on fire during her last voyage 
home, arrived back in Shanghai during the 
middle of January, part of the fire damage 
repairs having been executed in Antwerp. 
It was the intention of the owners to have 
the completion of the repairs carried out 
either in Shanghai or Japan. Estimates for 
the work were submitted at Shanghai 
amounting to £2700, and the vessel then 
proceeded to her final port of discharge in 
Japan where competitive tenders, the lowest 
of which amounted to £10,000, were also re- 
ceived. The difference was so enormous that 
the owners immediately ordered the vessel 
back to Shanghai where the work was car- 
ried out with all speed night and day. The 
vessel left on the morning of February 20, 
immediately after completion, for the Pacific 
Coast to load homeward. 



23 



152 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1924 



LABOR NEWS 



Last year's profits of the American Can 
Co. total $10,983,094. This is after taxes and 
other charges have been paid. 

Japanese colonization in Florida was unani- 
mously denounced by the annual convention 
of the Florida State Federation of Labor. 

Director George Otis Smith of the United 
States Geological Survey makes the interest- 
ing statement that oil demands today are 
greater than during the World War period. 

The Northwestern Electric Company is 
combing cities and towns along the Pacific 
Coast for strikebreakers. This concern has 
declared for the anti-union shop and wants 
to bargain with each worker as an individual. 

Last year was the most prosperous in the 
history of the Erie Railroad. Despite propa- 
ganda that the Government is handicapping 
railroads by alleged interference, Erie's net 
profits totaled $8,435,272. This is after taxes 
and other charges have been paid. 

The 1923 profits of the Pittsburgh Coal 
Company was three times more than in 1922. 
Last year's profits totaled $7,309,162, or $16.15 
a share. This was after all charges, deprecia- 
tion and interest were met. In 1922 the net 
profits were $5.02 a share. 

International and State representatives of 
the United Mine Workers have reached an 
agreement with Northern West Virginia coal 
owners. For three years peace will reign in 
this section, as compared with anarchy that 
prevails in Logan County and other anti- 
union localities. 

A Washington newspaper is offering $500 
life insurance to subscribers at a cost of $3.60 
per year. When an anti-union employer pre- 
sents a $500 insurance policy to his unorgan- 
ized workers, they are expected to marvel at 
his generosity, and to work for $1 and $2 a 
day less than the union rate. 

Evidence before the United States Senate 
committee that is investigating the Internal 
Revenue Bureau shows how corporations 
secure heavy tax reductions. By employing 
a former bureau clerk, the Standard Oil Com- 
pany of New Jersey was able to have one tax 
assessment cut from $23,000,000 to $5,000,000. 



Last year's profits of this concern were more 
than $9,000,000 after all taxes and other 
charges were paid. 

A new wage agreement between New York 
newspaper publishers and Typographical 
Union ("Big Six") calls for a wage increase 
of $5 a week after January 1, 1925. Dating 
back to the first of this year wages will be 
increased $3 a week. Next July, another dol- 
lar will be paid, and the first of the year the 
fifth dollar will be paid. With the $3 in- 
crease, dating back to January 1, the new 
scale is: Day work, $58 a week; night work, 
$61 ; third shift, $64. 

The estate of one family in this country is 
increasing at the rate of $100,000,000 a year, 
according to Congressman Green, chairman 
of the House Ways and Means Committee. 
He did not say what estate he had in mind, 
but there is no doubt, others stated, that it 
was the manufacturer of a flivver auto. Mr. 
Green's statement was in connection with 
Secretary of the Treasury Mellon's opposition 
to increased taxes on estates. The secretary 
fears it will "destroy initiative." 

Out of 228 homes in the East Texas lumber 
section that was studied by the State Depart- 
ment of Labor, but twenty-four families re- 
ported any savings last year. The average 
savings over living expenses of these twenty- 
four families was $271.12. Only five families 
reported clear ownership in their homes. The 
homes and living-quarters provided by the 
mill management fail to meet the require- 
ments of a normal family. As a rule, there is 
faulty sanitation, the houses are built close 
together, and little yard or garden space is 
provided. The eighty-seven mills in opera- 
tion in January of this year employed 14,145 
persons, at an average daily wage of $2.99. 
The average annual earnings of skilled em- 
ployes in 1923 was $1,256.31, and of un- 
skilled, $625.33. The ten-hour day is uni- 
versal. 

Workers who are digging the deep tunnel 
under the Hudson River suspended work re- 
cently, following a blowout when thirty-five 
men narrowly escaped death. Through some- 
one's criminal carelessness, the pressure of 
air supplied these workers became so strong 
that it blew a hole in the tunnel roof. Water 
rushed into the huge space and endangered 
the lives of two-score workers. The explo- 



24 



May, 1924 



THE .SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



153 



sion threw a Niagara of water nearly one 
hundred feet in height from the surface of 
the river. These tunnel workers are called 
"sandhogs." They labor in constant danger 
far down below the bottom of the river. They 
work under high air pressure, and are sub- 
ject to a painful occupational disease called 
the "bends." Many of these workers are now 
in the infirmary because of conditions which 
permit of but one hour's labor where the air 
pressure is between forty and fifty pounds. 

The Interstate Commerce Commission calls 
on all railroads to make reports on net earn- 
ings in excess of 6 per cent. Under the Cum- 
mins-Esch law the roads must turn over to 
the Commission one-half of their profits in 
excess of 6 per cent for the benefit of weaker 
roads. The other one-half must be held by 
the railroad as a reserve fund. Railroads op- 
pose this section of the Transportation Act. 
They carried the case to the United States 
Supreme Court, which decided against them. 
The decision is a notice to railroads that their 
plea against what they term "government in- 
terference" is unavailing. In ruling that pub- 
lic utility profits can be limited, the court 
said: "By investment in a business dedicated 
to the public service the owner must recog- 
nize that, as compared with investment in 
private business, he cannot expect either high 
or speculative dividends, but that his obliga- 
tion limits him to only fair or reasonable 
profits." 

The recent northward migration of the 
negro has been studied by the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Labor. At the time of the last cen- 
sus, there were 1,472,309 negroes residing in 
the North, a little more than half of whom, 
or 737,423, were Southern born. The increase 
in the period from 1910 to 1920 ot Southern- 
born negroes living in the North amounted 
to 77.5 per cent. Negroes at present form 
only 2.3 per cent of the total population of 
the North, and if evenly distributed would 
present no special racial or industrial prob- 
lem, but their concentration in certain cities 
and in certain limited areas of those cities has 
made this phase of the question of impor- 
tance. A distinctive feature of the new mi- 
gration is the tendency shown by male 
negroes to become industrial laborers rather 
than to seek employment in agriculture or in 
hotels, restaurants, and offices. Employment 



among the women, however, is still largely 
restricted to personal and domestic service. 

Steel records continue to confound alleged 
wise men in this industry who prophesied dis- 
aster if the eleven and twelve-hour day were 
abandoned. The long workday was seared 
into the public conscience by the nationwide 
steel strike. The agitation against excessive 
hours continued after the strike. This caused 
Judge Gary to utter the profound statement 
that a reduction of hours would wreck the 
steel industry, "and we do not favor this," 
the wise man averred. Iron Age, spokesman 
for the steel trust and leading opponent of 
the shorter workday, now states that official 
figures will probably show that the steel 
trust's March output equaled that of last 
year, when the peak for 1923 was reached 
with an annual rate of 49,000,000 tons. Last 
year's record was made under the long work- 
day, and now Iron Age acknowledges that 
this record has been duplicated under the 
shorter workday. It is estimated that the 
trust's earnings for the first quarter of 1924 
will exceed any since the first quarter of 1918 
(war period). The latter earnings were over 
$50,000,000. 

Federal officers have uncovered a system 
of peonage that extends throughout several 
sections of Alabama. It is declared that both 
white and black workers are held in slavery, 
and indictments are expected against promi- 
nent planters. The most flagrant cases have 
been found in Walker County, near here, and 
in Marengo County, in Southwest Alabama. 
One of the common methods to enslave white 
and colored farmers is to work them on the 
crop-sharing basis. These "croppers" are held 
on the farms from year to year, and are con- 
tinually in debt. No matter how large the 
crop, the landlord's system of bookkeeping 
shows the tenant-farmer is never on the right 
side of the ledger. The "cropper" may labor 
with the hope that his cotton will yield him 
sufficient to buy needs for his home, but he 
is told that he is yet in debt. Charges of 
bootlegging against negroes keep them in 
bondage. The negro is arrested and fined. A 
planter pays the fine and the court arranges 
that the negro work out this cost. With co- 
operation by the authorities, the negro must 
work on the plantation until he is told his 
fine has been paid. 



25 



154 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1924 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



During the year 1923, Danish emigration to 
the United States was double that of the 
preceding year, while Canada received three 
times as many Danish immigrants as in 1922. 

By a popular vote of 431,342 to 317,746, the 
amendment to the Swiss Factory law, which 
proposed to establish a 54-hour week instead 
of the present 52-hour week, in times of na- 
tional economic crises, was defeated. 

A resolution was recently passed by the 
Ceylon Congress, under which the Govern- 
ment was requested "to appoint a commis- 
sion to inquire into the conditions of labor in 
Ceylon and recommend measures for their 
improvement." 

Immigrant agents of the Canadian National 
Railways are reporting that they have had 
sufficient inquiries from fanners in the Ameri- 
can Northwest to indicate a large influx from 
that section into Canada in the present year, 
one estimate giving figures near the margin 
of 100,000. 

According to the official statistics for 1923, 
which have recently been made available, im- 
migration to Palestine continues to show a 
decrease, while emigration increased 68 per 
cent over that of 1922 ; and despite the fact 
that Jews comprise only 11 per cent of the 
population of Palestine, 70 per cent of the 
emigrants were Jews. 

The Argentine Government, which has 
hitherto done nothing to control immigration, 
nor to assure immigrants reasonable means 
of subsistence, is at present considering the 
limitation of immigration. They have a 
double aim in view — one to limit admission 
to perfectly healthly men in the prime of life, 
and the other to keep away revolutionary 
elements. 

The amount paid out by the various or- 
ganizations and the Netherlands Government 
for doles, during the year 1923, is estimated 
at 7,500,000 florins as compared with 12,- 
000,000 florins during 1922. The decrease was 
due to the reduction of the allowances, as 
the number and the total percentage of un- 
employed persons were higher in 1923 than 
thev were in 1922. 



According to the Japan Times and Mail, 
any farm resident of the zone recently visited 
by the earthquake, who wants to emigrate to 
San Paulo, Brazil, will be given 200 yens by 
the Kaigai Kogyo Kaisha. an emigration com- 
pany which is collecting Japanese settlers for 
the San Paulo tract, provided the prospective 
emigrant has 5 yens which he will apply to 
his passport charge, as an evidence of good 
faith. 

On account of the low scale of wage- ;it 
the Santos docks (Brazil), stevedores are 
said to be abandoning the docks for other 
employment, especially agricultural occupa- 
tions, in which higher wages are being paid. 
This condition, it is said, has resulted in the 
very slow handling of cargoes and the deten- 
tion of ships. The dock companies are seek- 
ing to meet the demands for higher wages 
by increasing their charges to shippers 100 
per cent. 

The Italian Official Gazette has published 
a royal decree, dated December 30, 1923, pro- 
viding for obligator}- insurance against sick- 
ness and old age for persons of both sexes 
between the ages of fifteen and sixty-five, em- 
ployed in any capacity in industry, commerce, 
agriculture, public service, liberal profession, 
and domestic or personal service. Premiums 
on such insurance are paid partly by the in- 
sured, partly by the employer, and partly by 
the State. 

The Norwegian Federation of Trade Unions 
has just celebrated its twenty-fifth anniver- 
sary. The federation was founded at a con- 
gress held at Eastertime, in 1899. In the first 
few years of its existence, it had many diffi- 
culties to contend with, and the number of 
affiliated organizations and members was 
very small. It has only achieved its present 
position after many a fierce conflict, but it 
can now look back upon much good and suc- 
cessful work. The date of its jubilee coin- 
cides, however, with a time of bitter eco- 
nomic conflict, which is unequaled in its his- 
tory. For the last five weeks some 70.000 
workers have been involved in either strikes 
or lockouts, and all attempts at settlements 
have failed. 

The executives of the Social Democrat- 
Labor party and of the Netherlands Federa- 
tion of Trades Union appointed a commission 
in May, 1923, for the purpose of placing chil- 



26 



May, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



155 



dren of organized German workers as guests 
in Dutch working-class families. The sole 
condition laid down was that the children 
should remain with the families for not less 
than three months. A report for 1923 shows 
that 1423 German children have already en- 
joyed hospitality in Holland. Some 5690 
Dutch guilders have also been collected from 
the working classes for the purchase of 
clothes. Another one hundred children were 
brought to Holland in January, and arrange- 
ments are being made for receiving three or 
four hundred more. 



'SAFETY-FIRST' 



STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT. 

CIRCULATION, ETC., REQUIRED BY THE ACT 

OF CONGRESS OF AUGUST 24, 1912, 

of Seamen's Journal, published monthly at San Fran- 
cisco, California, for April 1, 1924. 

State of California, 
County of San Francisco — ss. 

Before me, a Notary Public in and for the State and 
county aforesaid, personally appeared Paul Scharrenberg, 
who, having been duly sworn according to law, deposes 
and says that he is the Editor and Manager of the 
Seamen's Journal, and that the following is, to the 
best, of his knowledge and belief, a true statement of 
the ownership, management (and if a daily paper, the 
circulation), etc., of the aforesaid publication for the 
date shown in the above caption, required by the Act 
of August 24, 1912, embodied in Section 443, Postal Laws 
and Regulations, printed on the reverse of this form, 
to wit: 

1. That the names and addresses of the publisher, 
editor, managing editor, and business managers are: 

Publisher, International Seamen's Union of America. 
Editor, Paul Scharrenberg, 525 Market Street, San 
Francisco. 

Managing Editor, Paul Sctharrenberg. 
Business Manager, Paul Scharrenberg. 

2. That the owner is: (If the publication is owned 
by an individual, his name and address, or if owned by 
more than one individual, the name and address of each 
should be given below; if the publication is owned by a 
corporation, the name of the corporation and the names 
and addresses of stockholders owning or holding 1 per 
cent or more of the total amount of stock should be 
given.) 

International Seamen's Union of America, Andrew 
Furuseth President, A. F. of L. Building, Washington, 
D. C; K. B. Nolan, Secretary-Treasurer, 357 North Clark 
Street, Chicago, 111. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and other 
security holders owning or holding 1 per cent or more 
of total amount of bonds, mortgages, or other securities 
are: (If there are none, so state.) 

None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving the 
names of the owners, stockholders, and security holders, 
if any, contain not only the list of stockholders and 
security holders as they appear upon the books of the 
company, but also, in cases where the stockholder or 
security holder appears upon the books or the company 
as trustee or in any other fiduciary relation, the name 
of the person or corporation for whom such trustee is 
acting, is given; also that the said two paragraphs con- 
tain statements embracing affiant's full knowledge and 
belief as to the circumstances and conditions under 
which stockholders and security holders who do not 
appear upon the books of the company as trustees, hold 
stock and securities in a capacity other than that of 
a bona fide owner; and this affiant has no reason to 
believe that any other person, association, or corpora- 
tion has any interest, direct or indirect, in the said 
stock, bonds, or other securities than as so stated by 
him. 

5. That the average number of copies of each issue 
of this publication sold or distributed, through the mails 
or otherwise, to paid subscribers during the six months 
preceding the date shown above is: (This information 
is required from daily publications only.) 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 5th day of 
April, 1924. 

(Seal) ANNE F. HASTY, 

Notary Public in and for the City and County of 
San Francisco, State of California. 
(My commission expires September 20, 1927.) 



We were talking recently with a sailor 
who experienced a shipwreck in midocean. 
The vessel foundered at night. The boats 
were lowered and in getting away from the 
wreck were greeted by a loud whistle. A 
thoughtful passenger had provided himself 
with one of the safety suits which makes 
the wearer sink-and-work-proof. This care- 
ful citizen also carried a whistle. As he had 
donned his suit and jumped overboard he had 
nothing more to do than to blow his horn 
and be picked up, trusting, no doubt, that 
all women and children had found places 
in the boats. Boats, afraid of collisions, 
avoided the whistle, leaving him to his fate. 
He was found at daylight, still afloat but 
aged beyond all recognition because of his 
horrible experience. He has one memory of 
the Fea he will never forget. — Felix Riesen- 
bergf in the Nautical Gazette. 



Roster of International 
Seamen's Union of America 



(Continued from Page 2) 



Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash DAVID ROBERTS, Agent 

84 Seneca Street 

SAN PEDRO, Cal ADDISON KIRK, Agent 

111 Sixth Street. P. O. Box 574 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 
OF THE PACIFIC COAST 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO. Cal 86 Commercial Street 

EUGENE STEIDLE, Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 5955 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock 

P. O. Box 214 
SAN PEDRO, Cal P. O. Box 54 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary 
Telephone Sutter 6452 
Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42 

ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 138 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca Street 

Branches: 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C.) Canada P. O. Box 1675 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska P. O. Box 201 



UNITED FISHERMEN OF THE PACIFIC 
ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 138 

FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 59 Clay Street 

C. W. DEAL, Secretary 
Telephone Sutter 2205 



FISH TRAP, PILE DRIVERS AND WEB WORKERS 
OF PUGET SOUND AND ALASKA 
P. O. Box 371, Bellingham, Wash. 



27 



156 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1924 



A SEAMAN'S BANK 

WHEN PAID OFF OPEN A SAVINGS ACCOUNT 
A%% INTEREST 

Address 
SEABOARD BRANCH 

ANGLO-CALIFORNIA TRUST CO. 



101 Market Street 



San Francisco 



California 



To Seamen, Clients and Union Workers 

If my clients will keep me informed of the names of the 
vessels on which they are employed, while their cases are 
awaiting disposition, it will be of great assistance to me in 
preserving their rights and in securing early trials. 

Respectfully yours, 
S. B. AXTELL, 11 Moore Street, New York, N. Y. 



NORFOLK, VA. 



Navigation, Marine 
Engineering 

Instruction for All Licenses: 

Deck, Engine, Pilot 

Success Guaranteed or Fee Refunded 

U. S. Nautical College, 

Inc. 
"The School Without a Failure" 
119 Bank St. Norfolk, Va. 

Capt. Wm. J. Blue, Pres., Phone 41626 



A Scot and a minister were in 
a train together traveling through 
a lovely part of Scotland. Beau- 
tiful scenery — mountains, dales, 
rivers, and all the glories of Na- 
ture. When passing a grand moun- 
tain they saw a huge advertise- 
ment for So-and-so's whisky. 

The Scot gave a snort of dis- 
gust. The minister leaned forward 
and said: "I'm glad to see, sir, 
that you agree with me, that they 
should not be allowed to desecrate 
the beauties of Nature by adver- 
tisement." 

"It's no' that, sir," said the Scot 
bitterly, "it's rotten whusky." — 
Ever Heard This? 



PROVIDENCE, R. L 



TAXI 

CALL UNION 9020 
Red Top Cab Co., of R. L, Inc. 
67 Chestnut St. Providence, R. 



MILWAUKEE, WIS. 



JOHN B. AMANN 
Dealer in Choice Meats 

Marine Orders Promptly Delivered 

506 Reed Street Milwaukee, Wis. 

Telephone Hanover 300 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union mi 
the Pacific since its organization 

H. W. HUTTON 

Will give the cases of seafaring men 

prompt attention 
527 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Market 

Streets, San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 315 



Albert Michelson 

Attorney -at-Law 
Attorney for Marine Firemen and 
Watertenders' Union of the Pacific. 

Admiralty Law a Specialty. 

676 Mills Building, San Francisco 

Telephone Douglas 1058 

Residence Phone Bayview 736 



Telephone Garfield 306 



Henry Heidelberg 

Attorney at Law 

(Heidelberg & Murasky) 

Flood Building, San Francisco 



S. T. HogevolL Seamen's Law- 
yer; wages, salvage and damage*. 
909 Pacific Building, 821 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Tel. Sutter 6900 

Notary Public — Typewriting 

ANNE F. HASTY 

SEABOARD BRANCH 
Anglo-California Trust Co. 

101 Market St. San Francisco 



Nothing .Doing. — A school 
teacher had found her class of 
boys reluctant in their writing of 
English compositions. At last she 
conceived a great idea to stimu- 
late their interest — to write an ac- 
count of a ballgame. 

It seemed that she was success- 
ful. With one exception, the boys 
threw themselves at the task and 
evolved youthful masterpieces. The 
backward one chewed reluctantly 
at his pen and was then struck 
by a burst of genius. When the 
teacher opened his paper, it read: 

"Rain — no game." — The Ameri- 
can Legion Weekly. 
28 



SEAMEN 

Before sailing 1 , sail up to our studio 
and have your Photograph taken 



J4&&> 



41 Grant Ave. 



San Francisco 



San Francisco Camera Exchange 

KODAKS AND CAMERAS 

Bought, Sold, Exchanged, Repaired 

and Rented — Developing — Printing 

88 THIRD STREET, AT MISSION 

San Francisco 

Mail Orders Given Special Attention 



Photos of Ships 

Bring your photos to us for print- 
ing and developing and let us supply 
you for your next voyage. 

Allen Photo Supply Co. 

Kodaks bought, sold, rented and ex- 
changed. 

246 Market St., San Francisco 



Traveler — I often wondered why 
the English were such tea-hounds. 
Friend — Yes. Traveler — Yeah, but 
I know now. I had some of their 
coffee. — Nebraska Awgawan. 



May, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



157 



938 Market 
(Near Mason) 
San Francisco 



Walk-Over 



844-850 Market 
San Francisco 



(SHOES FOR CMEN AND WOMEN) 

UNION MADE 



Where sailormen know that 

style, quality and price are 

always right — 



HATS 

Stores at 

26 Third St. 605 Kearny 1080 Market 

3242 Mission 720 Market 2640 Mission 

226 W. 5th St., Los Angeles 



SMOKES ! ! 

Cigarettes and Cigars a Specialty at 

Wholesale Prices 

See Me Before You Load Up 

SYD MODLYN 

Ocean Market 
80 Market St. San Francisco 



LACKING TIME 
SEAMEN SUFFER 

Many sailors are suffering to- 
day from decayed and neglected 
teeth because their time in port 
is limited. 

They know the average den- 
tist in his small office cannot 
finish their work properly 
"while they wait." 

The Parker offices with their 
large force of dentists, nurses 
and assistants can serve you 
promptly and successfully at 
short notice. 

Pacific Coast offices of dentists 
using 

hHD E - R - Parker 
MV System 

located at 

Vancouver, B. C, San Francisco, 
Portland, Seattle, Belllngham, Ta- 
coma, San Diego, Eureka, Oak- 
land, Santa Cruz. 



One-Sided Town. — "What town 
is this?" 

"I don't see no town." 

"You're looking out the wrong 
side of the car." — Stanford Chap- 
parral. 



BEN HARRIS 

No Relation to Joe Harris 

Patronize an Old Reliable Outfitter 

The Best Seamen's Outfitter on the 
Waterfront 



218 Embarcadero 



San Francisco 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 

— at — 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 5348 



At Night 



Complete Banking Service from 
9 A. M. till 12 P. M. for Sailor- 



Liberty 



Market 
at Mason 



Bank 



San Francisco 



THE ONE PRICE STORE 

Sander Supply Co. 

SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

Furnishing Goods, Oilskins, 

Sea Boots 

Square Knot Material 

Uniform Caps 

93-95 Market, Cor. of Spear Street 
South. Pac. Bldg., San Francisco 

Open Evenings for the 
Convenience of Our Patrons 



A Case in the Short Circuit 
Court. — A chap was arrested for 
assault and battery and brought 
before the judge. 

Judge (to prisoner) — "What is 
your name, occupation and what 
are you charged with?" 

Prisoner — "My name is Sparks, 
I am an electrician, and I am 
charged with battery." 

Judge — "Officer, put this guy in 
a dry cell." — The Inland Merchant. 
29 



T. MAHER'S 

RELIABLE HOOKS 

All Kinds Hand Made — Wholesale and 

Retail 

610A 3rd Street San Francisco 

Tel. Garfield 2340 



ABERDEEN, WASH, 



The "Red Front" 

CARRIES A FULL STOCK OF 
UNION MADE CLOTHING, HATS, 
SHOES, COLLARS, SUSPENDERS, 
GLOVES, OVERALLS, SHIRTS 

A. M. BENDETSON 

321 East Heron Street - Aberdeen 

Exclusive Owner of "The Red Front" 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings, Hickory Shirts, 

Hats, Oil Clothing. 

Home of the Union Made 

Co-operative Shoe. 

302 So. F Street, ABERDEEN, Wash. 

on the Water Front 



A. A. Star Transfer Co. 

QUICK SERVICE 

EXPRESS — BAGGAGE 

Phone 307 — Office by Union Depot 
ABERDEEN, WASH. 



HUOTARI & CO. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE 
and MEN'S FURNISHINGS 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Orders taken for 

Made-to-Measure Clothing 

Heron and F Sts., Aberdeen, Wash. 

Tickets to and from Europe 

NOTARY PUBLIC 



Phone 263 

"Niels and Charlie" 

"THE ROYAL" 
"THE SAILORS' REST" 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 
219 EIGHTH ST., HOQUIAM, WASH. 



EUREKA, CAL. 



— For — 

A GOOD CUP OF COFFEE 

— or — 

A SQUARE MEAL 

— Try — 
EUREKA CHOP HOUSE 

Cor. Second and D Sts., Eureka, Cal. 
A. R. ABRAHAMSEN, Prop. 



158 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1924 



Office Phone Main 5190 
Residence Phone Elliott 5825 



Established 1890 
COMPASSES ADJUSTED 



MARSHALL'S 

NAVIGATION SCHOOL 



Wl 



GUARANTEE to teach you until you receive a LICENSE 
WE will save you TIME and MONEY 
203 Bay Building, First and University Sts. SEATTLE, WASH. 



L. V. WESTERMAN 

UNION LABEL, 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 
Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney-Watson Go. 

FUNERAL DIRECTORS 
AND EMBALMERS 

Crematory and Columbarium in 
Connection 



(roadway at Olive St. 



Seattle 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES. HATS 
AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., Cor. University, 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



Union Store 

Best Line of Men's Suits 

Overcoats, Raincoats, Shoes, Hats 

and Men's Furnishings 

CARL SCHERMER 

103-107 First Avenue South 
Near Yesler Way SEATTLE 



THE HUB 

Shoe and Clothing Company 

UNION MADE HEAD TO FOOT 
OUTFITTERS 

615-617 First Avenue 

Opp. Totem Pole 

Seattle. Wash. 



NOTICE! 

The exclusive agency here for the 
only C. T. & M. Tailors in the U. S. 
A., affiliated with the American Fed- 
eration of Labor and employing only 
members of the Journeymen Tailors' 
Union, is held by the reliable tailoring 
man 

S. G. SWANSON 

Established 1904 
Upstairs, Room 4, Bank of San Pedro 

Building 
110 W. 6th Street San Pedro 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim and Douglas Shoes 

And the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 Sixth Street, SAN PEDRO OPP. SAILORS' UNION HALL 



Martin's Navigation School 

128% SIXTH STREET PHONE 1805 

SAN PEDRO, CALIF. 



SEAMEN 

Visit 
Your Hatter 

FRED AMMANN 

UNION HATS 

at the right prices. I'll try and 
wait on you personally and show 
you a large assortment and give 
you your money's worth. 

JOHN B. STETSON hats, too 

If you want your Panama blocked 
right I'll do that. 

You'll find me at 

72 Market St., San Francisco 

next to Ocean Market 



MEAD'S 
RESTAURANT 

NO. 16 
EMBARCADERO 

NO. 3 
MARKET STREET 

"THE" Place to Eat 

in 

San Francisco 



FALCK'S 
COMFORT 

a 5 Cent Cigar 
A Blender of Mixture* 
Prujners Pipes a Bpecialty 

HENRY FALCK 
533 Kearny St., San Francisco, Cal 



"CHECKERS" 

Smoke Checkers Tobacco- A cool 
mild ;in<i smooth smoke 

2 OB. tins, 15c 
16 OS. canister, $1.20 

Weisert Bros. Tobacco Co.. 

H. Sergeson, Pacific Coast Agent 

219 Drumm Street, San Francisco, Cal 



Going It Alone. — Farmrr — "Well, 
son, what art.' you dointr up in 
that tree?" 

Son — "Just got a letter from the 
Sophomores in correspondence 
school telling me to haze myself." 
— The Lyre. 



30 



May, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 159 

TACOMA, WASH. 



BOSS ™e TAILOR 

1120 MARKET STREET, SAN FRANCISCO 

OPPOSITE SEVENTH STREET 



SUITS AND 
OVERCOATS 

To Order at Popular 
Prices 




All Work Done 

Under Strictly Union 

Conditions 



We Furnish the 
Label 



Always Fair with Labor — Always Will Be! 



JENSEN & NELSEN 

Gent's Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 
Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 



110 EAST STREET 
Kearny 3863 



Near Mission 
San Francisco 



H. SAMUEL 

THE OLD UNION STORE 
Established 1874 

Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 

Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, Bags, 
Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and Oil 
Clothing, "Watches and Jewelry. 

Phone Kearny 519 

576 THIRD STREET, near Townsend 

San Francisco 



THE 
James H. Barry Co, 

The Star Press 

PRINTING 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "Tne Seamen's Journal" 



The Damning Dash. — Queries, 
quotes and exclamation marks have 
been freely used to inject sarcasm 
into the written word; but a 
wicked use of the dash was this: 
"Dear Sir, I am sorry but I shall 
not be able to use your — story." — 
New York Journal. 



"ALL NIGHT IN" 

A Sailor's Dream of Bliss 

Good Beds, Baths, Fine Lounges 
Stop and Meet Shipmates at 

LINCOLN HOTEL 



115 MARKET 



SAN FRANCISCO 



Telephone Garfield 594 

O. B. Olsen's 
Restaurant 

Delicious Meals at Pre-War Prices 

Quick Service 

98 Embarcadero and 4 Mission St. 

San Francisco, Open 6 a. m. to 1 a. m. 



Seamen, when in port, 
deal with 

W. P. Shanahan & Co. 

MEN'S SHOES 

Expert Repairing 

254 Market Street San Francisco 



ALAMEDA CAFE 

JACOB PETERSEN & SON 

Proprietors 

Established 1880 

COFFEE AND LUNCH HOUSE 

7 Market Street and 17 Steuart Street 

San Francisco 



D. Edwards & Sons 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Fair Prices. Reliable Goods 

92 EAST STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

GUARANTEED OIL CLOTHING 



Thoughtless. — Erne — "Why 
hasn't Daddy much hair?" 

Mother — "Because he thinks a 
lot, darling!" 

Effie — (pause) — "But why have 
you got such a lot, Mummie — ?" 

Mother — '"Get on with your 
breakfast! ! !" — London Opinion. 

31 



SEAMEN — ATTENTION! 

When In TACOMA, Visit 

Brower & Thomas 

FOR YOUR 

CIGARS AND TOBACCO 

THREE STORES 

1103 Broadway 11th & A Streets 

930 Pacific Avenue 



Always with the 
Union Label 

DUNDEE 

Woolen Mills 

Popular Priced Tailors 

Tacoma, 920 Pacific Avenue 

Seattle, 312 Pike Street 

Bellingham, 1306 Dock Street 

Aberdeen, 204 E. Heron Street 



Starkel's Smoke Shop 

Co.ner 11th and A Street 

TACOMA, WASH. 

Cigars, Tobacco, Smoking Articles, 

Pipe Repairing 

Restaurant and Barber Shop 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Peter Brown, formerly of 339 
Livingston avenue, Albany, N. Y., 
seaman, injured on the yacht 
"Gadfly," can receive $300 by call- 
ing at, or communicating with 
Silas Blake Axtell, 11 Moore 
street, New York, N. Y. 



Serious. — "Your wife is looking 
well!" 

"Yes. Just fancy. When I took 
her to the sanatorium she was so 
bad that I wouldn't risk buying a 
return ticket!" — Sondays Nisse 
(Stockholm). 



Step on the Gas! — A handy lit- 
tle accessory appeared at the mo- 
tor show in the form of a case 
containing a complete first-aid out- 
fit. The happy idea dispenses with 
any irritating need for caution 
while driving. — The Passing Show 
(London). 



160 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1924 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 

and Battery Sts., Opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Cal. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
(any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation 
and Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law, and is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




UNION-MADE 



A complete line of seamen's shirts and 



garments of all kinds, union made right 
CfJIDnpO here in California, sold direct from factory 
to wearer and every garment guaranteed. 

and UNDERWEAR Direct from Factory to You 



1118 Market Street, San Francisco 
112 South Spring Street, Los Angeles 
1141 J Street, Fresno 
717 K Street, Sacramento 



Since 1872 



Eagleson & Co. 



Established 1917 by U. S. S. B. 

School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 

FERRY BLDG., SAN FRANCISCO 



Puget Sound 
Nautical School 

Conducted by CAPT. H. S. SMITH, 
four years Assistant Inspector of 
Steamboats, Puget Sound District. 
Formerly Instructor in New York 
Nautical College. 

Room 303, Bay Bldg. 1213 First Ave. 
SEATTLE, WASH. 




James Jr. Sorensen 

fres and Jreoj. 

Jewelers, Watchmakers 
Opticians 



Gifts That Last 

Watches, Diamonds, Jewelry, 
Clocks and Silverware 

Largest Assortment, Right Prices 
All Watch Repairing Guaranteed 

715 Market Street, bet. Third and Fourth Sts. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Established 1896 Phone Kearny 2017 




A Good Place 
to Trade 



Courteous Service 

Broad Assortments 

Moderate Prices 



Market at Fifth 
San Francisco 



UNION LABEL 

IS IN EVERY ONE OF OUR 
Hard finished — Hard wearing 

$Qfi WORSTED 
OO SUITS 

— See Them in our Windows — 




152-868 MARKET ST. 
SAN FRANCISCO 



Joint Accounts 

This bank will open accounts in 
the name of two Individuals, for 
instance, man and wife, either of 
whom may deposit money for or 
draw against the account. 

HUMBOLDT 
BANK 

783 MARKET ST., Near Fourth 
SAN FRANCISCO 



32 




onii 



Official Paper of the International Seamen's Union of America 

niiiiiiiiiiioiiiiimiioiiiiiHiiioiiiiiimioiu 



A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 

Sea power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's tools. 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use them. 

Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



Contents 

MERCHANT SEAMEN AND THE NAVY 163 

RESPONSIBILITY FOR BRUTALITY 165 

EDITORIALS: 

ALASKA FISHERMEN'S AGREEMENT 166 

YOUR UNION BOOK 166 

ASIATIC EXCLUSION AT LAST 167 

THE PORT OF SAN FRANCISCO 168 

THE CONTROL OF SUPER-POWER ... 168 

SECRETS THAT ARE KEPT SECRET 169 

"MUGGING" THE IMMIGRANTS 169 

THEORY VERSUS PRACTICE 170 

TESTIMONIAL TO ANDREW FURUSETH 171 

DISTRIBUTION OF IMMIGRANTS BY STATE 171 

SEAMEN'S INTERNATIONAL CODE (Continued) 172 

THE PANAMA CANAL (By Prof. Emory R. Johnson) 174 

A STUDY OF ECONOMICS 176 

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA SARCASM 177 

OUR WASHINGTON LETTER 177 

AUSTRALIA'S POPULATION 179 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 180, 181, 182, 183 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 184. 185, 186, 187 



Entered at the San Francisco Postofflce 

VOL. XXXVIII No 6 as second-class matter. Acceptance for 

mailing at special rate of postage provided 

WHOLE No 1925 f or in Section 1103. Act of October 3, 1917, 

authorized September 7, 1918. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
JUNE 1, 1924 



International Seamen's Union of America 



Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' 



FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary. Treasurer 
355 North Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 

DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES: 

ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR Secretary 

1% Lewis Street 
Branches: 

NEW YORK, N. Y WILLIAM MILLER, Agent 

67-69 Front Street 

BALTIMORE. Md _....C. RASMUSSEN. Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa! S. HODGSON, Agent 

108 Walnut Street 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. JACOBSEN. Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex _ _ LOUIS LARSEN, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RrVERS, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 

MARINE FIREMEN'S, OILERS' AND WATERTEND- 
ERS' UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y _ 70 South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 
Telephone John 0975 

Branches: 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa ERNEST MISSLAND, Agent 

108 Walnut Street 

BALTIMORE, Md JAMES ANDERSON, Agent 

804 South Broadway 

GALVESTON, Tex JOHN CLAUS3EN, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

BOSTON, Mass TONY ASTE, Agent 

288 State Street 

NORFOLK, Va _ DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS. Agent 

335 Eddy Street 

ATLANTIC AND GULF COOKS', STEWARDS' AND 

WAITERS' UNION 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretary 

4 South Street. Phone John 0975 

Branches: 

BOSTON, MASS _ JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

288 State Street 

PHILADELPHIA, PA ERNEST MISSLAND, Agent 

108 Walnut Street 

BALTIMORE, MD CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

NORFOLK, VA DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, LA FRANK STOCKL, Agent 

106 Julia Street 

PROVIDENCE. R. I FRANK B. HAYWARD. Agent 

335 Eddy Street 

GALVESTON, TEX LOUIS LARSEN, Agent 

321 20th Street 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass WM. H. BROWN, Secretary 

288 State Street 

Branches: 
GLOUCESTER; Mass NEWMAN SHEA, Agent 

209 Main Street 
NEW YORK, N. V.. I AMES .1. FAGAN, Agent 

G Fulton Street 



GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters: 

CHICAGO, 111 357 North Clark Street 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary 

VAL. DUSTER. Treasurer 

Phone State 5175 

Branches: 
BUFFALO. N. Y PATRICK O'BRIEN 

55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND, Ohio _. E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1501 Columbus Road 
MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERTNG, Agent 

162 Reed Street Phone Hanover 240 
DETROIT, Mich ~...WM. DONNELLY, Agent 

410 Shelby Street. Phone Main 0f>44 
ASHTAECLA, Ohio 74 Bridge 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 

COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y _ 71 Main Street 

THOS. CONWAY, Secretary 
ED. HICKS. Treasurer. Phone Seneca «048 

Branches: 

CLEVELAND, 819 Superior Avenue 

Phone Main 866 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

Phone Hanover 240 

DETROIT, Mich 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO. ILL _ 357 North Clark Street 

Phone State 5175 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 35 West Eagle Street 

J. M. SECORD, Secretary 
Telephone Seneca 896 

Branches: 

CHICAGO, 111 357 North Clark Street 

CLEVELAND, 1501 Columbus Road 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

DETROIT, MICH 410 Shelby Street 

PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal _ 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE C. LARSEN. Acting Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches: 

VANCOUVER, B. C G. CAMPBELL, Agent 

305 Cambie Street 
P. O. Box 571, Telephone Seymour 8703 

TACOMA, Wnsh A. KLEMMSEN, Agent 

22Q7 North Thirtieth Street 
P. O. Box 102, Telephone Main 3984 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, Agent 

84 Seneca Street 
P. O. Box 65, Telephone Elliot 6752 

ABERDEEN, Wash CHAS. OLESEN, Asent 

P. O. Box 280 

PORTLAND, Ore D. W. PAUL, Agent 

243 Ash Street, Telephone Broadway 163!* 

SAN PEDRO. Cal HARRY OHLSEN, Agent 

267 Seventh Street 
P. O. Box 67, Telephone 2524J 

HONOLULU, T. H JOSEPH FALTUS, Agent 

P. O. Box 314, Telephone 4495 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO. Cal 58 Commercial Street 

PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 3699 
(Continued on Page 17) 



June, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



163 



MERCHANT SEAMEN AND THE NAVY 




ANY columns of heavy matter have 
been written during the last few 
weeks about the alleged inferiority of 
the American Navy. The Washing- 
ton Arms Conference established 
a naval ratio of 5-5-3 : England 5, 
America 5, Japan 3. This was considered a 
victory for the United States, because it 
marked the end of the two-power standard 
England had maintained for a century and 
theoretically, at least, it brought the United 
States on a level with her and gave us at the 
same time a marked superiority over Japan. 

Now it is charged by William B. Shearer, 
formerly a special expert employed by the 
Navy Department, and inventor of the 
Shearer torpedo boat, the one-man torpedo 
boat and the amphibian tank, that neglect of 
our country's Navy and failure to provide it 
with adequate fuel reserves has so weakened 
that branch of the national defense that the 
advantages gained by the Washington 
Conference had been thrown away, and that 
the ratio of power, instead of being America 
5, England 5, Japan 3, was, in fact, England 
5, Japan 3, America 1. 

Other authorities on naval affairs have 
made similar and equally serious charges. Of 
course, our Navy has not been without de- 
fenders. But the most remarkable part of 
the controversy is the silence maintained 
alike by accusers and defenders regarding the 
vital importance of the fleet behind the fleet — ■ 
the country's merchant marine. 

In the early days of our Republic there 
was no clear line of division drawn between 
the merchant sailor and the man-of-war's 
man. They stood shoulder to shoulder in 
the nation's first line of defense during the 
critical moments of early history. 

The arbitrary division of seamen into naval 
men and merchant men is of comparatively 
recent origin. It is an artificial and largely 
commercial division of labor. A really mean- 
ingful division is between the skilled and the 
unskilled, the experienced and the unexperi- 
enced seamen. The skilled and experienced 
merchant seamen need but little training to 
become efficient man-of-war's men. 

The fundamental fact is that no human be- 



ing is by nature a seaman. The sea, the ves- 
sel and life aboard ship are so distinct from 
man's natural mode of life that it has always 
taken some years of actual experience and 
training to make real seamen. No one has 
ever seriously contended that either naval or 
merchant seamen can acquire skill and ex- 
perience on dry land. No man has ever be- 
come a swimmer except by going into the 
water and no one, regardless of ancestry, be- 
comes a seaman except at sea. 

This much has been generally admitted by 
all naval authorities. Still, the general ten- 
dency, in America at least, has been to mini- 
mize the importance of a trained and suf- 
ficient personnel for our Merchant Marine as 
an indispensible asset for the Navy. Of 
course, this point of view has rather widened 
the gap between Navy and Merchant Marine. 
In fact, the average man fails utterly to see 
that one should be dependent upon the other. 

The late Captain Mahan in his momentous 
work, "The Influence- of Sea Power Upon 
History," expressed strong convictions upon 
thij subject when he asserted that sea power 
is not necessarily a matter of warships alone, 
even though at the moment they be properlv 
manned. "No nation," he contended, "can 
arTord to maintain in times of peace a trained 
naval force in the regular service sufficiently 
extensive for the requirements of a long, ex- 
hausting war. Dependence must be on the 
mei chant marine to recruit the broken com- 
plements and in that stage where two nations 
have resort to such recruiting it may fare 
ill with the one whose merchant marine is the 
less skilled." 

Professor W. MacNeile Dixon, of the Uni- 
versity of Glasgow, in his post war book, 
"The ' Fleets Behind the Fleet," shows a 
lively appreciation of the seamen's worth to 
his country. Without saying so he concurs 
entirely with Captain Mahan. To quote the 
Professor: "Owing to the merchant seamen's 
way of life and the peculiarity of their pro- 
fession it is impossible during war to rapidly 
or greatly add to their numbers." To this 
he adds : "No other reservoir of such ex- 
perience as theirs can anywhere be found. 
Perhaps the most valuable community in the 



164 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1924 



world today and certainly irreplacable. Means 
of replenishing it there is none." 

Xo modern American writer has placed 
such a valuation upon the seafaring people 
of this country. 

With mighty few exceptions the policy of 
American journalists has been to sympathize 
with the poor shipowner who is struggling 
along with high-priced crews and having an 
awful time to balance his ledger. Rarely 
anyone call .attention to the other side 
of the story. To be >ure the other side makes 
a sorry picture when viewed in the light of 
Captain Mahan's prediction. 

Here is a decade's summary of American 
ship operators' tactics: 

In 1913 Mr. Robert Dollar of the Dollar 
Steamship Co. imported a crew of Chinese 
on the British steamship Bessie Dollar to 
the port of San Francisco where they were 
transferred to the American steamship Macki- 
naw. In behalf of the International Seamen's 
Union of America the editor of the Journal 
proceeded against the Dollar Company in 
the Federal District Court, charging a viola- 
tion «.f the Alien Contract Labor Law and 
also a violation of the Chinese Exclusion Act. 
The Federal District Court ruled against the 
seamen. So did the Circuit Court of Appeals 
for the Ninth Circuit. The Union then car- 
ried the case to the Supreme Court of the 
United States and that tribunal, on Novem- 
ber 5, 1917. declared that Mr. Dollar did not 
violate the law; that seamen were not lab- 
orers as defined in the Alien Contract Law 
and. furthermore, that American ships en- 
gaged in foreign commerce were not Ameri- 
can territory in such a sense that men em- 
ployed on said vessels could be held to be 
laboring in the United States or performing 
labor in this country. 

The natural sequence of this Supreme 
Curt decision has been a constant influx of 
Chinese and other Asiatic seamen to Ameri- 
can ports for employment on American ships. 
Perhaps the saddest part in connection with 
tli i s migration of Orientals has been the fact 
that ships owned by the people of the United 
State- and allocated temporarily to private 
operators have been the worst offenders in 
this respect. For example, a recent examina- 
tion of the crew list of the S. S. President 
Cleveland, a Shipping Board vessel, operated 



by the Pacific Mail Steamship Co., showed 
that out of her total crew of 237 no less than 
134 were Chinese, 56 Filipinos, the percentage 
of Americans being only 1S.5. 

So far as the Dollar >hip> are concerned it 
is public knowledge that they never employ 
a white man if it is possible to secure an 
Oriental. 

The success of American ship operators in 
bringing Chinese seamen to our ports 
employment on American ships in the f< 
trade has far-reaching consequences. Under 
a ruling of the Department of Commerce 
American vessels engaged in the intercoastal 
trade from ports on the Atlantic to ports on 
the Pacific have been held to be engaged in 
the foreign trade simply because they touch 
at one or two foreign ports enroute. This 
ruling enables these American ships, engaged 
in the intercoastal trade, to also carry Chi- 
nese. Considering the trend of events no one 
should be surprised to see Orientals break 
into the coastwise trade between ports on 
the Atlantic or between ports on the Pacific. 
At any rate, every year shows more oppor- 
tunity for Asiatics on American ships while 
the American boys who manned our ships 
during the war are looking for jobs. 

The publicists who recently spread them- 
selves about the decreasing strength of the 
American Navy have so far entirely ignored 
tin- grave problems raised by the pr< 
manning of American Merchant vessels. 

Is it too much to hope that our journalists 
will learn to look beyond the length of their 
nose? Is it too much to expect them 
to understand that the United States can 
never maintain or develop real sea-power as 
long as our ship operators insist upon em- 
ploying the cheapest men available, regard- 
less of race, color or nationality? 



Revolutions are of two kinds — bloody and 
bloodless. The former comes through des- 
peration, by frenzied mobs driven to violence. 
The latter comes through intelligence. 



You are boosting your own labor and that 
of your fellow workers when you buy union- 
labelled products. 



A thought is mental dynamite. — Elbert 
1 lubbard. 



June, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



165 



RESPONSIBILITY FOR BRUTALITY 



Shipowners who employ brutal officers do 
so at their own risk. They will not be per- 
mitted to shirk responsibility. This is the 
meaning of a unanimous opinion rendered by 
the United States Circuit Court of Appeals 
for the Ninth Circuit. Federal Judge Part- 
ridge, who first reviewed the record of bru- 
tality on the barkentine Rolph and awarded 
substantial damages to the four seamen in- 
volved, has been upheld in the higher court 
on every single point. 

Judge Partridge's opinion was published in 
full in the August. 1923, issue of the Journal. 
The opinion of the Appellate Court follows 
herewith. Attorney Hutton represented the sea- 
men in both courts. 

In the United States Circuit Court of Appeals 
For the Ninth Circuit. 

Rolph Navigation & Coal Company, a corpora- 
tion, owner and claimant of the Barkentine Rolph, 
her tackle, apparel and furniture, Appellant, vs. 
Demetrius Kohilas, Libelant, and John Kapstein, 
Alfred Seppinen and Arne Mikel Arnesen, Inter- 
veners, Appellees. No. 4160. 

Appeal from the Southern Division of the United 
States District Court for the Northern District of 
California, Third Division. 

Before Gilbert, Hunt, and Rudkin, Circuit Judges. 

Hunt, Circuit Judge: 

This is an appeal from a decree against the bark- 
entine Rolph, in favor of libelant Kohilas for $10,000, 
and of Interveners Kapstein for $3500, and Seppinen 
and Arnesen for $500 each. The barkentine Rolph 
and the Rolph Navigation & Coal Company, a cor- 
poration, owner, appealed. 

The libel was filed in rem for damages for as- 
saults and beatings suffered by Kohilas and inter- 
veners at the hands of Frederick Hansen, mate of 
the Rolph, upon a voyage made in 1921 from New- 
castle, New South Wales, to Mejillones, Chile, to 
end in a port of the Pacific Coast in the United 
States. Kohilas and interveners were seamen. 

It is alleged that the mate when employed was 
known by the master and owner to be a man who 
frequently assaulted and beat seamen on ships upon 
which he was employed. The barkentine and her 
owner denied the right to recover an indemnity 
against the ship upon the grounds stated, and con- 
tended that for injuries, if any, received upon the 
high seas in the service of the ship, libelant and 
interveners were entitled to recover only wages, 
maintenance and cure unless the injuries complained 
of resulted from unseaworthiness of the ship or be- 
came aggravated by the failure of the master to 
render proper medical treatment. 

The District Court found that Hansen was gen- 
erally reputed among seamen along the Pacific Coast 
to be cruel to sailors; that he had served a term 
of imprisonment for brutal treatment of a seaman; 
that before the ship sailed the master of the Rolph 
knew Hansen's reputation; that the voyage of the 
Rolph commenced in October, 1920, at Vancouver, 
British Columbia, where Hansen was employed as 
mate several weeks before the sailing date; that be- 
fore the voyage commenced Hansen was arrested 
for a drunken assault upon the stevedores who were 
engaged in loading the ship; that the first leg of the 



voyage was from Vancouver to Melbourne, during 
which time Hansen assaulted a number of sailors 
so that upon arrival at Melbourne a majority of the 
crew went to the American consul and secured their 
release on the ground of cruelty of the first mate; 
that at Melbourne a new crew was shipped, but 
that crew left the ship at Newcastle; that at New- 
castle almost an entirely new crew, including libel- 
ants, was shipped; that the ship had scarcely cleared 
Newcastle when Hansen began his brutal treatment 
of the crew, in that day after day, sometimes several 
times a day, he struck and beat Kohilas and other 
seamen, sometimes with his fists and sometimes with 
belaying-pins; that at one time he struck Kohilas 
across the eyes with a knotted rope and injured 
him so that he lost the sight of one eye and was 
injured in the other; that after his eyes were hurt 
Kohilas complained to the master, who cursed him 
and told him to get out; that while his eyes were 
injured, the mate, who was a large, powerful man, 
kicked Kohilas and compelled him to work; that 
when Kohilas was unable to obey orders by reason 
of his injuries, the mate tied him to the bilge-pump; 
that as a result of all the beatings and assaults 
Kohilas was permanently injured and that inter- 
veners were also injured. When the ship reached 
Mejillones some of the crew went to the American 
consul at Antofagasta. The master went with Han- 
sen to the office of the consul and by direction of 
the consul the master paid Hansen his wages. Ar- 
rangements were then made to send two of the crew 
to San Francisco as passengers to testify against 
Hansen, but after he was paid off Hansen escaped 
at Antofagasta. Some time thereafter he was ap- 
prehended at Seattle, Washington, and was there tried 
and convicted. 

The evidence is in harmony with the conclusions 
of the District Judge, and as Kohilas has recovered 
in another proceeding for wages and maintenance, 
and makes no claim' herein for expenses and cure, 
the principal question presented is whether the ves- 
sel can be held liable to an indemnity for injuries 
in consequence of the hiring and retention of Han- 
sen as mate. 

Appellant must, and we gather does, proceed upon 
the premise that a ship and her owner are liable to 
an indemnity for injuries to a seaman in conse- 
quence of the unseaworthiness of the ship (Chelen- 
tis vs. Luckenbach, 247 U. S. 372; The Osceola, 189 
U. S. 158, 175), but argues that there is no question 
of seaworthiness in this case. We recognize that 
no positive rule of law fixes any definition of sea- 
worthiness which would apply exactly to the_ con- 
dition of facts presented here. Necessarily, it is but 
a relative term. Throughout the books, however, it 
is generally accepted that to be seaworthy in respect 
to cargo, a vessel must not only be strong, staunch 
and fit in the hull for the voyage to be under- 
taken, but she must also be properly equipped, and 
for that purpose there is a duty upon the owner to 
provide a master and crew generally competent. 
(Walker vs. Maitland. 3 B. and Aid. 170.) In re 
Pacific Mail S. S. Co., 130 Fed. 76, this court held 
that it is the duty of the owner of a ship carrying 
goods and passengers not only to provide a sea- 
worthy ship, but also to provide the ship with a 
crew adequate in number and competent in their 
duties with reference to all the exigencies of the 
intended route, and that such a duty rests upon the 
owner by the general maritime law. In Lord vs. 
G. N. & P. S. Co., 4 Saw. 292. it was held to be 
the duty of the owner to provide a vessel with a 
competent master and a competent crew, and to see 
that the ship when she sails is in all respects sea- 
worthy, and that he is bound to exercise the utmost 
care in these particulars. In Adams vs. Bortz, 279 
Fed 521, it was said that the basic thought is that 
(Continued on Page 19) 



166 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1924 



Seamen's Journal 

Established In 1887 
Published on the first day of each month In San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW FURUSETH, President 

A. F. of L. Building, Washington, D, C. 

PATRICK FLYNN, First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

V. A. OLANDER, Second Vice-President 

166 W. Washington Street, Chicago. 111. 

THOS. CONWAY, Third Vice-President 

71 Main Street. Buffalo, N. Y. 

P. B. GILL. Fourth Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street. Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR Fifth Vice-President 

\Vz Lewis Street. Boston, Mass. 

WM. H. BROWN. Sixth Vice-President 

202 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Mass. 

OSCAR CARLSON. Seventh Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York. N. Y. 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary-Treasurer 

355-357 N. Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 

Office of Publication. 525 Market Street 
San Francisco. California 

Subscription price $1.50 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG Editor 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished in the JOURNAL, provided they are of general 
Interest, brief, legible, written on one side only of the 
paper, and accompanied by the writer's name and 
address. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the 
expressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscript. 



busters functioning in San Francisco bay 
cities. Equally disappointed were the wob- 
blies who had been hovering near the scene 
of the battle like buzzards in the hope that 
they would soon have the opportunity to 
pick the corpse of the poor Fishermen's 
Union and thus obtain sonic much needed 
sustenance for their dying cause. All these 
worthies were sore and peeved over the 
happy ending of the negotiations. 

lint the members of the Alaska Fisher- 
men's Union and the general membership of. 
the International Seamen's Union of America 
have ample reason to rejoice that union con- 
ditions are assured in tin- Alaska salmon 
fisheries for three years to come. 

Secretary ( )lsen of the Alaska Fishermen's 
Union; Patrick Flynn, First Vice-President 
of the International Seamen'.- Union of Amer- 
ica, and George Larsen, Acting Secretary of 
tin Sailors' Union of the Pacific, are deserv- 
ing of special commendation for their untir- 
ing efforts which finally resulted in the sign- 
ing of the union agreement. 



YOUR UNION B< >< >K 



«^>® 



TUNE 1, 1924 



ALASKA FISIIKRMEN'S AGREEMENT 



The Alaska Fishermen's Union won a nota- 
ble victory during the month when an agree- 
ment was signed with the principal canning 
companies guaranteeing union conditions for 
the three ensuing seasons and providing an 
increase of one-half cent a fish over last 
year's schedule. 

The agreement was negotiated through the 
District Officers of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America at a time when mat- 
ters had reached an impasse and when the 
fishermen generally were making arrange- 
ments for other employment this summer. 
In more than one aspect the continuance of 
contractual relations by the organized fisher- 
men and the principal Alaska salmon com- 
panies came at an opportune time. First, the 
fishermen's peaceful settlement with their 
employers must have been a keen disappoint- 
ment to the various association- of union 



Many well-intentioned members of the 

union keep their union 1 k carefully con- 
cealed in their pockets. That is. they feel 
that so long as the due- are paid and they 
are in good standing, everything is well as 
far as their status in the world of organized 
labor is concerned. 

That it is better to have a paid-up union 
book in your pocket than not to have any 
is beyond question. But it remains true that 
your union will not grow in your pocket. 

The fellow sitting or standing next to you 
aboard ship or anywhere along the water- 
front may never learn from you, if you keep 
your union in your pocket, either the advan- 
tages or necessity of organization. 

It is not considered or advocated that it 
would be desirable for a unionist to brinj 
his union card and hold it up to the view of 
the passengers on the promenade deck. \ et 
even that is more to be commended than 
keeping your union in your pocket and never 
saying anything about it to anyone. 

People belonging to fraternal organization- 
are boosters for them. Thev talk continu- 



June, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



167 



ously. They emphasize their good points at 
every opportunity. 

What transpires in the meeting of a union 
is the business of the members. It is not to 
be hawked about the streets and shouted in 
public places. There is nothing to be gained 
by this.' 

But there are a great many things to be 
gained by members of organized labor when- 
ever the opportunity affords by impressing 
on those they meet the things in general that 
the Seamen's Union has done for seamen and 
what organized labor in general has accom- 
plished for the workers. 

It is just as easy to tell about the benefits 
of unionism as to hold forth on the pleasant- 
ness or disagreeableness of the weather. 

Get your union out of your pocket. Think 
about it and talk about it. And you will find 
that the seeds of conversation you sow in 
many instances will result in bringing into 
the fold of organization those with whom you 
have conversed. Every person brought into 
the union is assisting you to better w r ages and 
conditions. Every person remaining unaffili- 
ated is helping the employer to lower wages 
and make conditions worse. 

Get your union out of your pocket and 
plant the seeds of organization in the minds 
of the workers you meet on the job or wher- 
ever you come in contact with them. You 
will find time invested in this way bringing 
you dividends both pleasing and beneficial. 

What wonderful progress there would be if 
unionists would get their unions out of their 
pockets and tell the other fellow about it ! 

Your union won't grow in your pocket. 



ASIATIC EXCLUSION AT LAST 



There is more than one way of curtailing 
the freedom of the press. German wood and 
paper barons, with the approval of their gov- 
ernment, are increasing the prices of paper 
to such a point that the labor press is finding 
it very difficult to appear at all. An increas- 
ing number of trade union papers have been 
either forced out of existence or obliged to 
cut down their size to a mere pamphlet. 



Trade unions through collective bargain- 
ing enable the workers to achieve that which 
it is impossible to secure by individual effort. 



"When President Coolidge affixed his signa- 
ture to the immigration bill he placed a pe- 
riod at the end of the long chapter in history 
describing the struggles of the Western 
.States to bar unassimilable immigrants and 
to maintain a homogeneous population. 

The first half of the chapter deals with the 
prolonged fight for Chinese exclusion. This 
fight was won in 1882, when President Arthur 
signed the Chinese Exclusion Act. 

Xo sooner had the Chinese immigration 
problem been disposed of to the general satis- 
faction of Pacific Coast citizens when the 
menace of unrestricted Japanese immigration 
came to the front with startling rapidity. 

For 250 years prior to the arrival of Com- 
modore Perry, Japan had excluded all for- 
eigners (barbarians) except a small num- 
ber of Dutch traders, who were, however, re- 
stricted to a small island. 

Commodore Perry anchored off Uraga on 
Jul}' 7, 1853. Five years later the first offi- 
cial treaty between the United States and 
fapan was signed to take effect on July 4, 
1859. 

Only 33 years later, in 1892, the American 
Federation of Labor Convention adopted 
resolutions demanding extension of the Chi- 
nese Exclusion Act so as to include Japanese. 
And fifteen years after this demand was made, 
i. e., in 1907, a so-called Gentlemen's Agree- 
ment was arrived at ' through diplomatic 
negotiations whereby the Japanese Govern- 
ment agreed to keep laborers from America. 
But the Gentlemen's Agreement has been 
only a poor excuse for a solution of the prob- 
lem. In California the demand for the ex- 
clusion of Japanese by law became more gen- 
eral and more pronounced as the years 
rolled by. 

In 1917 Congress passed what is known as 
the Barred Zone Act, excluding Hindus and 
other Asiatics by describing the geographical 
boundaries of those countries. 

Japan alone of all the Oriental nations con- 
tinued to enjoy special privileges as. regards 
her emigrants. At last, by the enactment of 
the Johnson immigration bill all Asiatics, i. e.. 
all persons ineligible to citizenship, are placed 
on the same footing. There is no discrimi- 



168 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1924 



nation in intent or purpose. Neither is there 
any special privilege in the "ineligible to 
citizenship" section of the bill. 

Altogether, this is a victory with far-reach- 
ing consequences. It is a formal declaration 
that the great western half of America is to 
be preserved as a heritage to the white race. 
But above all, it is evidence of the fact that 
America is still a sovereign nation, a nation 
firmly believing in self-determination and 
wholly unwilling to have her immigration 
policy shaped by a single member of the 
President's cabinet. 



THE CONTROL OF SUPER-POWER? 



THE PORT OF SAX FRAXXISCO 



San Francisco's port is the city's best busi- 
ness friend. Figures of a nature compiled 
for the first time indicate that the port excels 
any other San Francisco business or industry 
in the amount of money it puts into circula- 
tion. The figures, as given out by the presi- 
dent of the State Board of Harbor Commis- 
sioners, show : 

That shipping put $83,032,000 into circula- 
tion right here in San Francisco during the 
past year. 

That this sum resulted from the operation 
in and out of the port of 5760 vessels of all 
classes, excluding - 840 tankers. 

That the port's nearest business-producing 
competitor — building and construction — circu- 
lated $50,000,000 the past year. 

That the port distributed its $83,032,000 
business through the following channels : 
Wages of seamen, longshoremen and various 
other groups of workers employed along the 
waterfront ; rentals of offices, piers and ter- 
minals ; wharf charges and cargo tolls ; re- 
pairs and supplies; towage, barging, trucking 
and stevedoring. 

This is believed to be the first attempt ever 
made to even approximate what shipping 
means to San Francisco. The result has 
proved a surprise even to men well versed 
with the rapid turnover of the dollar on San 
FVancisco's waterfront. 



Countries continue to profess friendship 
for each other, and to pour out money in get- 
ting ready to smash those friendships. — J. R. 
Clynes, M. P. 



Certain good people are arguing if a rea- 
sonable system for the development of super- 
power with proper protection for the w< »rk- 
ers can be worked out. the question of con- 
trol or ownership will not matter, or at 
least can be postponed. That seems extra- 
ordinary reasoning. It is already certain 
that super-power requiring the development 
and distribution of electricity derived from 
waterpower and from coal must be inte- 
grated over the country. It must approach 
a monopolization. The group or groups 
which control the super-power will be rulers 
of our life. The conduct of industry and 
the comfort of homes will be dependent Upon 
those who control this enormous giant which 
may be either the servant or the master of 
men. No vast power can safely be entrusted 
to any monopoly. The experience of regu- 
lation of railroads and public utilities shows 
how nearly futile is the attempt satisfactorily 
to regulate monopoly power. Now, before 
it is too late, is the time to decide whether 
the people or interests shall control the 
power of the future. 

Speaking of California, there are but few 
who realize the vastness of the State's unde- 
veloped resources. Italy, two-thirds the size 
of California, supports a population of 40,- 
000,000. In development of agriculture and in- 
dustries Californians have but scratched the 
surface. The day of the pioneers is not 
past, it is now; the men and women of the 
present generation are true pioneers, blazing 
the trail and laying the groundwork for the 
40 or 50 millions who some day will inhabit 
this State. This is a grave responsibility, 
but it must be faced with honesty and cour- 
age. 

The power corporations are playing for 
the biggest stake ever gambled for, all the 
remaining water power sites in California. 
Control of these means for them wealth 
which will make Rockefeller's oil fortune 
look like 30 cents. They want to grab the 
power sites now; then all they will have to 
do is to develop with extravagant financing 
and construction as the pressure of demand 
comes to keep profits excessive. 

Every new million of population will add 



8 



June, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



169 



enormously to the value of what they have 
gotten for nothing, and that added value 
will go on and on, never being exhausted as 
will the oil resources. As million after mil- 
lion of people come to the State, the value 
of these holdings will increase. 

Meantime, under the Federal Power Act, 
the power corporations, four or five of them, 
linked in one gigantic combine, will have 50 
years to work up investment and, through 
the unlimited possibilities they possess in 
bookkeeping and scientific, jugglery, they 
will make it impossible for the State or Na- 
tion to take over their plants, except at a 
cost that will be prohibitive. Besides, what 
chance will our children have against the 
overwhelming power of that great trust, in- 
conceivably greater than anything we have 
known ? 

Now this is not a picture of fancy. It is 
a forecast of a condition that is inevitable 
unless through public ownership the process 
of power-corporation grabbing of water and 
power sites is stopped! 



SECRETS THAT ARE KEPT SECRET 



The archives of old Russia are yielding 
some interesting secrets, but American press 
agencies have maintained a discreet silence on 
the subject. 

The latest secrets uncovered according to 
the New York Nation reveal systematic bri- 
bery of the leading newspapers of France by 
the agents of the Czar. 

Official documents brought from Petrograd 
by Boris Souvarine, a young Frenchman, and 
printed in l'Humanite show that from 1904 up 
to the revolution of 1917 practically all the 
Paris papers were on the Czar's payroll and 
that the French government encouraged the 
practice. 

It was in this way that the people of France 
were persuaded to tolerate the alliance be- 
tween republican France and autocratic Rus- 
sia, which eventually brought on the Great 
War. In addition, the French peasant was 
induced to invest billions of francs in Russian 
bonds, which are now worthless. 

The London Times and Telegraph and "a 
few other English papers" also received a 
"subvention," a polite synonym for graft. 
It is significant that none of the American 



dailies have carried a line about this amazing 
story, which has created a great sensation 
throughout France. American correspondents 
in Paris refrain from discussing the subject. 
The Nation very properly and pointedly asks, 
"Why?" 



"MUGGING" THE IMMIGRANTS 



Federal registration of aliens is proposed 
in a bill by Congressman Vestal of Indiana. 
It is the well-known police plan, so popular 
in certain European countries. Each im- 
migrant will be photographed and measured 
— and taxed $5 for being "mugged" in ap- 
proved police style. The Department of 
Labor will prepare rules to make the plan 
effective, and may admit additional workers 
"whenever there is a scarcity." Congressman 
Vestal prefaced this attempt to Europeanize 
a free country by a harmless denunciation of 
certain employers who want immigrants for 
cheap labor purposes. 

Possibilities of the system are unlimited. 
The rules and regulations could provide that 
no alien shall leave his present location with- 
out permission of the proper authorities. This 
would hold these aliens to their task in in- 
dustrial centers. In strike times, the more 
active could be deported after the public was 
impressed that the strike is "an attempt to 
overthrow government." Later, if the regis- 
tration plan does not arouse too much opposi- 
tion, it can be cautiously applied to other 
sections of labor, preparatory to making it 
universal. Oh, yes, we are surely stepping 
into strange ways — since we helped to make 
the world "safe for democracy." 



The Supreme Court of the United States 
has denied a review of the verdict against 
George H. Miles, formerly master of the Ship- 
ping Board steamship President Van Buren, 
who was convicted by a jury in the Federal 
Court at New York of having by cruel and 
abusive treatment caused the death of a pan- 
tryman on board the ship. 



If the people could be persuaded to cease 
taking the papers controlled by privilege and 
take only papers devoted to their real in- 
terest, it would not be long before they could 
abolish privilege. — W. E. Brokaw. 



170 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1924 



THEORY VERSUS PR.U'flCK 



Frequently we hear it said that "we need 
less theory and more practice." It is forgot- 
ten, or not known, that all practice is founded 
on theory of some sort. Even the stand- 
patter who says. "Let things alone, and con- 
tinue in the old ways," bases his advice on 
theory — the theory that old ideas are always 
better or safer than new. 

The difference between the man who wants 
to change things, and the man who wants 
them to remain as they are, is not that the 
one believes in theory and the other in prac- 
tice, but that the one believes in a new 
practice, founded on a new theory, and the 
other in an old practice founded on an old 
theory. 

Xo doubt, all new ideas ought to be ob- 
jected to criticism. But so should old ideas. 
An idea is not bound to be wise because it 
is new. But neither is it bound to be wise 
because it is old. On the contrary, the fact 
that an idea is old may be presumptive evi- 
dence that it is false. Old ideas are some- 
times founded on the limited knowledge and 
experience of the past, and for that very 
reason the older they are the falser they are 
likely to be. 

As Ibsen shows in some of his wonderful 
plays, ideas, originally true, may become 
positively false. They wear out. They be- 
come, so to speak, frayed at the edges and 
unfit for use. 

A man's home was rightly his castle 200 
years ago, when ignorance of sanitation put 
any other doctrine out of the question. Rut 
today, when we know that a foul drain may 
polute a whole city, and destroy thousands of 
lives every man's door must be flung open 
to the sanitary inspector, liberty must give 
way to regulation. 

It may be said that the end of human ex- 
istence is to live in happiness and securitv. 
that this can only be achieved by man ad- 
justing himself to environment, and that ideas 
are the means by which that adjustment is 
effected. 

Darwin, who, in spite of a certain sim- 
plicity, had a knack of getting at the root of 
things, once defined reason as "the power of 
profiting by experience." In other words, it 
is the light which enables us to adjust our- 



selves to our environment or, it may be, to 
adjust our environment to ourselves, which 
virtually amounts to the same thing. 

What appears to stand out clear is. that, 
if a nation is to live in happiness and secur- 
ity, and make the most of the great adventure 
we call life, it must cultivate the faculty of 
thinking: it must be a nation of ideas, fos- 
tering search for the truth, encouraging in- 
vestigation (including Senatorial investiga- 
tions of crookedness by public officials) — 
and discouraging nothing so much as abject 
worship of wealth — the beginning o£ intel- 
lectual death. 



GERMAN SEAMEN'S WAGES 



The following is the new scale of minimum 
monthly wages for German seamen, which 
came into force April 1, but is stated to be 
retroactive to March 1 in the case men 

employed before April 1. The pay is In gold 
marks worth 24 cents: 

Deck Department 

Mark 

First boatswain and first carpenter 92 

Second boatswain and second carpenter 

Boatswain and carpenter 92 

Sailmaker 

Quartermaster 82 

Able seaman 75 

( )rdinary seaman 4 J 

Boy ..'. 22 

Engineers' Department 

Storekeeper, leading- fireman, greaser 

Fireman 

Trimmer 72 

Stewards' Department 

Cook LOO 

Chief Steward: 

1 to 4 years' service 75 

5 to 8 years' service 82 

9 or more years' service ^7 

Steward on passenger vessels in North and 

Malt ii- Seas 75 

Cabin steward on cargo vessels 70 

Only steward 70 

Butcher and baker 11 

The food allowance for men in hospital or 
on leave, or when the crew is not catered for 

on board, is 2 marks. Deck and engine-room 
hands get 50 pfennig (hitherto 40 pfennig) an 
hour for overtime. 

The agreement also stipulates that the 
owners shall take no legal action arising out 
of the strike in British ports. Actioi 
damages are to be withdrawn, and all 
sonal belongings, left aboard ship by the 
striking seamen, arc to be returned. 



in 



June, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



171 



Furuseth Is Honored in U. S. Senate; 

His Integrity and Ability Acclaimed 




N May 15 the United States 
Senate was considering the Sea- 
men's section of the Immigra- 
tion bill, the same bill that has 
since been signed by the 
President of the United States and be- 
come the law of the land. 

Senator Shipstead of Minnesota had 
spoken at length, voicing Andrew Furu- 
seth's apprehension that certain language 
in the bill could be construed so as to im- 
pair the freedom now enjoyed by alien 
seamen in American ports under the La 
Follette Seamen's Act. 

Senator George W. Norris of Nebraska 
then addressed the Senate and paid this 
remarkable tribute to the president of the 
International Seamen's Union of America: 
Mr. Norris — I have listened to the explanation 
made by the Senator from Pennsylvania [Mr. 
Reed] in regard to the so-called Seamen's Act, 
and it seemed to me that he made a fair ex- 
planation of it. It was fairly satisfactory to me. 
I have listened to the Senator from Minnesota 
[Mr. Shipsteadl. I have been very greatly im- 



pressed with what he has said, because he has 
evidently studied the matter and knows much 
more about the particular controversy than I do. 
I have been acquainted with Mr. Andrew Furu- 
seth for a good many years, and I want to say 
for him that of all the men I have come in con- 
tact with who are watching legislation for vari- 
ous organizations and various interests, there is 
not a single man that I have met in any capacitv 
of that kind in whom I have greater confidence 
than I have in Andrew Furuseth. I would be 
willing to take his word on almost anything 
that I had not an opportunity myself to study 
out and solve satisfactorily to myself. I do not 
believe that he is capable of trying to mislead 
any honest man, or that he is ever actuated by 
a dishonest motive. 

Mr. Reed of Pennsylvania — Mr. President, will 
the Senator yield? 

Mr. Norris — Yes. 

Mr. Reed of Pennsylvania— The Senator did 
not understand, from anything I said, that I 
differed with him in that, I hope. 

Mr. Norris — No; I did not. 

Mr. Reed of Pennsylvania — I believe, with the 
Senator, that Mr. Furuseth tells the exact and 
literal truth as he sees it. whether it is for him 
or against him. 

(See Congressional Record, pages 8834-5.) 



WASHINGTON WAICHE5 inniGRANTS ADHITTEDTOU^ 

Labor* DeparrmerH" Reports Nomber Settling In Each Sfafe 'from 
533,741 Individuals Allovedlol^rYter* Country 13etv/eer? 
Joly I, and Dec. 31, 1923 







coprM&m* tev* at ralpm e couch, wAsmNCibN.o.c 



5?vCP TmROUGM inTER.N&tiO'WL CABOR. NEVJ TER.VICC 



The Federal Government is now watching 
the movements of immigrants admitted to 
the United States with the purpose of study- 
ing their distribution throughout the country. 
According to the International Labor News 



Service the result of the study 
is expected to throw new light 
on the question of the assimi- 
lation of the immigrant from 
both the social and labor 
standpoints. 

Through the Department of 
Labor, the Government learns 
the immediate destination of 
all immigrants entering 
through Ellis Island and other 
ports. Newest results of the 
study deal with the destina- 
tions of 533,741 immigrants 
admitted between July 1 and 
December 31, 1923. 

Among the States which re- 
ceived large numbers of im- 
migrants were the following: 
New York, 135,952; Massachu- 
Pennsylvania, 42.681 ; Ohio, 

221,244; Michigan, 43,722; Illinois, 39.848; 

California, 37,596, and Washington, 13,353. 
It will be noted that most of these States 

are largely industrial. 



Virgin Is. 9> 
Porto Rico 156 



setts. 44.634 



11 



172 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1924 



SEAMEN'S INTERNATIONAL CODE 

(Continued from May Issue) 



Andrew Furuseth's comment and criticism 
of the proposed Seamen's International Code, 
tentatively drafted by the International Labor 
Office (functioning by authority of the League 
of Nations), is continued herewith: 

V 

Assuming that the vessel is properly built and 
equipped — that the vessel is seaworthy — safety to 
passengers and freight, not to mention the crew, 
will always depend upon the crew. In the word 
crew I here include the master, which of course is 
not usual, but which seems to be the idea underly- 
ing the proposed Code. 

What are the qualifications of the crew demand- 
ed by this proposed Code? To be employed in 
the deck or steward's departments the boy must be 
at least fourteen years of age; to be employed as a 
trimmer — and presumably as a wiper, though it 
does not say so — he must be at least eighteen years. 
Chapter II, Article 9, provides that: 

"No seaman shall be employed on board 
unless his physical qualifications are such 
that his employment involves no danger 
to himself or the other members of the 
crew.'' 
If the person is not mentally so subnormal as to 
be plainly half-w T itted and, therefore, irresponsible 
and dangerous, and if he be not suffering from 
some contagious disease, it seems that he may be 
employed. 

Article, 10, same Chapter, provides that: 

(1) "Not less than three-quarters of the 
crew of any vessel shall be composed of 
seamen able to understand the orders given 
in the language employed on board." 

(2) "Not less than three-quarters of the 
deck and engine hands shall be seamen, 
who have completed at least one year's 
service at sea." 

In other words, a vessel may go out to sea with 
passengers after providing herself with a deck 
crew, neither of whom are more than 16 years 
old and with firemen, oilers and watertenders 
neither of whom are over twenty. That the whole 
world is contemplated as a recruiting field, is man- 
ifest from what is provided in Section (1). The 
qualifications of the master and officers — among 
whom we find the wireless operator — are evidently 
to be determined by each nation; because 
Chapter III, Articles 12 and 13, ordains that: 
"No person shall be engaged to com- 
mand a merchant vessel unless he holds a 
diploma issued or accepted by the com- 
petent public authority, certifying his ability 
to command." 

"Officers and engineers, the ship's doc- 
tor" — (it is evident that this is a passenger 
vessel) — "and _ wireless telegraphist, shall 
be in possession of diplomas or certificates 
testifying their qualifications for their 
duties." 

So here are the officers, who are to command 
this passenger vessel. No limit as to the age (is 
there one as to sex?), the officer may be any age 
from seventeen to one hundred. There is no stan- 
dard of seamanship arising either from experience or 
age, and then the wireless operator is made an of- 
ficer, which of course means, that, if something 



should happen to the other officers, he is to take 
command. Of course he has attended a public 
school and learned how to read and write and later 
he has attended a school for telegraphists from 
three to six months; but he may, or he may not, 
be making his first trip at sea. It is true that 
Part III, Chapter II, Article 23, provides tor a 
continuous discharge book; but its main purpose is 
to prevent the seaman from quitting the vessel in 
violation of his contract, because it is specifically 
provided that he is not to be signed on on any other 
vessel until he has been properly discharged from 
the last vessel on which he signed. While such 
book will furnish the evidence that the proper 
holder thereof has been a certain time at sea, 
the requirement is only one year for able sea- 
man or competent fireman. Such qualifications can 
hardly be taken seriously. 

An able seaman must know the vessel so as to 
be able to go to any place on board in daylight 
or in dark and in any kind of weather; he must 
know the ship's gear and be able to find it, use it. 
and, if he hath wherewithal, to repair it in any 
kind of weather and in daylight or in dark. He 
must know the boats and other safety equipments; 
he must be able to lower the boats in nearly all 
kinds of weather, in daylight or in dark, when such 
boats carry from twenty to seventy-live persons — 
men, women and children. Such boats weigh, with 
the people in them, from five to ten tons, and they 
must be lowered on even keel, kept as far as pos- 
sible clear from the side of the rolling and pitch- 
ing vessel; and finally the able seaman must be 
able to handle a sea anchor or a steering oar in 
such a way as to save the people in that boat by 
keeping her afloat, until other boats may come from 
other vessels to take the people on board, or he 
must be able to set sail on the boat and manage 
so as to reach land in safety, if such be possible. 

The able seaman is the unit of efficiency. It is 
for this rating that the landsmen coming to the sea 
are being prepared, and it is from this rating that 
officers are to be selected. No man living was 
ever able to learn these duties in one year nor are 
they fully learned in three years, which is the 
minimum experience required by maritime nations, 
if the matter has been made the subject of legisla- 
tion. If it has not, then the old custom of four 
years is followed. 

Correspondingly, the same work is required of 
the fireman, except as to the handling of the 
boats, and no nation that has legislated ''upon this 
subject has provided for less than one year's ex- 
perience for the fireman and three years for the 
engineer. But the above arc not all the qualifica- 
tions that a real seaman must have acquired. He 
must have absorbed the lore of the sea to such 
extent that he, without thinking of himself, does 
his duty, which is to save others. One year at 
sea is hardly sufficient to acquire sea-legs and yet 
the Code submitted by the League of Nations — 
an organization formed to improve present safety 
and to abolish present injustice — submits here 
something which has all the marks of having been 
inspired by shipowners void of conscience and well 
protected "through the limitation of liability and by 
marine and "protection and indemnity" insurance. 

Then again there is no minimum number pro- 
vided. It is to be taken care of through "party 
agreements." It will, therefore, depend upon 
whether the greed of the shipowner for cheapness 
or the greed of the seaman for wages and idle 
times is in control at any given port, when the 
vessel is about to go to sea. Competition between 
shipowners of the same nations and between na- 
tions will, under such conditions, gradually re- 
duce the number of men until sea life In 



12 



June, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



173 



a struggle in which the seaman working for his 
life succeeds in bringing the vessel into port and 
thus sets a new standard of manning. Safety is 
sacrificed to greed, and life at sea becomes even 
more of a plaything than it now is. 

Nor does this proposed Code make any arrange- 
ment for the rest which is absolutely necessary at 
sea as well as on shore. Watch and Watch at sea 
is as old as maritime commerce. Before the use 
of steam it was the custom, so old that tradition 
knoweth nothing to the contrary, that the sailors 
were divided into two groups as nearly equal as physi- 
cally possible, so that one watch might work while 
the other rested. This was recognized as needed 
in order that health and strength, and hence safety, 
might be maintained. 

In steam or motor vessels where the necessity 
for additional watchfulness is very patent, it is 
gradually becoming more and more understood that 
three watches are needed for the same purpose. 
With the men in the engine department it was al- 
ways understood that there must be three watches 
in order that the men might have the strength to 
furnish the steam needed to get over the seas. 
But in this Code there is nothing except the 
master's option, and that is here as large as the 
coast of a continent. 

Chapter III, Article II, provides that: 

"The master shall be the head of the 
society constituted by the crew and he shall 
have authority over its members. He shall 
be in charge of the vessel and shall di- 
rect the voyage. In the absence of the 
captain his rights and obligations shall fall 
to any person regularly in command of the 
vessel." 

There we are. A higher title for a higher power. 
While the CAPTAIN is evidently presumed to have 
obligations, they are mentioned in another sentence 
and evidently have nothing to do with the crew or 
the seamen under his command, because it says — 
"shall have authority over its members." If it was 
intended to make the master — or, CAPTAIN — 
responsible to somebody, it would have been easy 
to add "under the law," if law there is to be. 

Having ascertained who may be employed — that 
is to say the kind of men with whom the seaman 
is to live and work — let us try to find out the 
time for which he is to sign and what the agree- 
ment is to contain. Under this proposed Code the 
agreement may be for a specific time, not, how- 
ever, for more than two years; but may be re- 
newed within ninety days of its expiry. May God 
be merciful and protect the man who refuses to 
renew when so requested. He is more than like- 
ly to spend such ninety days that it will many times 
cause him to regret that he did not surrender to 
the duress and agreed. He may sign for a vovage 
with a specific period set, after which he may de- 
mand his discharge, even if the voyage is not com- 
pleted; but he may also sign for an indefinite 
period, but such agreement is to provide for a 
notice to be given by one party to the other. There 
are also some other conditions, which will be 
given later, when we are to consider how agree- 
ments may be voided and the seaman may be per- 
mitted to quit the vessel. 
Article 19 provides that: 

"The agreement shall state clearly and 
precisely the particular rights and obliga- 
tions of the parties thereto. It must con- 
tain the following particulars: 

(a) "The place and the date of the 
signature of the agreement. (b) The 
name of the vessel on board of which the 



seaman undertakes -to serve and the pro- 
posed number of crew." 

As suggested before, it will be seen that the 
number of men is to depend upon "party agree- 
ment" and is, therefore, subject to the greed and 
power of either party in a struggle in which the 
safety of passengers is not counted as something 
that is of any importance. 

(c) "The voyage or voyages to be under- 
taken in so far as those can be determined 
at the time of making the agreement, (d) 
The kind of work for which the seaman 
is engaged (deck, engine room, general 
service, etc.) and the capacity in which he 
is to serve." 

It seems that the seaman may, through a "party 
agreement," undertake to work in any of the three 
departments of the vessel. That is. he may be 
sent from the intense heat of the fireroom to a 
temperature below zero on the deck. If this be 
not the meaning of the expression "general serv- 
ice," what can it possibly mean? When we con- 
sider this provision, the question arises: Are the 
European shipowners going to imitate the Ameri- 
can Lake shipowners ■ of years ago, or, are the 
American shipowners in the League with the idea 
of repealing that part of the Seamen's Act which 
stopped that mankilling system, which was in 
operation on the American Lakes? 

(e) "The place and date at which he is 
required to report on board for service, (f) 
The amount of wages, the manner and 
place of payment, any allowances that 
may be stipulated and, if the agreement 
is based on a system of shares, the method 
of calculation to be adopted in determin- 
ing such shares." 

Here is a whaling agreement under which the 
seaman has the opportunity to sign as the whalers 
used to sign from the Hawaiian islands or San 
Francisco in its palmiest whaling days. And the 
person may not understand the language in which 
is written, or he may not be able to sign at all. 
It is simply read and explained to him by wit- 
nesses, (?) who then certify to his mark. The man 
who wrote this must have been blackbirding in the 
South Seas. 

(g) 1. "The duration of the agreement, 
if the seaman is engaged for a definite 
period. (2) The notice to be given if the 
agreement is for an indefinite period. (3) 
The port at which the voyage is to ter- 
minate if the agreement is for a voyage, and 
the period which must elapse in such port 
before the seaman must be free. (4) The 
period after which the seaman may claim 
his discharge if he is engaged for a voyage 
and 'the proposed destination does not al- 
low of an approximate estimate of the dura- 
tion of the voyage." 

Article 20 

(1) "The agreement shall be signed by 
the shipowner or his representative and by 
the seaman. (2) The seaman shall sign 
the agreement in the presence of a repre- 
sentative of the public authority. The 
said representative shall not permit the 
seaman to sign unless he has ascertained 
that the latter is acquainted with the gen- 
eral condition of employment (living and 
working conditions)." 

Just think of a hungry seaman, about to _ be 
thrown out of the crimp's house and getting a lick- 
ing besides, questioning the conditions or stating 



13 



174 



that he does not understand, or has any 

about signing — 

''on board and with the special clauses of 
the agreement. If either party is unable 
to sign, a statement of this fact shall be 
entered in the agreement and countersigned 
by the representative of the public author- 
ity." 

This, of course, means that the seaman may make 
his mark or that the master or owner may be ab- 
sent without voiding the contract. 

(3) '"If it be necessary to engage a sub- 
stitute or an extra hand in circumstances 
rendering it impossible to comply with the 
provisions of the above paragraph, the 
master shall, before the agreement is signed 
cause its clauses to be read and explained 
to the substitute in the presence of two 
witnesses, who shall sign a statement that 
this has been done. The said agreement 
shall be submitted for counter-signature to 
the competent authority in the first port 
at which the vessel calls for more than 48 
hours." 
Such is the proposed legal way in which a sea- 
man is to get on board a vessel and be more than 
married to her for a period of two years or more. 
In the next letter we will examine into the way 
lie can get out of her. 

And this is the proposed way in which we are 
to have safety at sea under the rule of the League 
of Nations. Irresponsible officers of indefinite age 
and experience. A deck crew made up of chil- 
dren, a hreroom crew made up of callow youths. 
Wither the dick nor engine room crew are sup- 
posed to have had sufficient experience at sea to 
give them even real seade-s; no regulations as to 
the numbers of these to be employed, no definite 
rule- about rest or about food, and yet it may be, 
it is hoped, that real seamen of the white 
race will remain at sea to accept such conditions. 
But wait. So far we are only dealing with the 
qualifications of the individual seaman and only to 
a slight extent about how they may be treated 
and then dismissed or arrested, detained and sur- 
rendered back to their vessels. When we have ex- 
amined into those things, you will be much better 
able to estimate how many real seaman, or even 
white men may be expected to be at sea, when 
this proposed Code shall have been in operation 
For some time. 

(Continued in Next Issue) 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

hestitation 



June, 1924 



THE PANAMA CANAL 

I By Professor Emory R. Johnson) 



THE SPANISH MERCHANT MARINE 

On Dec. 1. 1923, the Spanish mercantile fleet 
consisted of 1789 vessels with a total ton- 
nage of 1,106,381, according to the latest fig- 
ure- issued by the Director-General of Navi- 
gation and Maritime Fisheries. Of these, 
591. with a total tonnage of 97.491, are sailing 
ressels, and 1198. totaling 1,008,890 tons, are 
steamships. This is an increase of 64 vessels, 
but a decrease of 105,050 tons, compared with 
the corresponding figures for 1922. During 
the last year 48 ships, aggregating 48.135 
tons, were lost, and 41.151 tons of new ship- 
ping were added to the fleet. 



Every one who makes the voyage to or 
from South America by way of Panama is 
enthusiastic over the canal. I first visited 
the Isthmus in 1900, while the French were 
still in possession of the enterprise and hop- 
ing to complete the work. Four years later 
the United States started construction, and 
10 years thereafter, in 1914, the hope of cen- 
turies had been realized and vessels were 
passing freely from ocean to ocean over the 
shortened route between the ports of the 
Atlantic and Pacific. In the meantime, in 
1911 and again in 1912. I had seen the canal 
as the construction works— the " great cut 
through the continental divide, the huge dam 
at Gatun, the mammoth locks and the ex- 
tensive terminal structures — were nearing 
completion and before the immense propor- 
tions of cut, dam and locks had been obscured 
by the impounding of the water in Gatun 
Lake and by the admission of water into the 
canal and the locks. At that time the visit. 't- 
was amazed by the magnitude of the works 
and was thrilled by the triumph over engi- 
neering difficulties and by the early and 
successful accomplishment of a great task. 

Today as one passes through the canal and 
compares what he sees with what he saw 10 
or 20 years ago, his first impression is that 
man has not been the despoiler but the beau- 
tifier of nature. The mangrove swamps and 
wide mud flats about Balboa hill, where the 
little Rio Grande made its way into the 
shallow bay of Panama, have been converted 
into sites occupied by the lovely town of 
Balboa and by a spacious, well-kept army 
reservation and encampment. The scarred 
slopes of the deep cut are being covered 
with vegetation, now that the menacing banks 
have found their angle of repose and have 
ceased to threaten to invade the canal. The 
lock structures are artistic in design as well 
as impressive in size. The grounds about the 
locks are kept like lawns. Alongside the 
Pedro Miguel lock is a small golf course, 
while on the spacious northern slope of < ia- 
tun dam (a structure nearly a mile and a 
half long) is an 18 hole golf course that 
looks most attractive to the golfer as he 






14 



June, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



175 



passes by imprisoned within the narrow con- 
fines of the vessel on which he is traveling. 
Where once were the swamps of the lower 
Chagres River and the miserable towns be- 
tween the Caribbean and the continental di- 
vide — the ideal home of malarial and other 
fevers — is now the large Gatun Lake with its 
many islands rich in tropical foliage, and 
with its distant views landward of green 
hills and seaward of the blue Caribbean. 
Even the city of Colon, long the synonym 
for ugliness, is environed by beauty. Cris- 
tobal, with its spacious harbor and palm- 
shaded streets, lies to the west, while to the 
east across a bay the attractive grounds and 
homes of a spacious aero and naval station 
have been developed at Marguerita Point, 
where,' until a few years ago, there was a 
swampy jungle. Even Colon itself has been 
made sanitary, and has been robbed of a 
large part of its claim to ugliness. East 
Colon is becoming an attractive residential 
section, while the buildings along the Carib- 
bean shore have been replaced by new struc- 
tures including the dignified Hotel Wash- 
ington. 

In service efficiency the canal has met all 
expectations. I was surprised by the short 
time taken by a vessel in making the transit 
of the canal. The Santa Elisa, upon which 
I made the trip from Panama Bay to the 
Caribbean Sea, is not a fast vessel. Its 
speed at sea averages about 14 knots ; yet 
the Santa Elisa was only 6 hours and 10 
minutes from anchorage at Balboa to the 
dock at Colon, and of the 6 hours and 10 
minutes, only 2 hours and 19 minutes were 
required for passage through the six locks, 
three on the Pacific side and three on the 
Atlantic side. 

Before the Panama Canal was constructed 
and when the type of canal was under con- 
sideration there was a long debate between 
the advocates of the tide level and lock proj- 
ects. After careful investigation, it was de- 
cided to construct the canal with six locks 
and to carry the upper level of the waterway, 
which is 85 to 87 feet above the sea, from 
Gatun, only four miles from the Caribbean, 
to Pedro Miguel, seven miles from the Bay 
of Panama. More than half of this upper 
level portion is within the large Gatun Lake, 
where vessels may steam at full speed. The 



time ordinarily required by a vessel in mak- 
ing the transit through the Panama Canal, 
with its six locks, is less than would be re- 
quired for a vessel to pass from ocean to 
ocean through a sea-level canal with its 
restricted width of channel. Six miles an 
hour would be as fast as a vessel could steam 
in a canal, and seven hours would be the 
minimum time required to make the forty- 
two miles between Balboa and Colon. 

There has been a revival of the discussion 
of the question of a tide-level canal at Pan- 
ama or elsewhere across the Isthmus. Mr. 
Bunau-Varilla, a French engineer, who was 
prominently connected with the Panama Ca- 
nal enterprise, and with the transfer of the 
canal from French to American control, has 
stated that it will be necessary eventually to 
convert the Panama Canal into a tide-level 
waterway. Whether this could be done or 
not is questionable. The engineering diffi- 
culties that would be encountered in carry- 
ing the cut through the continental divide to 
a depth of 90 feet below the present bottom 
of the waterway would be very great. With 
the cut at its present depth, the slides or 
breaks .in the banks made it necessary to 
excavate much more material than had been 
expected would be necessary. The stability 
of the banks of a tide-level canal would be 
doubtful. The most serious problem con- 
nected with the construction and maintenance 
of a tide-level canal would, however, be en- 
countered in the section between the Carib- 
bean and the continental divide. This was 
a well-nigh bottomless swamp before most 
of it was covered with the waters of Gatun 
Lake. The maintenance of a channel in such 
fine and unstable material would be diffi- 
cult even were there no Chagres River to 
give trouble, but this river would give very 
serious trouble. During the dry season, the 
Chagres River is an unimportant stream; 
but, before Gatun Lake was created to im- 
pound the flood waters, this river has been 
known to rise 40 feet in a single storm.. 
To keep the flood waters of the Chagres out 
of a canal across the swamps between the 
continental divide and the Caribbean would 
require a very large diversion channel, the 
adequacy and the permanency of which 
would be problematical. The only real solu- 
tion that has ever been suggested for the 



15 



176 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1924 



Chagres River problem was the solution 
that was adopted by the United States engi- 
neers when they decided to construct the 
Gatun Dam and to impound the flood waters 
of the river. 

Can a lock canal take care of all traffic 
that may seek the waterway in the future? 
The amount of traffic that can use the water- 
way depends upon the number of vessels 
that can be put through the locks each day 
and upon the adequacy of the supply of 
water required for the operation of the 
locks. At present the canal is operated 
"illy during daylight, although provision has 
been made for lighting the channel so that 
it can be navigated by night as readily as 
by day. Double the traffic now passing 
through the canal could make the transit 
during the daylight hours and if the water- 
way were used throughout the 24 hours, four 
times the present traffic could be served. 
If the time should come when the demands 
upon the canal are in excess of its present 
capacity, additional lock chambers can be 
constructed alongside the present chambers. 
The locks are now all constructed in twins. 
They could be made triple locks without any 
difficulty. If the supply of water in Gatun 
Lake during the dry season should prove to 
be inadequate, an additional amount can be 
stored in the upper Chagres Valley by the 
construction of a dam across the river at 
Allaheula. a few miles up the river above 
Gatun Lake. At this point in the Chagres, 
the river passes between two rocky hills. 
There is an excellent natural site for a dam 
at this point and a lake in the upper Chagres 
Valley is in fact a part of the project of the 
Panama Canal as it is to be when finally 
developed. 

The business-like efficiency evident in the 
management of the Panama Canal must im- 
press everybody favorably. The operation 
of the waterway as well as its construction 
reflect credit upon the Government of the 
United States. Thus far the canal has been 
managed by the Secretary of War, and poli- 
tics have played but small part in its opera- 
tion. Let us hope that policy of management 
may continue, and that the canal may year 
by year be an increasing source of gratifica- 
tion to the American people. 



A STUDY OF ECONOMICS 

(By Professor Lloyd M. Crosgrave, Formerly Pro- 
fessor of Economics, Indiana University; 
Lecturer, Workers' Study Classes) • 

A very important result of the uneven dis- 
tribution of wealth is the fact that many of 
our industries are conducted in an undemo- 
cratic manner. Industries, like transportation, 
manufacturing and mining, require, as a rule, 
very great and expensive equipment — land, 
buildings, machinery, power, etc. In some of 
the individual plants in these industries, this 
equipment is valued at millions of dollars. 
And the control of these plants is, of course, 
in the hands of those who have "invested" 
in these plants. 

It, therefore, comes about that those who 
are able to invest heavily in industrial under- 
takings, and who do so, have much to say 
about how those undertakings shall be car- 
ried on. Those who invest to only a small 
extent have little to say. Those who do not 
invest at all have nothing to say except as 
the others may choose to please them. 

Since such a very small percentage of our 
population are able to invest at all in the 
larger business undertakings, and since such 
a small proportion of these is able to invest 
heavily, it follows that our larger business 
undertakings are conducted in an undemo- 
cratic manner. 

For instance, in 1920, in the United States, 
transportation employed 3,063,583 persons ; 
manufacturing employed 12,818,528 persons; 
mining employed 1,090,223 persons. 

These persons were employed and-, in the 
main, they owned little or nothing of the 
plants in which they were employed. The 
policy of the plants with regard to when they 
should operate, how they should be carried 
on, what wages should be paid, etc., was, 
especially in the case of the larger plants, 
virtually in the hands of the comparatively 
few who could invest heavily. 

Most people admit that, in general, the in- 
dustries mentioned are carried on in an un- 
democratic manner. It is hard to see how 
any person could avoid admitting it. For 
"democratic" means "ruled by the people" 
and, in general, these industries are ruled by 
the very few who are able to make large in- 
vestments in them. 

Many persons believe that democracy 



16 



June, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



177 



should be avoided in these great industries — 
that if anything like democracy were at- 
tempted in them it would be a great disaster 
to all concerned. They argue that in indus- 
try, as in warfare, the absolute rule of a very 
few is necessary if there is to be efficiency. 
The question of whether or not industrial de- 
mocracy is desirable is one that should not 
be answered offhand, for much indeed is to 
be said on both sides. 

There are many movements being carried on 
today, however, which are likely to increase 
the power of the many over these great in- 
dustries — that is, to bring about a larger 
amount of industrial democracy. Among 
these movements are the following: 

1. Trade unions. 

2. Legislative control over industry. 

3. Government ownership of industries. 

4. The co-operative movement. 

5. The study of industrial problems by 
workers. After all, the decision, in the long 
run, must rest with the people themselves — 
must rest with the minds of the people. 



OUR WASHINGTON LETTER 

(By Laurence Todd) 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA SARCASM 

John D. Spreckels left San Diego the other 
day to attend the Republican presidential 
convention. He went by way of his own 
sumptuous private yacht, the Venetia, sur- 
rounded with all the comforts and luxuries 
which are easy of reach when a man is 
several times a millionaire. After a delight- 
ful voyage in Southern waters and through 
the Panama Canal the Venetia will dock in 
some pleasant harbor on the Eastern coast. 
From there Mr. Spreckels will go to Cleve- 
land in the palatial car of one of America's 
finest special trains. He hopes to arrive in 
plenty of time to assist his other millionaire 
friends and politicians in taking part in the 
deliberations incident to the selection of a 
President fitted to serve the interests of the 
farmers and city workers of America. — Edi- 
torial paragraph from the San Diego Labor 
Leader, a "home town" paper of John D. 
Spreckels. 



In general the art of government consists 
in taking as much money as possible from 
one part of the citizens to give it to the 
other.— Voltaire. 



Washington, May 16. — House and Senate 
have passed the immigration bill, by majori- 
ties so overwhelming as to leave no doubt 
that a Presidential veto will not prevent its 
enactment into law. The bill endangers Sec- 
tion 4 of the Seamen's Act, and around that 
point the final battle between the Republican 
conferees and the friends of the seamen re- 
volved. So determined was the resistance 
made by Andrew Furuseth, who worked 
night and day to bring the progressive mem- 
bers of House and Senate to see the im- 
portance of the issue, that the Old Guard 
spokesmen in charge of the measure were 
compelled to declare publicly that their pur- 
pose had been to definitely safeguard the Sea- 
men's Act in every way. So many and defi- 
nite were the statements, now a part of the 
record, that it will be very difficult for any 
officer of the government henceforth to rule 
otherwise. 

But, according to Representative Browne 
of Wisconsin, who spoke for his group caucus 
in the House, if any construction is placed on 
the alien seamen clauses of this immigration 
measure, impairing the freedom now enjoyed by 
alien seamen in American ports under the Sea- 
men's Act, then his group in Congress will 
immediately press for an amendment which 
will cure that defect. This will be cold com- 
fort when the injustice has been done, if it is 
done, but there was ' nothing else for it. 
Labor did not have even one representative 
on the conference committee on immigration, 
and it did not have more than a handful in 
either branch of Congress, to stop the plac- 
ing of anti-labor jokers in the immigration 
law. 

Senator LaFollette's illness and absence 
crippled Furuseth's fight, all the way 
through. Furuseth placed his case before 
the Wisconsin men in the House, and in the 
hands of Shipstead of Minnesota in the Sen- 
ate. Sabath of Illinois moved, in the House, 
to recommit the bill to conference, in order 
that four changes might be made. These 
were that the alien seamen provisions be 
changed in accordance with the proposals 
of Furuseth and the A. F. of L. ; that the 
scheme of allotting quotas according to the 



17 



178 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1924 



''national origin" of the total present popula- 
tion of this country be stricken out ; that 
wives and minor children of ex-service men 
be admitted outside the quota, and that this 
privilege be given also to the parents of 
American citizens over 55 years of age, and 
wives and children of declarants who have 
resided here two years. Browne then stated 
the seamen's case. 

He called attention to Section 3, which 
defines the exceptions to the immigrant class, 
including bona fide alien seamen, yet Section 
19 says: "No alien seaman, excluded from ad- 
mission into the United States, etc., shall be 
permitted to land in the United States except 
for medical treatment or pursuant to such 
regulations as the Secretary of Labor may 
prescribe for the ultimate departure, removal, 
or deportation of such alien from the United 
States." 

Browne stated this clearly barred alien 
seamen from coming ashore in American 
ports except for medical treatment, and with 
doctors aboard they would not be able to 
come even then. 

Representative Johnson of Washington, 
chairman of the TTonse committee, replied that 
"The provision the gentleman has just read ap- 
plies only to those who cannot enter the United 
States, such as anarchists and others who 
are in the excludable classes of Section 3 of 
the Act of 1917. Mr. Johnson also read from 
Andrew Furuseth's printed protest against 
Section 21 of the report, and denied 
that Section 21 permits the master of a ves- 
sel to detain a seaman on board after lie had 
passed medical examination. The same state- 
ment was made by Senator Reed of Pennsyl- 
vania in the debate in the Senate. 

On Sabath's motion to recommit the bill 
the vote was 33 in favor. 24-6 opposed. The 
measure was then adopted. 308 to 62. 

Senator Jones of Washington asked Reed, 
when he began to explain the conference re- 
port to the Senate, what had been done 
about the seamen. Reed said that Furuseth's 
assertion that the bill nullifies Section 4 of 
the Seamen's Act was a mistake. 

"We have been anxious to avoid any 
change in that act." said Reed, ''and T am 
perfectly confident as a matter of fact that 
we have avoided it." 

Returning to the subject, Reed said that 



he had cut out the landing-card section of 
the bill, at the instance of Furuseth. after 
the immigration authorities had told him the 
card scheme was a failure in practice. 

"All that we have done to the alien sea- 
men law that is new." he insisted, "has been 
to provide that after the inspection of alien 
seamen by the immigration authorities the 
shipowner or master must keep on board any 
seaman who is indicated by the immigration 
inspector as unfit to land. There is a loop- 
hole' in the present law. which requires that 
such seamen be kept on board until ex- 
amination. It requires that they be examined, 
but it does not provide any penalty for the 
ship captain who lets a man slip overboard 
or on shore between the time of the examina- 
tion and the time he i- to be put in the 
hospital. 

Shipstead was not satisfied with this state- 
ment. He went back to it again and again, 
putting into the record various documents, 
including Furuseth's "Call to the Sea" and 
letters from the Secretary of State. Com- 
missioner of Navigation and Secretary of 
Labor, to prove that the measure does not 
provide for the effective exclusion of pre- 
tended seamen who may be smuggled in by 
shipmasters, nor for the effective manning 
of alien ships departing from this country. 

Reed declared that it would be "unreason- 
able" to require a ship to carry away as 
many in her crew as she brought. 

"We know there are great numbers of 
alien seamen who desert in our port- every 
spring and go to work on the Great Lakes." 
he said, reflecting the satisfaction of the 
Pittsburgh steel interests in this supply of 
cheap labor. "Besides, it would be unreason- 
able to delay the sailing of a big liner, be- 
cause half a dozen of her waiters walked 
out on strike just as she was about to leave 
her pier." 

Senator Norris asked Senator King, a con- 
feree who refused to sign the report, whether 
the re-commitment of the report to confer- 
ence would not be practicable, in order that 
this alien seaman clause could be strength- 
ened. King replied that there wasn't the 
least chance that the Conferees would change 
their attitude on any labor issue. The final 
\otc in the Senate showed only ° vol 
opposition, with 18 absent or paired. 



IS 



June, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



179 



AUSTRALIA'S POPULATION 



A return, giving- the estimated population 
of the several States and territories of Aus- 
tralia at the end of last December, has been 
compiled by the Commonwealth Statistician. 
This gives the population of Australia as 
5,749,807. The populations of the States 
were : 

States and Territories Males 

New South Wales 1,127,195 1,082,250 

Victoria 806,546 

Queensland 428,312 

South Australia 265,340 

West Australia 189,429 

Tasmania 109,546 

North. Territory 2,527 

Fed. Cap. Ter 1,407 



Females 


Persons 


1,082,250 


2,209,445 


•818.834 


1,625,380 


382,856 


811,168 


259,408 


524,748 


164,386 


353,815 


109,528 


210,074 


1,028 


3,555 


1,215 


2,622 



Total Australia 2,930,302 2,819,505 5,749,807 

For the year 1922 the figures for the whole 
of Australia were 2,866,461 males and 2,766.- 
820 females, a total of 5,633,281 ; the increase 
was thus 116,526. The excess of births over 
deaths accounted for 78,986, and the excess 
of arrivals over departures was 37,540. The 
figures indicate that since the census of April 
4. 1921, the population of Australia has in- 
creased by 314,073, representing an average 
rate of increase of slightly more than 2 per 
cent per annum. 



RESPONSIBILITY FOR BRUTALITY 

(Continued from Page 5) 



the vessel shall be equipped to perform the duty 
which she owes to the human beings on board her, 
and the cargo which she carries. (Rainey vs. N. Y. 
& P. S. S. Co., 216 Fed. 449.) That the ship must 
have a competent mate is specially laid down by 
Arnold on Marine Insurance, 10th Ed., pp. 931, 932, 
and in Holland vs. 525 Tons of Coal (36 Fed. 785, 
787). Judge Jenkins said that a vessel is not sea- 
worthy if there be a failure to provide a proper 
crew. In Draper vs. Commercial Insurance Co., 21 
N. Y. 378. the court said: "Among other things nec- 
essary to constitute seaworthiness, it is requisite that 
the ship should have a competent master and offi- 
cers, according to the service upon which she is 
employed." In the Southwark, 191 U. S. 1, the 
court referred to the sufficiency of the vessel "in 
material, construction, equipment, officers, men and 
outfit for the trade or service in which she is 
employed." (The Giles Loring, 48 Fed. 463. 470; 
Carver on Sea Insurance, p. 48; Corrado vs. Peder- 
sen. 249 Fed. 165.) 

From these and many other decisions in which 
the courts have discussed the duty of the shipowner, 
we conclude that it is but reasonable to say that 
a ship is not properly equipped for a voyage where 
the mate is a man known to be of a most brutal 
and inhuman nature, one known to give vent to a 
wicked disposition by violent, cruel and uncalled-for 
assaults upon sailors. Such a man may be ever so 
skilled and competent in navigation and seaman- 
ship, nevertheless, he is wholly incompetent to fill 
a place of authority which calls for the exercise of 
a sense of natural fairness to men under him. "In 
making preparation for the voyage the owners and 



master are under a duty to provide a vessel tight 
and stanch and strong, furnished with all necessary 
tackle, apparel and stores, and manned with a suffi- 
cient crew; in one word, seaworthy, for the intended 
venture, comprehending in that work both voyage 
and cargo." (Maclachlan's Law on Shipping, p. 330; 
Abbott's M'cht. Ships and Shipping, 14th Ed., p. 491.) 

It is said that the owner does not select the mate 
and, therefore, the ship cannot be held. But it is 
established that, while the master of the ship selects 
the mate, in so doing he is the representative of the 
owner in respect to the obligation to equip the ship 
with a competent officer, to make her seaworthy, 
and the duty of the owner in such respect is one 
not to be delegated (Rainey vs. N. Y. & P. S. S. 
Co., supra), or avoided by the plea that the master 
did not know the ship was unseaworthy when the 
voyage was commenced. It would follow, there- 
fore, that if the master fails and by reason of fail- 
ure the ship is unseaworthy and injuries are done 
by wilful assaults upon a seaman, the owner may 
be held liable. 

Appellants cite Admiralty Rule 15, which provides 
that in all suits for an assault or beating on the 
high seas or elsewhere within the admiralty and 
maritime jurisdiction, the suit shall be in personam 
only. The rule does not seem to be applicable to a 
case where, as here, the mate hired was known to 
be incompetent by reason of brutality of disposition. 
As already said, the breach on the part of the 
owner of the Rolph was the failure to supply a 
properly equipped ship. There was unseaworthiness, 
and therefore recovery may be had for injuries ap- 
pellees received in consequence of unseaworthiness. 
(Clifford vs. Hunter, M. & M. 103. 3 C and P. 16.) 
The case of The Osceola, supra, is not controlling, 
for there the owners supplied an appliance in every 
respect fit for the purpose for which it was in- 
tended, and negligence consisted solely in the order 
of the master to use the fit appliance at the time 
of the order. The mate acted properly, but the 
order of the master was improvident or negligent. 

Xor should Kohilas be precluded from recovering 
because of the fact that in another proceeding for 
wages and maintenance he recovered. His right to 
wages, maintenance, and expenses of cure existed 
under any and all circumstances unless there was 
wilful misconduct; but his right to recover an in- 
demnity is a separate matter. The" decree for wages 
cannot be imposed against his demand for damages. 
(The A. Heaton, 43 Fed. 592.) 

The decree is affirmed. 

(Endorsed:) Opinion filed May 19, 1924. F. D. 
Monckton, Clerk, by Paul P. O'Brien, Deputy Clerk. 



CHINESE MARINE FIREMEN 



At an inquiry recently held at the Norwe- 
gian consulate in Marseilles, France, on the 
occasion of the Norwegian steamship Forde 
having had to put back into that port, the 
master reported that the Chinese firemen had 
refused to work. After a council held among 
the officers, it was decided to put back to 
port, the engineers doing the stoking. A few 
hours before reaching port a leak was dis- 
covered, presumably due. to damage to a pipe 
which had heen struck with a slice by a 
Chinaman. 



19 



180 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1924 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The Bureau of Navigation, Department of 
Commerce, reports 120 sailing steam, gas, and 
unrigged vessels of 36,510 gross tons built in 
the United States and officially numbered dur- 
ing the month of April, 1924. 

The State of Maryland has just granted 
freedom from local taxation to vessels of 
more than 500 tons engaged in foreign or 
coastwise trade. The chief benefactors will 
be three steamship companies domiciled in 
Baltimore, which will save $4<">,600 per annum 
in taxes. 

Lake hull underwriters have adopted the 
1923 rates and conditions for the current year 
and left rates for late sailings and the matter 
of special forms to a special committee. This 
action was taken due to the favorable expe- 
rience enjoyed last year by marine under- 
writers on the Great Lakes business. 

The Emergency Fleet Corporation has sold 
two of its steel, coal-burning, ocean-going 
tugs. The Toopi, 429 gross tons, was sold to 
the J. B. King Transportation Company of 
New York for $50,000, and the Ballew. 429 
gross tons, to the Detroit Sulphite Transpor- 
tation Company of Detroit for $50,000. 

On April 1, 1924, American shipyards were 
building, or had under contract to build for 
private shipowners 228 steel vessels of 172,181 
gross tons, of which 85 of 123,203 gross tons 
were intended for sea, harbor or Great Lakes 
service. There were also 21 wooden vessels of 
7054 tons building or under contract during the 
same period. 

Chief Engineer Patterson, of the Cunard 
liner Aquitania, says that as far as he knows 
his ship holds the record for a short spurt : 16 
knots for 2 ( > minutes, or at the rate of 33.1 
knots an hour. While doing this the ship 
had in her favor wind, tide and a swift cur- 
rent. The sprint was made November 19, 1923. 
This is more than three knots above the best 
recorded spurt, others being: Majestic, 29.70; 
Leviathan, 28.04. 

The importation of bananas constitutes one 
of the main features of shipping at Mobile. 
At the present time the United Fruit Com- 
pany is the only firm importing bananas into 



Mobile, and from April, 1923, to April, 1924, 
more than 2,000,000 stems of bananas came 
into this port. The commercial value of these 
stems amounted to not less than $5,000,000. 
The bananas were carried into Mobile on ap- 
proximately 150 ships, about three entering 
every week. 

The wrecked and salvaged tanker, Frank 
II. Buck of the Associated Oil Company fleet, 
has been towed from Point Pinos to San 
Francisco by the Merritt, Chapman & Scott 
tug Peacock, and was drydocked at the 
Moore Drydock Company yards for survey. 
The Frank H. Buck ran ashore on Point 
Pinos, near Monterey, on the California 
Coast, and was salvaged by Merritt, Chap- 
man & Scott on May 17, the work being one 
of the most difficult and systematically ac- 
complished floatings on this Coast in several 
years. 

Contracts for fast contraband chasers have 
been awarded by the United States Coast 
Guard. Gibbs Gas Engine Co., Jacksonville, 
Fla., will furnish five 36-foot hulls at $4700 
each, Frederick S. Nock, Inc., East Green- 
wich, Conn., five at $4200 each; United States 
Navy Yard, Portsmouth, two at $3855 each; 
Burger Boat Co., Manitowoc. Wis., five at 
$4100 each; Chance Marine Construction Co., 
Baltimore, five at $4190 each, and Greenport 
Basin & Construction Co., New York, five at 
$4350 each. More contracts for hulls are to 
be placed. As to engines, the Sterling Engine 
Co., Buffalo, will furnish 350 set- of six- 
cylinder motors of 200 horse-power each, at 
a total price of $1,445,000. 

A jury has exonerated the city of Chicago 
from all blame in connection with the over- 
turning of the steamer Eastland in the Chicago 
River July 25, 1915, when 812 live- were lost 
The suit was a test case. If the city had been 
found negligent, damage suits aggregating pos- 
sibly $10,000,000 would be filed. The Eastland 
was built for the freight packet trade . 
Lake Michigan and was considered a seaworthy 
vessel. To fit her for the passenger service, 
cabins were built on her upper deck. This 
made her top heavy. Organized workers em- 
ployed on the river front called attention to 
the danger of the new Eastland. While tied 
to the dock and crowded with excursionisl 
that fateful July morning, the vessel rolled over 
and amid indescribable scenes more than SOO 



20 



June, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



181 



men, women and children lost their lives. Every 
attempt to collect damages from the vessel's 
owners has failed. In refusing to order the 
extradition of six defendants in 1916, Federal 
Judge Sessions of Grand Rapids, Mich., ruled 
that the defendants could not be blamed as the 
Eastland was "considered" safe by owners, man- 
agers and navigators. 

Statistics compiled by the Bureau of For- 
eign and Domestic Commerce and submitted 
to the Maritime Association of the Boston 
Chamber of Commerce show a very substan- 
tial increase in the importation of coffee at 
the port of Boston during 1923 in comparison 
with the figures of 1922. During 1923 there 
were imported at this port 69,526,751 pounds 
valued at $9,545,279, contrasting with 57,391,- 
169 pounds valued at $7,768,812 during the 
year 1922. This shows an increase for the 
year of 12,135,583 in the number of pounds of 
coffee imported, and $1,776,487 in the valua- 
tion. Boston was the fourth largest in the re- 
ceipts of coffee, being exceeded only by New 
York, New Orleans, and San Francisco. 

The United Fruit Co. recently celebrated 
the twenty-fifth anniversary of its organiza- 
tion, the principal function taking the form 
of a dinner in honor of Andrew AV. Preston, 
who has been president of the company since 
its inception. Some idea of the company's 
development can be gained from the fact 
that in 1889 it had but 361 stockholders and 
a capitalization of $11,000,000; today it has 
more than 20,000 stockholders and is capi- 
talized at $100,000,000. The company has 
67,000 employes; it operates 73 modern ves- 
sels, which maintain a year-round passenger 
and freight service from Boston, New York, 
Philadelphia, Baltimore, Mobile, New Or- 
leans and Galveston to the tropical ports of 
the West Indies and Central and South 
Amenca. 

Measures for the prevention of an esti- 
mated loss of $50,000,000 each year through 
damage and pilferage of commodities in tran- 
sit were discussed at a recent meeting in Chi- 
cago, when representatives of the Department 
of Commerce, co-operating with the Ameri- 
can Railway Association, met with shipping 
container manufacturers and makers of box- 
strapping, and discussed plans preliminary to 
an educational campaign during the month of 



June for the use of better shipping containers. 
Foodstuffs valued at more than $10,000,000 
are damaged each year through inefficient • 
packing. Shoes, textiles, hosiery and similar 
goods with a value of many millions of dol- 
lars never reach the consignee due to the use 
of poorly adapted containers. This loss is 
preventable in the majority of cases. 

A super-transpacific passenger liner, capa- 
ble of carrying 600 passengers, costing $6,- 
000,000, making the trip between San Fran- 
cisco and Honolulu in four and one-half days, 
and of more than 18,000 tons displacement, 
will be in operation under the Matson Navi- 
gation Company flag within eighteen months, 
according to announcement by W. P. Roth, 
vice-president and general manager. Negotia- 
tions for the construction of the vessel were 
completed in a final conference between offi- 
cials of the Matson Navigation Company, the 
American-Hawaiian Steamship Company and 
the United States Shipping Board. The plans, 
which have been under discussion for several 
months, call for the construction of the boat 
with funds from the excess profit tax reserve 
of the American Hawaiian account and under 
terms imposed by the Jones Act. 

The Pacific coastwise trade has been hit by 
the hoof and mouth disease. Less than 50 
per cent of the normal volume is being car- 
ried, according to local traffic managers. The 
hoof and mouth disease is being held prin- 
cipally responsible for the slump that is de- 
scribed as the worst in the history of the 
trade. Basic commodities in the trade are 
flour and feedstuff's. These are not being 
moved, either into California or out of the 
State. Buyers are in a panic and have quit 
buying for shipment into the State because 
the consumers fear infection. Embargoes on 
all products of the soil moving out of Cali- 
fornia prevent the shipment of a large por- 
tion of the normal freight tonnage. This, 
traffic men state, is damaging both to the 
coastwise, intercoastal and offshore trades. 
The slump that has seriously affected the 
lumber movement coastwise for the last 
month and a half is still holding out. Ship 
operators, however, are optimistic. It is felt 
that within a short time lumber will again 
begin to move freely, and with the wiping 
out of the plague the general freight trade 
will resume its natural proportions. 



21 



182 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1924 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



To facilitate the purchase of foreign ships, a 
law has been passed in Turkey to exempt from 
import duties all vessels bought by Turkish sub- 
jects or companies. 

The Brazilian Government is considering an 
issue of treasury notes amounting to about 
$700,000 gold to pay the subsidy to the Lloyd 
Brasilerio S. S. Co., during the coming year. 

The Greek Government has made a loan of 
12 million drachmae to the Corinth Canal Co. 
/or the purpose of clearing the obstruction 
which has closed the Canal to navigation. It 
is hoped to reopen the canal this month, but it 
will be four months before the clearing opera- 
tions are concluded. 

In consequence of the long winter, which 
was the worst on record since 1858 as regards 
ice conditions, the opening of the Baltic season 
has been so long delayed that a rise in freights 
is bound to result. The prospects are for a 
very short season and the owners of tonnage 
are consequently in a strong position. 

The master of the Japanese steamship Mon- 
treal Maru, has been fined £5 at Newcastle- 
on-Tyne for a breach of regulations made un- 
der the Factory Acts applying to the loading 
and unloading of ships at docks and wharves, 
in that he allowed a winch to be used in un- 
loading without having its crank disc securely 
guarded. 

On April 1. 1924, there were idle in British 
ports 241 British vessels aggregating approxi- 
mately 587.000 gross tons, according to a 
cable from Commercial Attache Walter S. 
Tower. London. This figure represents a sharp 
decline from the laid-up British tonnage on 
January 1. when 909,000 gross tons were idle, 
and is only one-third of the corresponding 
figure for January 1, 1922. 

It is reported on good authority that orders 
for 16 motor vessels are being placed in Eng- 
land for the new Australian meat trade 
scheme, with terminal ports at King Sound 
(N. W. Australia) and London. The vessels, 
which have been designed by Sir Joseph W. 
Tsherwood, Bart., will be twin-screw passen- 
ger and refrigerated cargo ships of the high- 
est class. The estimated horse power is 8000, 



so that each engine will develop a power 
which is admittedly large for seagoing Diesel 
engines. 

The Sweden-American Line. Gothenburg, 
reports a net profit of kr. 2,390,000 for 1923, 
against kr. 1,300,000 for 1922, in spite of more 
liberal allowances for depreciation. Total 
freight receipts were kr. 5.111,000, which 
was an increase of kr. 2,480,000 as compared 
with 1922. A dividend of 6 per cent is paid, 
against 5 per cent for the previous year. The 
book value of the fleet is kr. 13.750,000. and 
the company has already paid kr. 2,010,000 in 
respect of the construction of a new liner 
building in England. 

The liner France of the Cie Generak Trans- 
atlantique (French Line) returns to her regular 
service from Havre for New York via Ply- 
mouth, after undergoing structural and 
mechanical alterations which have increased her 
efficiency. The rotunda has been replaced by 
a big entrance hall, occupying a depth of two 
decks. Most of the first class staterooms have 
been refurnished, and several outside rooms 
have been added. Important changes have 
also been made in the accommodation of the 
second and third classes. 

The Swedish East Asiatic Co.. Gothenburg, 
undertook 40 sailings from Scandinavian 
ports to the Far East last year, which was 
a record total. To India 12 voyages were 
completed, and in consequence of the brisk- 
ness of traffic, the company was compelled to 
charter outside tonnage. This activity was 
due in part to the need for building materials 
in Japan after the earthquake. Gross receipts 
in 1923 amounted to kr. 2.310.000. against kr. 
4,300,000 in 1922, in which latter total, how- 
ever, a tax refund is included. The net profit 
was kr. 461,000 against kr. 733,000 in 1922, 
and a dividend of 5 per cent is paid same as 
for the previous year. 

There seems to be no end to the number of 
adventurers who seek fame or solitude— or 
perhaps death — in lonesome voyages over the 
oceans in small boats. The latest accession 
to the already formidable list of such naviga- 
tors is a young engineer of Cornwall named 
Ernest H. Thomas who is journeying from the 
western end of England to Australia in a 25 ft. 
steel ship's lifeboat, accompanied by his wife. 
The boat was picked up with 24 men of the new 
of a French sailing vessel torpedoed off the 



22 



June, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



183 



Scillys during the war ; the present owner ac- 
quired her then, and has fitted her with a 
cabin, foredeck, mast and sails, and a 17 h. p. 
engine. She bears the name of Honolulu. 

The annual report of the Norwegian-America 
Line, Christiania, for 1923, shows that 23,449 
passengers were carried across the ocean in 
both directions as against 17,223 in the previous 
year. The freight traffic was also heavier ; 
total exports and imports amounted to 372,059 
tons, of which exports were 115,743 tons and 
imports 256,316 tons. The corresponding 
figures for 1922 were 315,403 tons, of which 
65,873 tons exports and 249,530 tons imports. 
The growth of exports is chiefly due to the 
increase in exports of wood pulp, cellulose, 
Norway saltpeter and fish products. The fleet 
of the Norwegian-America line at present ag- 
gregates 89,813 gross tons, and includes two 
large modern passenger ships. 

Hobart, Tasmania, is being made the base 
for a Norwegian whaling syndicate to conduct 
whaling operations in the Ross Sea. Five 
whalers are already assembled at Hobart await- 
ing the arrival of a factory ship from Norway. 
The expedition carries a licence granted by the 
British Government, but the operations will be 
under the surveillance of the New Zealand 
Government, which now controls Ross Sea De- 
pendency. The terms of the license restrict 
operations to whales and fur seals. A royalty 
will be collected by the New Zealand Govern- 
ment on all whale oil won. The entire fleet is 
composed of five steel vessels and the factory 
ship (yet to arrive). The vessels will return to 
Hobart after a few months' operations, when 
the ice sets in, and dispatch their products to 
home markets. More extensive operations will 
follow on the next trip. 

Closing entries have been posted in Lloyd's 
Records against the names of 12 vessels — 
six steamships, five schooners and a steam 
trawler. One of these vessels was the 
French steamer Mont Rose, 3848 tons. She 
sailed from Oran early in January last for 
Havre, with a wheat cargo. Subsequent re- 
ports showed her to be in difficulties during 
heavy weather in the Atlantic, but though 
the Bay and the Spanish coasts were 
searched, no trace of her was forthcoming. 
The steamship Miltlah, 3641 tons gross, was 
Italian owned. She was on a voyage from 
Odessa to Antwerp and two days after leav- 



ing Cagliari she despatched a wireless mes- 
sage that she was in a position of great 
danger, owing to her cargo having shifted 
during very bad weather. A steamer which 
picked up the message searched for her with- 
out any success. 

The British Chamber of Commerce in 
Shanghai have issued statistics relating to 
the shipping traffic in that port last year, 
and these show that while the total volume 
increased by nearly two million tons, as 
compared with 1922, the British share de- 
creased by nearly 500,000 tons. The figures 
for every other nation except Norway and 
Denmark showed improvement, those two 
dropping 30,000 and 94,000 tons, respectively. 
The total amount of shipping of all kinds en- 
tered at and cleared from the port in 1023 
was 29,530,835 tons (against 27,770.044 tons 
in 1922). The British percentage fell from 
39.99 in 1922 to 35.99 last year, while that of 
Japan rose from 25.03 to 26.08, China from 
17.09 to 18.14, and the Lmited States from 
10.14 to 10.63. As far as transpacific traffic 
alone is concerned, the L T nited States heads 
the list with 1.797,218 tons (45.2 per cent), 
followed by Great Britain with 1,267,445 tons 
(31.87 per cent), and Japan with 807,299 tons 
(20.3 per cent). 

In spite of the general trade depression, 
last year represented a record for the port of 
Kobe, Japan, in respect of ocean-going ton- 
nage entered and cleared. The entries 
totaled 17,561 vessels, aggregating 29,361.182 
tons gross, of which 1030 of 8.188.782 tons 
flew foreign flags, the latter showing an in- 
crease of over a million tons over the figures 
for 1922. Great Britain heads the list of 
foreign nations engaged in trade with this 
Western Japanese port, the total being 473 
vessels of 3,712,620 tons, and the Lnited 
States came second with 303 vessels of 
2,785,445 tons. The German recovery is par- 
ticularly noteworthy. Three years ago not a 
single German steamer entered Kobe, and 
only two arrived in 1921. In 1922 the total 
had reached 24, while last year it was 44. 
American shipping is showing signs of a 
healthy revival, after a temporary falling off" 
in 1921 and 1922. and another feature of the 
returns is the fact that last year the arrivals 
included 18 Polish vessels, totaling 60.580 
tons. 



23 



184 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1924 



LABOR NEWS 



In a period of slightly more than forty- 
four years, the International Cigarmakers' 
Union has paid $19,001,777.51 in benefits. 

The entry of labor into the banking field 
"is part of the normal development of work- 
ing men," said Peter J. Brady, president of 
the Federation bank, in an address to bankers 
in New York City. lie said the first labor 
banks were organized three years ago, and 
since then the number has increased to 20, 
with total resources that are estimated at 
$50,000,000. 

The Iowa State Board of Control has termi- 
nated the Reliance-Sterling Company's con- 
tracts for convict labor in the Anamosa and 
Fort Madison prisons. Chairman McColl of 
the board said the trade-union movement was 
the main factor in ending these contracts. 
Convict labor foes will continue their agita- 
tion, as it is feared that the convict labor 
trust will endeavor to secure a new contract. 

Pacific Coast cities and towns, especially 
those in California, are crowded with unem- 
ployed who have been lured here by an at- 
tractive advertising campaign. Every train 
and automobile arriving in San Francisco is 
loaded with passengers who have read of this 
Utopia. It has created an extraordinary con- 
dition for a city that is normally prosperous, 
but which finds it impossible to absorb such 
a flood tide that threatens to engulf it. 

Congressman La Guardia exposed the pre- 
tense of the pro-Japanese in this country, who 
claim they want to be "polite" in debarring 
Japanese, though they are not interested in 
the feelings of other nations that are de- 
barred. "When little Rumania protested, you 
said not a word," shouted the New York 
congressman. "My advice to Rumania is to 
go down to J. P. Morgan and negotiate a 
loan, and then, perhaps, when Rumania pro- 
tests you will heed." 

In one of Professor Irving Fisher's latest 
computations, the purchasing power of the 
average man's dollar is rated at 68.6 cents, 
compared with a pre-war value of 100 cents. 
According to Professor Fisher, the dollar was 
worth 3.9 cents less in the week of April 25, 



l n 24. than it was on January 1, 1922. During 
the first quarter of 1924, the dollar was worth 
an average of 68.4 cents, according to Pro- 
fessor Fisher's calculations. The dollar's 
average value for 1923 he fixes at 63.4 cents. 

The San Antonio. Texas, street car com- 
pany has organized a company "union" for 
its employes, but organized street car men 
reject the plan. The company promises 
everything in the line of "scientific welfare," 
but the workers prefer to conduct their own 
union. It is stated that street car magnates 
in many localities have suddenly become in- 
terested in the welfare of their employes. 
This interest grows in proportion to the 
strength and activity of the Street Car Men's 
unions. 

In a bill passed by the House of Represen- 
tatives, the Secretary of the Interior is in- 
structed to withhold land patents to the 
Northern Pacific Railroad. A special commis- 
sion is authorized to investigate the railroad's 
claim to 4,000,000 acres of land. Secretary 
Work of the Interior Department, and Secre- 
tary Wallace of the Agricultural Department 
have reported to President Coolidge that the 
railroad is not entitled to the additional land 
because of violation of terms under which 
public lands had been granted by Congress. 

Juicy profits continue to be reported 1>\ 
large corporations, while hints are dropped 
that wage cuts may be necessary to "stimu- 
late business." These profit reports are net — 
after interest, taxes and other charges have 
been met. For the first three months of the 
present year the Underwood Typewriter 
Company reports a net of $841,929. In the 
same period the Timken Roller Bearing Com- 
pany reports $1,826,778. The Southern Pa- 
cific Railroad reports profits of $44,552.4X2 
last year. This compares with $32,600,150 in 
1922. 

Garment workers of Waterbury, Conn.. 
have won their strike for a 44-hour week. 
Formerly they worked 50 hours. The union 
shop is recognized, and there will be no wage 
reduction. Judge Hayes of the city court dis- 
missed Jacob Grossman, organizer of the 
United Garment Workers, who was charged 
with intimidation. The charge was such a 
palpable frame-up that the court declined to 
give it any consideration. The striker-* vic- 
tories are a bitter dose to the small group 



24 



June, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



185 



of anti-union employers whose vindictive 
opposition to the trade-union movement is 
reaching record proportions. 

All but two States have laws providing for 
juvenile courts for boys and girls. All but 
one State have probation systems through 
which the delinquent child may be given a 
chance to make good under trained super- 
vision. But our Federal law makes no dis- 
tinction between adults and children. The 
youngster who defaces a mail-box, steals a 
ride on a train across State lines, or in some 
other way breaks the Federal laws must, ac- 
cording to the law, be dealt with on the same 
basis as an adult offender. A bill which 
would establish a probation system in United 
States courts has been favorably reported in 
the House of Representatives. 

A company "union," maintained by lumber 
barons, is their best aid to wage reductions 
throughout the Northwest. The official title 
of the "union" is Loyal Legion of Loggers and 
Lumbermen. In every instance the company 
"union" favors wage cuts. In Brighton, Ore., 
employes of the Brighton Mills Company 
were cut to $3.60 a day. The management 
then suggested a mass meeting to "consider" 
the question. At the meeting a "field officer" 
of the company "union" announced that he 
had examined the company's books and found 
reductions were necessary. The same method 
is applied in other localities. The Four L 
Bulletin, official magazine of the company 
"union," is in hearty accord with the wage- 
cutting plan of the lumber barons. 

In the first three months of this year the 
steel trust reports a net profit of more than 
$50,000,000. This is the largest net -of any 
peacetime quarter in the trust's history. In 
March of this year, profits totaled $19,065,475. 
This is at the rate of more than $57,000,000 
for the quarter. These profits are after the 
trust set aside $13,274,972 for depreciation. 
This latest report is the clearest refutation 
of the judgment of trust officials who pre- 
dicted disaster to this industry if the long 
workday were abandoned. Instead, the steel 
trust is enjoying most prosperous times. The 
same condition exists in other steel corpora- 
tions. The Bethlehem Steel Corporation dis- 
posed of $30,000,000 6 per cent gold bonds 
last week without placing them on the mar- 
ket. ' This company is the largest of the so- 



called independents, and controls the Lacka- 
wanna, the Midvale and Cambria steel com- 
panies. 

The non-union Benwood mine in West Vir- 
ginia that exploded and caused the death of 
more than 100 workers is owned by the anti- 
union Wheeling Steel Corporation. The vic- 
tims were of foreign nationalities. They 
labored in this mine without the slightest 
idea of danger. For many years the Benwood 
mine was owned by the Wheeling Steel and 
Iron Company, and was operated under union 
conditions. Then came the inevitable consoli- 
dation and the organization of the Wheeling 
Steel Corporation, with its overcapitalization 
and scramble for profits on "paper" values. 
With this inflation came anti-unionism, cheap 
labor and a disregard of the workers' lives. 
At the present rate, the year 1924 will make 
a gruesome record for mine deaths. Janu- 
ary 25, a gas explosion in a mine at Jackson 
City, 111., killed 37 workers. January 27, at 
Shanktown, Pa., 43 lost their lives; and on 
February 5 the bottom of a lake over the 
workings at Crosby, Minn., caved in and 
drowned 41 workers. On March 8 a triple 
explosion at Castle Gate, Utah, killed 106 
miners, and the April 28 explosion of the 
Wheeling Steel Corporation's mine cost 111 
lives. 

President Gompers has made public a tele- 
gram from Ricardo Trevino, secretary-gen- 
eral of the Mexican Federation of Labor, 
denying these workers have seized property 
of Americans. The story was given wide 
circulation in New York newspapers, and 
brings this refutation from Secretary Tre- 
vino : "Newspaper's here publish New York 
dispatches stating that Aguila Oil Company 
is endeavoring to have oil association pro- 
test against Mexican Government, on the 
ground that Tampico workers are seizing 
their property. We request that you issue 
statement in behalf of Mexican Federation of 
Labor to the effect that it is false that said 
properties are being seized, and protesting 
against the methods of the Aguila Oil Com- 
pany, which is resorting to misrepresentation 
of facts in strike movement brought about 
in Tampico by its refusal to recognize the 
right of association for its employes and re- 
fusing other working conditions plainly set 
forth in the Mexican labor laws." 



25 



186 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1924 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



The membership of the British National 
Union of Railwaymen on December 31, 1923, 
was 363,230, an increase of 25,880 over the 
previous year, of which 19,100 was in Eng- 
land. 2000 in Scotland., 2200 in Wales, and 
1700 in Ireland. 

It is said that more than 150,000 employes 
were out during the Bombay cotton mills 
strike, large numbers of whom left Bombay 
for the country districts, from which they had 
been recruited. Latest available reports state 
that about half of the mills have been able 
to resume oprations. 

According to the "Tagblatt der Stadt Zu- 
rich," the Swiss Federal Government ex- 
pended one million francs in 1923 for the pur- 
pose of facilitating the emigration of Swiss 
citizens and securing employment for them in 
foreign countries. The Swiss Federal Coun- 
cil is said to be of the opinion that emigra- 
tion should not be subsidized this year. 

Striking harbor workers and longshoremen 
at Bremerhaven, Germany, have resumed 
work under adjusted conditions calling for 
an eight-hour day, a wage increase of 7 cents 
per day, an increase in extra wages for hand- 
ling heavy cargoes, and other concessions of 
a minor nature, which, it is said, are not alto- 
gether satisfactory to the former strikers. 

According to a Finnish consular agent in 
Canada, approximately 10,000 Finlanders will 
emigrate to Canada during the summer of 
1924, while it is expected that in June, 1924, 
the Department of Colonization and Develop- 
ment of the Canadian Pacific Railway will 
conduct a large party of Scottish farmers, 
farm workers, and their families, emigrating 
to Canada. 

With the exception of the sugar industry, 
the supply of labor in Cuba continues to ex- 
ceed the demand. This surplus is constantlv 
augmented by numbers of Southern Euro- 
peans, temporarily domiciled in Cuba, await- 
ing an opportunity to effect an entrance into 
the United States. During the first quarter of 
this year, unemployment in Czecho-Slovakia 
has shown a marked increase, with no pros- 
pect of immediate relief. 



During the year 1923, 1621 vessels carried 
136,118 emigrants and other travelers over- 
seas from the port of Hamburg, as compared 
with 1356 vessels carrying 89,958 persons dur- 
ing the year 1922. Of the number first stated. 
97.218 were Germans; while in 1922, the 
number of Germans who departed from Ham- 
burg for foreign countries was 2 ( '.5S4. Ap- 
proximately 60 per cent of each year's total 
came to the United States. 

Last year 256,284 emigrants of British na- 
tionality departed to all destinations, as com- 
pared with 174,096 in V)22 and 389,394 in 
1913. Of this number, 93,076 departed for 
the United States in 1923, as compared with 
V<:m2 in 1922. The total number of emi- 
grants who proceeded to British North Amer- 
ica in 1923 reached 88,290, as compared with 
45,818 in 1922. The total number of British 
emigrants who departed in 1923 for various 
destinations in the British Empire reached a 
total of 157,062, as against 118.410 in 1922. 

According to reports received by the 
British Ministry of Labor, clauses providing 
for paid holidays have been inserted in over 
100 collective agreements. In most agreements 
it is provided that wages shall be paid for all 
the statutory holidays, and that each worker is 
entitled to an annual vacation with full pay. 
The length of the vacation is usually from 
two to twelve days. As a rule, from six to 
twelve months' work with one employer is 
sufficient to warrant a paid vacation. In some 
cases compensation is granted to workers who 
leave a post before their holiday is due. 

The Third Trade In ion Congress of Lat- 
via was held in Riga, the capital, in March. 
1924. The following statement was made 
concerning the present situation of the trade- 
unions of Latvia: •'Thirteen thousand work- 
ers (male and female) are organized in six 
national and fourteen local organization- ' ':' 
these, the Factory-workers' Union numbers 
2250 members; the Railwaymen's Union, 
2150; the Bookbinders' Union, 2000: tin 
farers' Union, 1000: the Postoffice Employes' 
Union. 1030; and the Stage Artists' Union. 
80. The largest local organization is the Win- 
dau Workers' Union (chiefly consisting of 
longshoremen), which has 1700 member ~. 

Eleven foreign countries have at least a 
fourteen-year age minimum for boys and 
girls going to work, while the United States 



26 



June, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



187 



has no national minimum, according to the 
report of the House Judiciary Committee 
recommending the passage of a child-labor 
amendment by Congress. Only a few States 
prohibit night work for both boys and girls 
under eighteen, but at least fourteen coun- 
tries do so. China has an eight-hour day for 
children under seventeen, and India a six- 
hour day for children under fifteen. The 
United States has no national law on this 
subject; eleven States permit from nine to 
eleven hours a day for children under sixteen, 
and one State places no limit at all upon the 
hours a child may work. 

A conference of local and provincial com- 
mittees of the German Traffic Union was 
held recently, 125 delegates attending. The 
president of the union reported on the gen- 
eral situation, and stated that there had been 
a decided improvement within the past few 
weeks. The conference confirmed its decision 
of March 21 , 1923, threaten i n g to 
expel members of the union- who obey in- 
structions given by the Communists, or the 
Red Trade Union International, to the detri- 
ment of the unions. It was decided to im- 
pose a levy of 50 pfennig to one mark, ac- 
cording to class, for the press and strike funds. 
This will enable them to resume publication 
of "Die Schiffahrt" (a seamen's publication), 
and later on other sectional journals. 

The various legal enactments by which 
France is trying to encourage the raising of 
large families are: (1) Reduction of various 
taxes in proportion to the size of the family ; 
(2) lower rents in the so-called "cheap 
houses" and priority in the assignment of 
dwellings in those houses ; (3) special facili- 
ties in acquiring rural property on a small 
scale ; (4) reduction of the compulsory mili- 
tary service by one year in the case of boys 
who are the oldest of five children; (5) re- 
duction in railroad fare ; (6) scholarships in 
proportion to size of family; (7) financial aid 
from the national government for each child 
under fourteen years beginning with the 
fourth; (8) assistance to women in confine- 
ment; (9) so-called "birth" premiums; (10) 
payment of salaries to civil employes of the 
national, departmental, and municipal govern- 
ment and some members of the military pro- 
fession in proportion to the number of chil- 
dren in their families. 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Wm. J. Humphreys, John A. McDonald, John 
Cameron, Frank S. Thomas and William Boyle, 
who sued U. S. Shipping Board for false arrest and 
imprisonment, are on the calendar for trial in the 
United States District Court, Southern District of 
New York. These seamen were wrongfully put in 
irons in February 25, 1920, and although suit was 
promptly started, they are now just being reached 
for trial. Anyone knowing their whereabouts please 
communicate with Attorney Axtell, 11 Moore street, 
New York City. 



Drew B. Saunders, marine engineer, who was in- 
jured in the shelling of the J. L. Luckenbach and 
whose claim was with the Secretary of State, 
Washington, D. C, against the German Government 
is requested to report to Attorney Axtell quickly. 
His claim can now be substantiated so that he 
can get adequate damages for injuries sustained at 
that time. 



Roster of International 
Seamen's Union of America 



(Continued from Page 2) 



Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash DAVID ROBERTS, Agent 

84 Seneca Street 

SAN PEDRO, Cal ADDISON KIRK. Agent 

111 Sixth Street. P. O. Box 574 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 
OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 86 Commercial Street 

EUGENE STEIDLE, Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 5955 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash , Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock 

P. O. Box 214 
SAN PEDRO, Cal P. O. Box 54 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary 
Telephone Sutter 6452 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42 

ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 138 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca Street 

Branches: 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C.) Canada P. O. Box 1675 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska P. O. Box 201 



UNITED FISHERMEN OF THE PACIFIC 
ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 138 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 
SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 59 Clay Street 



C. W. DEAL, Secretary 
Telephone Sutter 2205 



FISH TRAP, PILE DRIVERS AND WEB WORKERS 
OF PUGET SOUND AND ALASKA 
P. O. Box 371, Bellingham, Wash. 



27 



188 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1924 



A SEAMAN'S BANK 

WHEN PAID OFF OPEN A SAVINGS ACCOUNT 
4^% INTEREST 



SEABOARD BRANCH 

ANGLO-CALIFORNIA TRUST CO, 



101 Market Street 



San Francisco 



California 



To Seamen, Clients and Union Workers 

If my clients will keep me informed of the names of the 
vessels on which they are employed, while their cases are 
awaiting disposition, it will be of great assistance to me in 
preserving their rights and in securing early trials. 

Respectfully yours, 
S. B. AXTELL, 11 Moore Street, New York, N. Y. 



MILWAUKEE, WIS. 



JOHN B. AMANN 
Dealer in Choice Meats 

Marine Orders Promptly Delivered 

506 Reed Street Milwaukee, Wis. 

Telephone Hanover 300 



The Only Store in 

Milwaukee, Wis. 

That Carries in Stock at all Times 

a Full Line of Union Made Gents' 

Furnishings Goods. 

Mail Orders Promptly Filled 

W. GERHARD 

897 THIRD STREET 



ASHTABULA, OHIO 



O'Leary's Shoe Store 

77 BRIDGE STREET 

Ashtabula Harbor, Ohio 

Complete line of men's work shoes, 
dress shoes and rubber footwear 



Marine Sanitary Barber 
Shop 

(Next Door to Union Hall) 

Ashtabula Harbor, Ohio 

Experienced Tonsorial Artists 
Solicit the patronage of seafaring men 



WHEN IN PORT 
Stop at 

PACIFIC HOTEL 

an Inviting Homel 

54 Embarcadero 
San Francisco, California 



NORFOLK, VA. 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of 
the Pacific since its organization 

H. W. HUTTON 

Will give the cases of seafaring men 

prompt attention 

527 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Market 

Streets, San Francisco 

Phone Douglas 315 



Navigation, Marine 
Engineering 

Instruction for All Licenses: 

Deck, Engine, Pilot 

Success Guaranteed or Fee Refunded 

U. S. Nautical College, 

Inc. 
"The School Without a Failure" 
119 Bank St. Norfolk, Va. 

Capt. Wm. J. Blue, Pres., Phone 41626 



PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



TAXI 

CALL UNION 9020 

Red Top Cab Co., of R. I., Inc. 

57 Chestnut St. Providence, R. I. 



Albert Michelson 

Attorney-at-Law 

Attorney for Marine Firemen and 

Watertenders' Union of the Pacific. 

Admiralty Law a Specialty 

676 Mills Building, San Francisco 

Telephone Douglas 1058 

Residence Phone Bayview 736 



Telephone Garfield 306 

Henry Heidelberg 

Attorney at Law 

(Heidelberg '& Murasky) 
Flood Building, San Francisco 

S. T. Hogevoll, Seamen's Law- 
yer; wages, salvage and damages. 
909 Pacific Building, 821 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Foiling the Robbers.— I under- 
stand it now, the oil had to be 
given away to prevent it being 
stolen.— Arkansaw Thomas Cat. 
28 



Tel. Sutter 6900 

Notary Public — Typewriting 

ANNE F. HASTY 

SEABOARD BRANCH 
Anglo-California Trust Co. 

101 Market St. San Francisco 



SEAMEN 

Before sailing, sail up to our studio 
and have your Photograph taken 




41 Grant Ave. 



San Francisco 



San Francisco Camera Exchange 

KODAKS AND CAMERAS 

Bought, Sold, Exchanged, Repaired 

and Rented — Developing — Printing 

88 THIRD STREET, AT MISSION 

San Francisco 

Mail Orders Given Special Attention 



Photos of Ships 

Bring your photos to us for print- 
ing and developing and let us supply 
you for your next voyage. 

Allen Photo Supply Co. 

Kodaks bought, sold, rented and ex- 
changed. 

246 Market St., San Francisco 



Seamen's & Travelers 
Passport Studio 

J. MARSH 

453 Washington Street 

(Near Bansome Street) 
San Francisco, California 



June, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



189 



Walk-Over 

(SHOES FOR ^MENAND WOMEN) 

UNION MADE 



844-850 MARKET STREET 



SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



Where sailormen know that 

style, quality and price are 

always right — 




HATS 



Stores at 

26 Third St. 605 Kearny 1080 Market 

3242 Mission 720 Market 2640 Mission 

226 W. 5th St., Los Angeles 



SMOKES ! ! 

Cigarettes and Cigars a Specialty at 

Wholesale Prices 

See Me Before You Load Up 

SYD MODLYN 

Ocean Market 
80 Market St. San Francisco 



LACKING TIME 
SEAMEN SUFFER 

Many sailors are suffering to- 
day from decayed and neglected 
teeth because their time in port 
is limited. 

They know the average den- 
tist in his small office cannot 
finish their work properly 
"while they wait." 

The Parker offices with their 
large force of dentists, nurses 
and assistants can serve you 
promptly and successfully at 
short notice. 

Pacific Coast offices of dentists 
using 



E. R. Parker 
System 

located at 



Vancouver, B. C, San Francisco, 
Portland, Seattle, Belllngham, Ta- 
coma, San Diego, Eureka, Oak- 
land, Santa Cruz. 




United States Laundry 

Telephone MARKET 1721 

1148 Harrison Street 
San Francisco, California 



BEN HARRIS 

No Relation to Joe Harris 
Patronize an Old Reliable Outfitter 

The Best Seamen's Outfitter on the 

Waterfront 

218 Embarcadero San Francisco 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 

— at — 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 5348 



At Night 



Complete Banking Service from 
9 A. M. till 12 P. M. for Sailor- 



Liberty 



Market 
at Mason 



Bank 



San Francisco 



THE ONE PRICE STORE 

Sander Supply Co. 

SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

Furnishing Goods, Oilskins, 

Sea Boots 

Square Knot Material 

Uniform Caps 

93-95 Market, Cor. of Spear Street 
South. Pac. Bldg., San Francisco 

Open Evenings for the 
Convenience of Our Patrons 



FEELY, The Druggist 

32 EMBARCADERO 

Telephone Garfield 248 

Drugs and Toilet Supplies 

Tobacco Sold at Wholesale Prices 

San Francisco, California 



J. ADLER 



Cleaning, Dyeing and Repairing 
Remodeling a Specialty 

29 CLAY STREET 

San Francisco, California 

29 



T. MAHER'S 

RELIABLE HOOKS 

All Kinds Hand Made — Wholesale and 

Retail 

610A 3rd Street San Francisco 

Tel. Garfield 2340 



ABERDEEN, WASH. 



The "Red Front" 

CARRIES A FULL STOCK OF 
UNION MADE CLOTHING. HATS, 
SHOES. COLLARS, SUSPENDERS, 
GLOVES, OVERALLS, SHIRTS 

A. M. BENDETSON 

321 East Heron Street - Aberdeen 

Exclusive Owner of "The Red Front" 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings. Hickory Shirts, 

Hats, Oil Clothing. 

Home of the Union Made 

Co-operative Shoe. 

302 So. F Street, ABERDEEN, Wash. 

on the Water Front 



A. A. Star Transfer Co. 

QUICK SERVICE 

EXPRESS — BAGGAGE 

Phone 307 — Office by Union Depot 
ABERDEEN, WASH. 



HUOTARI & CO. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE 
and MEN'S FURNISHINGS 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Orders taken for 

Made-to-Measure Clothing 

Heron and F Sts., Aberdeen, Wash. 

Tickets to and from Europe 

NOTARY PUBLIC 



Phone 263 

"Niels and Charlie" 

"THE ROYAL" 
"THE SAILORS' REST" 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 
219 EIGHTH ST., HOQUIAM, WASH. 



EUREKA, CAL 



— For — 

A GOOD CUP OF COFFEE 

— or — 

A SQUARE MEAL 

— Try — 
EUREKA CHOP HOUSE 

Cor. Second and D Sts., Eureka, Cal. 
A. R. ABRAHAMSEN, Prop. 



190 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1924 



Office Phone Main 5190 
Residence Phone Elliott 5825 



Established 1890 
COMPASSES ADJUSTED 



MARSHALL'S 

NAVIGATION SCHOOL 

WE GUARANTEE to teach you until you receive a LICENSE 

WE will save you TIME and MONEY 

203 Bay Building, First and University Sts. SEATTLE, WASH. 



L. V. WESTERMAN 

UNION LABEL 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2— Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney-Watson Go. 

FUNERAL DIRECTORS 
AND EMBALMERS 



Crematory and Columbarium 
Connection 



Broadway at Olive St. 



Seattle 



THE HUB 

Shoe and Clothing Company 

UNION MADE HEAD TO FOOT 

OUTFITTERS 

615-617 First Avenue 

Opp. Totem Pole 

Seattle, Wash. 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES. HATS 
AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., Cor. University, 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



Union Store 

Best Line of Men's Suits 

Overcoats, Raincoats, Shoes, Hats 

and Men's Furnishings 

CARL SCHERMER 

103-107 First Avenue South 
Near Yesler Way SEATTLE 



INFORMATION WANTED 

Pablo Sanchez, who has a claim 
against the German Government, 
please get in touch with Silas B. 
Axtell, 11 Moore street. New York 
City. 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim and Douglas Shoes 

And the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 Sixth Street, SAN PEDRO OPP. SAILORS' UNION HALL 



NOTICE! 

The exclusive agency here for the 
only C. T. & M. Tailors in the U. S. 
A., affiliated with the American Fed- 
eration of Labor and employing only 
members of the Journeymen Tailors' 
Union, is held by the reliable tailoring 
man 

S. G. SWANSON 

Established 1904 
Upstairs, Room 4, Bank of San Pedro 

Building 
110 W. 6th Street San Pedro. Cal. 



INFORMATION WANTED 

Information of Joseph Brady, 
formerly member of crew of S." S. 
Niobe, whose case is settled and 
waiting for signature to a release 
to obtain the amount agreed upon 
in settlement. Communicate with 
Stephen Crick, attorney, 2 Stone 
street. New York City. 



SEAMEN 

Visit 
Your Hatter 

FRED AMMANN 

UNION HATS 

at the right prices. I'll try and 
wait on you personally and show 
you a large assortment and give 
you your money's worth. 

JOHN B. STETSON hats, too 

If you want your Panama blocked 
right I'll do that. 

You'll find me at 

72 Market St., San Francisco 

next to Ocean Market 



MEAD'S 
RESTAURANT 

No. 14 
EMBARCADERO 

NO. 3 
MARKET STREET 

"THE" Place to Eat 

in 

San Francisco 



FALCK'S 
COMFORT 

a 5 Cent Cigar 

A Blender of Mixtures 

Betas Prumera Pipes a Specialty 

HENRY FALCK 
533 Kearny St., San Francisco. Cal. 



"CHECKERS" 

Smoke Checkers Tobacco A 
mild and smooth smoke 

2 <;■/,. tins, 15c 
16 oz. canister, $1.20 

Weisert Bros. Tobacco Co., 

H. Setgeson, Pacific Coast Agent 

219 Drumm Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



Looks Bad for Him— He— "The 
decree is granted. Now, darling, 
we can be married at last, just as 
soon as you have settled the 
divorce court fees." 

She — "Oh, never mind the fees. 
I have a charge account there." — 
The Beacon Light. 



Dad Wasn't Worrying.— "Y our 

boy is trying to write poetry, von 
say :" 
"Yes." 

'"Why don't you discourage 
him? 

"Oh, the editors will attend to 
that." — Boston Transcript. 
30 



GRANT HOTEL 

1. MADRIERES, Prop. 

Reasonable Rates 

Hot and Cold Water 

Phone Garfield 420 

50 CLAY STREET 

San Francisco, California 



June, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



191 



BOSS™ TAILOR 

1120 MARKET STREET, SAN FRANCISCO 

OPPOSITE SEVENTH STREET 



SUITS AND 
OVERCOATS 

To Order at Popular 
Prices 




All Work Done 

Under Strictly Union 

Conditions 



We. Furnish the 
Label 



Always Fair with Labor — Always Will Be! 



JENSEN & NELSEN 

Gent's Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 
Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 



110 EAST STREET 
Kearny 3863 



Near Mission 
San Francisco 



H. SAMUEL 

THE OLD UNION STORE 
Established 1874 

Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 

Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, Bass, 
Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and Oil 
Clothing, Watches and Jewelry. 

Phone Kearny 519 

676 THIRD STREET, near Townsend 

San Francisco 



THE 
James H. Barry Co, 

The Star Press 

PRINTING 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "Tne Seamen's Journal' 



LET ME 

Clean, Press and Repair Your Suit 

ALL WORK GUARANTEED 

AL'S 

4 Clay St., San Francisco, Cal. 
Suits Pressed, 50 cents 

WHILE YOU WAIT 



"ALL NIGHT IN" 

A Sailor's Dream of Bliss 

Good Beds, Baths, Fine Lounges 
Stop and Meet Shipmates at 

LINCOLN HOTEL 



115 MARKET 



SAN FRANCISCO 



Telephone Garfield 504 

O. B. Olsen's 
Restaurant 

Delicious Meals at Pre-War Prices 

Quick Service 

98 Embarcadero and 4 Mission St. 

San Francisco, Open 6 a. m. to 1 a. m. 



Seamen, when in port, 
deal with 

W. P. Shanahan & Co. 

MEN'S SHOES 
Expert Repairing 

254 Market Street San Francisco 



ALAMEDA CAFE 

JACOB PETERSEN & SON 

Proprietors 

Established 1880 

COFFEE AND LUNCH HOUSE 

7 Market Street and 17 Steuart Street 
San Francisco 



D. Edwards & Sons 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Fair Prices. Reliable Goods 

92 EAST STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

GUARANTEED OIL CLOTHING 



HOTEL GOLDEN 

Per Day, 75c and $1.00 
Weekly, $3.00 to $5.00 

82 MARKET STREET 

(One Block from Ferry Bldg.) 

San Francisco, California 

31 



TACOMA, WASH. 



SEAMEN — ATTENTION! 

When In TACOMA, Visit 

Brower & Thomas 

FOR YOUR 

CIGARS AND TOBACCO 

THREE STORES 

1103 Broadway 11th & A Streets 

930 Pacific Avenue 



Always with the 
Union Label 

DUNDEE 

Woolen Mills 
Popular Priced Tailors 

Tacoma, 920 Pacific Avenue 

Seattle, 312 Pike Street 

Bellingham, 1306 Dock Street 

Aberdeen, 204 E. Heron Street 



StarkePs Smoke Shop 

Corner 11th and A Street 

TACOMA, WASH. 

Cigars, Tobacco, Smoking Articles, 

Pipe Repairing 

Restaurant and Barber Shop 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Thomas Young can receive $200 
less attorneys fee and expenses in 
settlement of- his case against the 
Standard Oil Company, S. S. Som- 
erset for false arrest and imprison- 
ment for twenty-four hours, by 
communicating with Silas Blake 
Axtell, 11 Moore Street. New 
York City, X. Y. 



Members of crew of S. S. West 
Modus in May, 1923, kindly com- 
municate with Edward A. Vos- 
seler, 200 Broadway, New York. 
Important. 

Men employed on tied-up fleet 
at Stoney Point, New York, in 
April, 1922, kindly communicate 
with Edward A. Vosseler. 200 
Broadwav. New York. Important. 



192 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1924 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 

and Battery Sts., Opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Cal. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOLi is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
l any branch of Navigation. 
] The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation 
and Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law, and is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




UNION MADE ^ complete line of seamen's shirts and 

garments of all kinds, union made right 

SHIRTS ^ ere * n California, sold direct from factory 

to wearer and every garment guaranteed. 

and UNDERWEAR Direct from Factory to You 



1118 Market Street, San Francisco 
112 South Spring Street, Los Angeles 
1141 J Street, Fresno 
717 K Street, Sacramento 



Since 1872 



Eagleson & Co. 



Established 1917 by U. S. S. B. 

School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 

FERRY BLDG., SAN FRANCISCO 



Puget Sound 
Nautical School 

Conducted by CAPT. H. S. SMITH, 
four years Assistant Inspector of 
Steamboats, Puget Sound District. 
Formerly Instructor in New York 
Nautical College. 

Room 303, Bay Bldg. 1213 First Ave. 
SEATTLE, WASH. 




James J}. Sorensen 



Gifts That Last 

Watches, Diamonds, Jewelry, 
Clocks and Silverware 

Largest Assortment, Right Prices 
All Watch Repairing Guaranteed 



fres and Jm*. 715 Market Street, bet. Third and Fourth Sts 

Jewelers, Watchmakers San Francisco, Cal. 

Opticians Established 1896 Phone Kearny 2017 




A Good Place 
to Trade 



Courteous Service 

Broad Assortments 

Moderate Prices 



Market at Fifth 
San Francisco 



UNION LABEL 

IS IN EVERY ONE OF OUR 

Hard finished- — Hard wearipg 

$Qfi WORSTED 
OU SUITS 

- See Them in our Windows - 




853-868 MARKET ST. 
SAN FRANCISCO 



Joint Accounts 

This bank will open accounts in 
the name of two individuals, for 
instance, man and wife, either of 
whom may deposit money for or 
draw against the account. 

HUMBOLDT 
BANK 

783 MARKET ST., Near Fourth 
SAN FRANCISCO 



32 




Official Paper of the International Seamen's Union of America 

=JIIIC2IIIIIlllllllC3IlllIlllltIIC31lllllIlllllC3TTIlfflllllllC3llllIllllIllC21Illf llf IIIIC31 J 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 E^ 1 1 1 1 1 II I ■ C 3 1 1 1 1 ■ 1 1 1 1 1 ■ I C3 1 1 1 1 f 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IC3 ■ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C3 1 1 f 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ■ C3 1 ■ 1 1 B 1 1 1 ff 1 1 1 C3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C3 1 II 1 1111 lllf C3 1 1 1 1 1 IJ^ 



A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 

Sea power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's tools. 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use them. 

Our Aim : The Brotherhood of the Sea Our Motto : Justice by Org 


anization 


Contents 

THE NEW IMMIGRATION LAW 

PROFITS UP— WAGES DOWN 

LOW RATES FOR VETERANS 

DANISH FIREMEN'S WAGES 

FAREWELL, ST. LOUIS ! 










195 
197 
197 
197 
197 

198 
199 
200 
201 
201 
203 
204 
206 
207 
208 
208 
210 
211 
215 
219 


EDITORIALS: 

SECRECY IN LAW ENFORCEMENT 

PROGRESS IN MANNING 

BRITISH SEAMEN'S WAGES 

THE AGE OF SPEED 

THE RECORD OF CONGRESS 

DAWES IMITATES MUSSOLINI 

SEAMEN'S INTERNATIONAL CODE (Continued) 

CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 










U. S. UNDEVELOPED WATER POWER MEASURED.. 

ORGANIZED LABOR IN CANADA 

A STUDY OF ECONOMICS 










BOOK REVIEW (THE PEOPLE'S CORPORATION).. 

LAKE FERRYMEN'S AGREEMENT 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 




..212, 
..216, 


213 
217 


214 
218 


\rr\i vvvuttt -nt n Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice 

VUL. AAA V 111, JNlO. 7 as second-class matter. Acceptance for 

xxrurM i-> -nt in^c mailing at special rate of postage provided 

WliOLL NO. 1926 for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 

authorized September 7, 1918. 


SAN FRANCISCO 
JULY 1, 1924 



^iiiiiiiuimiiiiiiioiiiiiiimiuiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiimiiiuiiii mu niiiiu iiic3iBiiiiicaiiiiiiTriiiiC3iiiiiiiJiiiJC3iiiiiiiiiiiiC3iiiiiiiiiiiiC2iiiiiiiiiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiiiC2iiiiiiiiif ncstii inirii iicsnir 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L Bldg., Washington, D. C. 



K. B. NOLAN, Secretary-Treasurer 
355 North Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 



DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES: 
ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass...- PERCY J. PRTOR Secretary 

1% Lewis Street 
Branches: 

NEW YORK, N. Y JOSEPH FELTON. Agent 

67-6y Front Street 

BALTIMORE. Md C. RASMUSSEN, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa S. HODGSON, Agent 

108 Walnut Street 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. JACOBSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex...„ LOUIS LARSEN, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RP7ERS, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 



MARINE FIREMEN'S, OILERS' AND WATERTEND- 
ERS' UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y _ 70 South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 
Telephone John 0975 

Branches: 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa ERNEST MISSLAND, Agent 

108 Walnut Street 

BALTIMORE, Md JAMES ANDERSON, Agent 

S04 South Broadway 

GALVESTON, Tex JOHN CLAUSSEN, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

BOSTON, Mass TONY ASTE, Agent 

. 288 State Street 

NORFOLK, Va _ DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 



ATLANTIC AND GULF COOKS', STEWARDS' AND 

WAITERS' UNION 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretary 

4 South Street. Phone John 0975 

Branches: 

BOSTON, MASS JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

288 State Street 

PHILADELPHIA, PA ERNEST MISSLAND, Agent 

108 Walnut Street 

BALTIMORE, MD CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

NORFOLK, VA DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, LA FRANK STOCKL. Agent 

106 Julia Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I FRANK B. HAYWARD, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 

GALVESTON, TEX LOUIS LARSEN, Agent 

321 20th Street 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass WM. H. BROWN, Secretary 

288 State Street 

Branches: 
GLOUCESTER, Mass NEWMAN SHEA, Agent 

209 Main Street 
NEW YORK, N. Y JAMES J. FAGAN, Agent 

6 Fulton Street 



GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters: 

CHICAGO, 111 357 North Clark Street 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary 

VAL. DUSTER. Treasurer 

Phone State 5175 

Branches: 
BUFFALO, N. Y PATRICK O'BRIEN 

55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1501 Columbus Road 
MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERING, Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Hanover 240 
DETROIT, Mich _..WM. DONNELLY, Agent 

410 Shelhy Street. Phone Main 0044 
ASHTABULA, Ohio 74 Bridge Street 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 

COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 71 Main Street 

THOS. CONWAY, Secretary 
ED. HICKS. Treasurer. Phone Seneca 9048 

Branches: 

CLEVELAND, 819 Superior Avenue 

Phone Main 866 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

Phone Hanover 240 

DETROIT. Mich...„ •. 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO. ILL _ 357 North Clark Street 

Phone State 5175 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y _ 35 West Eagle Street 

J. M. SECORD, Secretary 
Telephone Seneca 896 

Branches: 

CHICAGO, 111 357 North Clark Street 

CLEVELAND, 1501 Columbus Road 

MILWAUKEE, Wis _..162 Reed Street 

DETROIT, MICH 410 Shelby Street 



PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO. Cal _ 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE C. LARSEN. Acting Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 2228 



Branches: 

VANCOUVER, B. C G. CAMPBELL, 

305 Cambie Street 
P. O. Box 571, Telephone Seymour 8703 

TACOMA, Wash A. KLEMMSEN. 

22Q7 North Thirtieth Street 
P. O. Box 102, Telephone Main 3984 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, 

84 Seneca Street 
P. O. Box 65, Telephone Elliot 6752 

ABERDEEN, Wash GEORGE SIDON, 

P. O. Box 280 

PORTLAND, Ore D. W. PAIL. 

243 Ash Street, Telephone Broadway 1639 

SAN PEDRO, Cal HARRY OHLSEN, 

267 Seventh Street 
P. O. Box 67, Telephone 2624J 

HONOLULU, T. H JOSEPH FALTUS, 

P. O. Box 314, Telephone 4495 



Agent 

Agent 

Agent 

Agent 
Agent 
Agent 

Agent 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 58 Commercial Street 

PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 3699 
(Continued on Page 27) 



July, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



19; 



THE NEW IMMIGRATION LAW 




O FAR as seamen are concerned the 
new United States Immigration law, 
effective July 1, 1924, does not very 
materially change their former status, 
with this exception : No foreign sea- 
man will be registered as a bona fide resident 
and prospective citizen of the United States 
unless he has obtained an immigration certifi- 
cate in his own country and has had it vised 
by the American consul. Seamen on foreign 
ships in American ports will still be per- 
mitted to leave their vessel but only for the 
purpose of reshipping in the foreign trade. 
If a foreign seaman, who has come ashore 
for the purpose of reshipping should accept 
employment in the coastwise trade he will be 
subject to deportation at any time when a 
complaint is made and he is unable to prove 
proper registration. 

In other words, an alien seaman who has 
been admitted to this country temporarily 
and forms the intention of remaining here 
permanently and becoming an American citi- 
zen, should first take up with the immigra- 
tion authorities the question of having his 
status as a non-resident immigrant adjusted. 
Only when he is given a clearance by the 
immigration authorities and his stay here is 
made permanent, he is at liberty to make a 
declaration of intention that will be such a 
declaration as the law permits and proceed in 
the usual way to become naturalized. 

A declaration of intention made during 
the temporary status of an alien, is held to 
be invalid. An alien who has been admitted 
to this country for a temporary period 
acquires no rights of legal domicile here. His 
temporary admission is the result of an act 
of grace on the part of the Government. He 
is in the position of a guest and not a 
resident, and when the period for which he 
was temporarily admitted expires, it is in- 
cumbent upon him to leave the country or 
else obtain the Government's sanction for 
further stay, temporary or permanent. He 
does not possess the necessary requisites for 
initiating proceedings for naturalization, and 
if he makes a declaration the same amounts 
to an abuse of the privilege and conditions 
under which he was permitted to land here. 



For these reasons, such declaration is without 
legal naturalization value and void. 

That section of the new law which pro- 
vides for the exclusion of all persons ineligi- 
ble to citizenship was described in the June 
issue of the Journal. 

In other respects the new Immigration law 
has several noteworthy features. To begin 
with it materially cuts down the quota of 
admissible immigrants and provides for still 
further reductions after 1927. 

Under the old 3 per cent quota law (based 
on the foreign-born population of the United 
States as determined by the 1910 census) the 
total annual arrival of immigrants was 
limited to 239,930. Under the new 2 per cent 
quota law (based on the foreign-born popu- 
lation of the United States as determined by 
the 1890 census) the total will be limited 
to 161,184; this figure, however, does not 
include the non-quota immigrants whose 
status will be explained hereafter. 

Beginning with July 1, 1927, the total ar- 
rivals will be limited to 150,000 and the 
quota for each country will be based on the 
national origin of the inhabitants in con- 
tinental United States in 1920. 

In addition to reducing radically the num- 
ber of admissible immigrants, the new law, 
which is designated officially as the "Immi- 
gration Act of 1924." introduces many im- 
portant changes in the regulations governing 
the granting of immigration visas by pros- 
pective immigrants, nullifies a number of 
exceptions from the quota, which were al- 
lowed under the old law, and in general 
makes admission of immigrants more diffi- 
cult than heretofore. 

All immigrants desiring to enter the 
United States are divided into four classes: 
A — Non-Immigrants ; B — Non-Quota Immi- 
grants ; C — Quota-Immigrants, Preferred 
Classes; and D— Quota Immigrants, Ordi- 
nary Class. 

Class "A" (Non-Immigrants) 
will include government officials, visitors who come 
for business or pleasure, and in general, persons who 
desire to enter the United States for brief periods, 
or to carry on business. 

Class "B" (Non-Quota Immigrants) 

(1) An immigrant who is the unmarried child 
under 18 years ^of age, or the wife, of a citizen or 



196 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1924 



the United States who resides therein at the time of 
the filing of a petition under Section 9; 

(2) An immigrant previously lawfully admitted to 
the United States, who is returning from a tempo- 
rary visit abroad; 

(3) An immigrant who was born in the Dominion 
of Canada, Newfoundland, the Republic of Mexico, 
the Republic of Cuba, the Republic of Haiti, the 
Dominican Republic, the Canal Zone, or an inde- 
pendent country of Central or South America, and 
his wife, and his unmarried children under 18 years 
of age, if accompanying or following to join him; 

(4) An immigrant who continuously for at least 
two years immediately preceding the time of his 
application for admission to the United States has 
been and who seeks to enter the United States solely 
for the purpose of carrying on the vocation of min- 
ister of any religious denomination or professor of 
a college, academy, seminary, or university; and his 
wife, and his unmarried children under 18 years of 
age. if accompanying or following to join him; or 

(5) An immigrant who is a bona fide student at 
least 15 years of age and who seeks to enter the 
United States solely for the purpose of study at 
an accredited school, college, academy, seminary, or 
university, particularly designated by him and ap- 
proved by the Secretary of Labor, which shall have 
agreed to report to the Secretary of Labor the ter- 
mination of attendance of each immigrant student, 
and if any such institution of learning fails to make 
such reports promptly the approval shall be with- 
drawn. 

Class "C" (Quota Immigrants — Preferred Classes) 

(1) A quota immigrant who is the unmarried child 
under 21 years of age, the father, the mother, the 
husband or the wife, of a citizen of the United 
States who is 21 years of age or over; 

(2) A quota immigrant who is skilled in agricul- 
ture, and his wife, and his dependent children under 
the age of 16 years, if accompanying or following 
to join him, except in the case of any nationality 
whose annual quota is less than 300. 

Class "D" (Quota Immigrants — Ordinary Class) 

Any alien departing from any place outside the 
United States destined for the United States and not 
included in the foregoing classifications, and who is 
not ineligible to citizenship of the United States, is 
an ordinary quota immigrant. 

All Must Apply for Visa 

All immigrants must obtain an immigration visa 
from an American consul abroad which will consti- 
tute evidence that they are not in excess of quota. 
This visa will be valid for a period not to exceed 
four months as specified in the visa by the consul. 
If the. immigrant embarks abroad on the final ocean 
voyage while his visa is still in effect, it holds good 
even though the period specified in the visa is ex- 
ceeded when the passenger arrives in the United 
States. Deportations for arriving in excess of 
quotas will therefore be a thing of the past. The 
immigrant's admissibility is still subject to all the 
other provisions of the various immigration laws, 
however, and even though the consul abroad judges 
the immigrant in accordance with all the laws, his 
admissibility is not finally determined upon until the 
inspection at the port of arrival. 

Relatives of United States Citizens 

Visas for relatives of United States citizens will 
not be issued by the consul until the United States 
citizen has filed a petition with the -Commissioner- 
General of the United States, and the Secretary of 
State has advised the consul that this petition has 
been found in order. This applies to relatives claim- 
ing either non-quota or preference status. 

The petition will call for the following informa- 
tion: 

(1) The petitioner's name and address; 



(2) If a citizen by birth, the date and place of 
his birth; 

(3) If a naturalized citizen, the date and place ot 
his admission to citizenship and the number of his 
certificate, if any; 

(4) The name and address of his employer or the 
address of his place of business or occupation if he 
is not an employe; 

(5) The degree of the relationship of the immi- 
grant for whom such petition is made, and the names 
of all the places where such immigrant has resided 
prior to and at the time when the petition is filed; 

(6) That the petitioner is able to and will support 
the immigrant if necessary to prevent such immi- 
grant from becoming a public charge; 

1 7 ) Such additional information necessary to the 
proper enforcement of the immigration laws and the 
naturalization laws as may be by regulations pre- 
scribed. 

The petition must be made under oath adminis- 
tered by any individual having power to administer 
oaths, if executed in the United States, but if exe- 
cuted outside the United States, administered by a ' 
consular officer, and it must be supported by any 
documentary evidence required by regulations. Ap- 
plication may be made in the same petition for ad- 
mission of more than one individual. 

The petition must also be accompanied by the 
statements of two or more responsible citizens of 
the United States, to whom the petitioner has been 
personally known for at least one year, that to the 
best of their knowledge and belief the statement 
made in the petition are true and that the petitioner 
is a responsible individual able to support the immi- 
grant or immigrants for whose admission applica- 
tion is made. These statements shall be attested 
in the same way as the petition. 

Visas for non-quota immigrants, other than rela- 
tives of United States citizens, will be issued upon 
satisfactory proof being furnished to the consul, 
under regulations yet to be established, that the ap- 
plicant is entitled to be regarded as a non-quota 
immigrant. 

An alien who desires to go abroad for a tempo- 
rary visit may obtain a permit from the Commis- 
sioner-General of Immigration at Washington, for 
a stay not to exceed- one year. The form of appli- 
cation for this permit has also not been determined 
upon as yet, but a photograph of the alien will be 
placed upon the permit, and before issuing same the 
Commissioner-General will satisfy himself that the 
alien was legally admitted to the United States. 
This permit does not exempt the alien from any 
part of the immigration laws, except that he is not 
subject to the quota restriction. 

It is not compulsory to take out a permit of this 
kind, and an alien may establish in any other way 
that he is a resident alien returning from a tempo- 
rary visit abroad, but in that case it would appear 
to be necessary to take out an immigration visa 
abroad, for which the charge is $10, and which may 
cause some annoyance and delay. 

The permit will cost $3, and upon good reasons 
it may be extended for periods of six months each 
on an additional payment of $3 for each extension. 
Nationality of Immigrants 

An alien is considered to be of the nationality of 
such country, self-governing dominion or territory 
administered under a mandate, of which the birth- 
place of the alien is at present a part. 

In the event that the birthplace of a child is dif- 
ferent from that of the accompanying parent, its 
nationality may be considered to be the same as 
that of the father or that of the mother, if she alone 
is traveling with the child. Likewise the wife may 
be considered to be of the nationality of her hus- 
band if accompanying him. 

The new annual maximum schedules, exclusive of 



July, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



197 



non-quota immigrants, from the principal countries 
follow: 

Quotas from Principal Countries 
Under 
Immigrants Old 

to be Admitted Law 

Great Britain 77,342 

Germany 67,607 

Italy 42,057 

Poland 30,979 

Russia 24,405 

Sweden 20,042 

Czechoslovakia 14,357 

Norway 12,205 

Rumania 7,410 

Austria 7,342 

France 5,729 

Denmark 5,619 

Hungary 5,747 



course, no reduction in dividends is con- 
templated. 



Under 


Quota 


New 


After 


Law 


1927 


62,458 


91,110 


50,129 


22,017 


3,889 


5,877 


8,872 


4,509 


1,792 


4,002 


9,561 


3,706 


1,873 


1,319 


6,452 


2,433 


631 


686 


990 


1,742 


3,878 


2,763 


2,782 


1,092 


488 


1,259 



PROFITS UP— WAGES DOWN 

(From Facts for Workers) 



An example of the powerlessness of unor- 
ganized wage-earners to protect their rights 
in industry has just been furnished by the 
Republic Iron & Steel Co., one of the largest 
"independent" steel manufacturers. 

This company made in the first three 
months of 1924 a net income of $2,080,809, 
after setting aside a generous provision for 
maintenance and repair of plants and for 
taxes. Further ample charges made against 
this sum for depreciation, exhaustion of min- 
erals, and interest on bonds left a clear sur- 
plus of $1,356,157. ''•Earnings for the year to 
date," said John A. Topping, the chairman of 
the Board, "closely approximate the total 
preferred dividend requirements for the year 
1924." In addition, the company looks for 
such prosperous times ahead and is so well 
financed that it is undertaking additions and 
improvements which will cost about 
$4,500,000. 

So far, so good. How are the workers 
sharing in this prosperity? By being forced 
to accept a reduction of 10 to 15 per cent in 
wages, announced in the early part of May. 
Obviously this reduction was not necessitated 
by the financial condition of the company, 
which is about as good as ever in its history. 
The cut was merely made possible by the 
fact that recently the temporary slump in pro- 
duction has reduced operations to between 
50 and 70 per cent of capacity, thus creating 
unemployment. The employer has taken ad- 
vantage of this misfortune of the helpless 
and unorganized workers to further reduce 
their share in the joint undertaking. Of 



LOW RATES FOR VETERANS 



Four special tours, which will enable vet- 
erans of the United States army and navy 
to revisit France at a cost of $275 for the 
round trip, are announced by the United 
States Lines. Beginning with the sailing of 
the steamship America from New York on 
July 12, exclusive third cabin reservations 
will be made for war veterans, who at a 
cost of $275 can make the crossing to Cher- 
bourg, spend fifteen days visiting familiar 
scenes in France and return to the United 
States. The price quoted for the thirty-day 
trip includes all railway and motor bus fares, 
hotel and food costs while in France as well 
as the ocean voyage both ways. 



DANISH FIREMEN'S WAGES 

A new agreement, expiring March 31, 1925, 
has been signed between the Danish Firemen's 
Union and the shipowners. Wages are in- 
creased on an average by 8^ per cent. The 
monthly rates are as follows : 

Crowns 

Donkeyman 210 

Fireman 190 

Trimmer (over 22 years of age) 125 

Trimmer (under 22 years of age) 100 

The new agreement embodies a number of 
other modifications. The annual seven-day 
vacation and two half-days leave per month 
are restored. 



FAREWELL, ST. LOUIS! 



The former American liner, St. Louis, once 
the pride of the Atlantic, left New York 
recently at the heels of a Dutch tug on her 
last voyage. She will make the crossing of 
the Atlantic in about forty days, whereas 
she formerly did it in one-quarter of the 
time. The tug Zuarte Zee is taking the ship 
to Genoa where she will be broken up, and 
thus meet the fate which has already befallen 
her sister ships, St. Paul and New York. 



One who is unwilling to do what he can to 
help himself has little reason to expect very 
much assistance from others. 



198 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1924 



Seamen's Journal 

Established In 1887 
Published on the first day of each month in San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW FURUSETH, President 

A. F. of L. Building, Washington, D. C. 

PATRICK FLYNN, First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

V. A. OLANDER, Second Vice-President 

166 W. Washington Street, Chicago. 111. 

THOS. CONWAY, Third Vice-President 

71 Main Street. Buffalo, N. Y. 

P. B. GILL, Fourth Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street, Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR, Fifth Vice-President 

1% Lewis Street, Boston, Mass. 

WM. H. BROWN, Sixth Vice-President 

202 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Mass. 

OSCAR CARLSON. Seventh Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York, N. Y. 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary-Treasurer 

355-357 N. Clark Street. Chicago, 111. 

Office of Publication. 525 Market Street 
San Francisco, California 

Subscription price $1.50 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG Editor 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished in the JOURNAL, provided they are of general 
Interest, brief, legible, written on one side only of the 
paper, and accompanied by the writer's name and 
address. The JOURNAL is not responsible for the 
expressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscript. 



JULY 1, 1924 



SECRECY IN LAW ENFORCEMENT 



American shipowners, with very few excep- 
tions, violently opposed the passage of the La 
Follette Seamen's Act of 1915. They lost, but 
that defeat has shown them to be very resource- 
ful men. While their united opposition was not 
strong enough to prevent enactment of the law, 
it is no secret that their subtle influence has 
been sufficiently formidable on many occasions 
to prevent fair and impartial enforcement of 
the law. 

The language test in the Seamen's Act has 
been particularly objectionable to shipowners. 
This "test" is contained in Section 13 of the 
law, and applies equally to all vessels leaving 
American ports, regardless of the flags such 
vessels may be sailing under; and provides that 
75 per cent of the crew in each department of 
such vessels must be able to understand the 
orders of the officers. It is a regulation that 
is not only essential to safety of life at sea, 



but is also necessary to insure a fair chance 
to American ships in competition with foreign 
vessels. 

The actual application of the "'test" is made 
under regulations issued by Secretary of Com- 
merce Hoover. The last regulations issued by 
Secretary Hoover are dated November 23, 
1921, and took effect on January 12, 1922. 

Xo well-informed supporter of the Ameri- 
can .Merchant Marine has found cause to com- 
plain about these regulations. But there have 
been frequent complaints against the minor offi- 
cials of the Department of Commerce, who are 
from time to time deputized to muster a ship's 
crew, and ascertain whether or not the law 
is violated. 

For example, during the past month Y ice- 
President Flynn of the International Seamen's 
Union of America filed the usual affidavit with 
the Collector of Customs at San Francisco, set- 
ting forth that Section 13 of the Seamen's Act 
was violated on the American steamship Wil- 
liam Perkins of the Garland Steamship Co., en- 
gaged in the protected intercoastal trade. 

This company, said to be closely affiliated 
with the avaricious tobacco trust, recently com- 
menced operation in the intercoastal trade with 
two steamships — the Garlinda and the William 
Perkins. Both are manned by full Chinese 
crews, the only white men aboard being the 
licensed officers. 

The complaint relating to the crew of the 
William Perkins was filed before noon. <>n 
June 14. The official detailed to muster the 
crew. Mr. T. C. Eagar, very generously gave 
the captain of the vessel seventy-two hours to 
get his yellow crew ready for the test. When 
the muster of the crew was finally made, three 
days after the complaint had been filed. Mr. 
Eagar very accommodatingly permitted the Cap- 
tain, with the aid of the Morse Detective 
Agency, to bar the complainant, Vice-President 
Flynn, from boarding the vessel. Mr. Eagar 
well knew that this procedure was contrary 
to the specific instructions of Secretary Hoover. 
The subject matter had been discussed with 
him on the wharf, and he knew the law and 
the regulations Whatever may have been ihe 
cause or the inducement, it must be regretfully 
recorded that this representative of Uncle Sam 
did not attempt to assert his authority with the 
master of the ship when the latter br. 



July, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



199 



vetoed the rules and regulations issued by Sec- 
retary of Commerce Hoover. 

Mr. Eagar made a secret ceremony out of 
his muster. Only the Chinamen and the offi- 
cers of the ship, who were virtually on trial, 
had the privilege of witnessing the test. 

Of course, the Chinese passed the language 
test with flying colors. That was a foregone 
conclusion, in view of all the secret maneuver- 
ing and the grace period of seventy-two hours. 
But lo and behold, for some unaccountable 
reason, seventy-two hours had not been suffi- 
cient time to provide the required percentage 
of the deck crew with Able Seamen's certifi- 
cates. On this point, the master of the ship 
was not permitted to veto Secretary Hoover. 
At least, so far as Mr. Eagar's report is con- 
cerned, we learn that the provisions of the law 
relating to certificates were complied with be- 
fore the vessel was given clearance. 

It is needless to state that a vigorous pro- 
test has been registered with Secretary Hoover 
against the secret ceremony staged by Mr. 
Eagar. 

Doubtless, Secretary Hoover will appreciate 
the fine point involved in this controversy so 
graciously overlooked by his subordinate. 

If a very plain skipper of the American 
Merchant Marine can openly defy and sneer 
at the regulations issued by the Secretary of 
Commerce, and if this defiance is tacitly ap- 
proved by Mr. Hoover's duly authorized repre- 
sentative, then it is very nearly time to sit up 
and take notice. We believe Mr. Hoover will 
sit up, and take notice, too! 



PROGRESS IN MANNING 



Information has been received from Wash- 
ington that during the past five and one-half 
months the membership of the American 
Federation of Labor has increased by leaps 
and bounds, bringing the total well over 4,- 
000,000. It is no exaggeration to say that 
the 5,000,000 membership mark will be 
reached by the time the Federation convenes 
next November, and that the International 
Seamen's Union of America will add its full 
quota. This is the answer of the workers 
to the relentless war waged upon them by 
the would-be union smashers assembled under 
the black flag of America's plutocracy. 



To the non-unionist — "Help us and we will 
help you." 



. After numerous and earnest representations 
to the Shipping Board by the representatives 
of the International Seamen's Union of 
America an order has finally been issued 
giving preference to American citizens for 
employment in the deck and engine depart- 
ments of Shipping Board vessels. 

The order, sent to all District Directors of 
the Board, under date of June 17, reads as 
follows : 

Hereafter the manning of all vessels shall be 
based, as regards citizenship, on the following order 
of preference. 

Deck and Engine Departments 

1. American citizens. 

2. Aliens holding intention papers. 

3. Aliens eligible to citizenship. 

Failure of aliens who declare their intentions to 
become citizens to acquire full citizenship as soon 
as entitled to same under the law will place, such 
aliens in the third class. 

It is particularly desired that all petty officers are 
to be American citizens. 

Steward's Department 

Chief stewards to be American citizens. Other 
members of the Steward's Department to be se- 
lected to fit the requirements of the particular trade 
routes. American citizens to be employed wherever 
practicable. 

This order, while not satisfactory as far 
as the Steward's Department is concerned, 
is far ahead of all previous instructions on 
this subject. To be sure, it is one thing to 
issue an order and quite another to have it 
enforced. The operators of Shipping Board 
tonnage have in the past done their utmost 
to discourage American citizens from fol- 
lowing the sea for a livelihood. And it may 
be taken for granted that the "order" from 
Washington has not dimmed their affection 
for cheap and servile coolie labor. 

Newspaper interviews have already been 
printed suggesting that American crews can- 
not be found, etc. Some men in the ship- 
ping business seem to think that American 
sailors ought to be kept in cold storage, just 
like fish and fowl, so as to be available 
whenever wanted. This type of shipping 
men never have and never will employ an 
American unless compelled to do so. They 
will seek to discredit the American seaman, 
one way or another, just as long as he re- 
fuses to accept the coolies' standard of living. 
It is known that Chairman O'Connor of 
the Shipping Board has always been in sym- 
pathy with the organized seamen's demand 



200 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1924 



for preference to Americans. And if the 
truth were known it is more than likely that 
he is largely responsible for the order just 
issued. Chairman O'Connor has other lauda- 
ble ambitions in this direction. He wants to 
make it possible for American boys to enter 
the sea profession. To this end instructions 
have been issued to the masters of all Ship- 
ping Board cargo vessels to hereafter carry 
two deck boys, who will replace one of the 
ordinary seamen now included in the author- 
ized crew lists. They will be signed on 
articles, receive subsistence, and be quartered 
the same as other members of the crew. 
To quote from the instructions : 

Deck boys must be American born, or those who, 
under the provisions of the law applying to minors, 
are naturalized through their parents. 

Deck boys must be under 23 years of age and of 
good physical and moral character. The minimum 
age is fixed at 18, but the physical and mental 
development of boys of that age will be considered 
as a factor in making appointments. Minors must 
have the consent of their parents or guardians. 

Upon masters and officers is imposed the duty ot 
training deck boys and laying the foundation of dis- 
cipline, essential to the successful development of 
efficient seamen. Their training will be such as to 
fit them for the higher ratings of ordinary and able 
seamen, and, as experience and ability are acquired 
and developed, for ratings of petty officers and 
higher. 

The groundwork is of the highest importance, 
and masters and officers will seriously regard the 
duties imposed upon them of insuring the training 
of boys in seamanship, cargo work, and the care 
and upkeep of the modern steamship. The condi- 
tion of cargo spaces, maintenance of ship's structure, 
expenditure of stores, and care of the cargo itself, 
are all recognized elements in the success of cargo 
carriage, for which purpose ships are constructed 
and operated, and it is desired and expected that 
the instruction and training of boys will include all 
of the essentials noted above, as well as rope work 
and other features of seamanship included under the 
interpretation of "hand, reef and steer," as far as 
it applies to present-day power vessels. 

Deck boys will serve as such for a minimum 
period of six months, at the end of which they will 
be rated as ordinary seamen, when certified as com- 
petent by the master of the ship to which they are 
attached at the time. 

The pay of deck boys will be $25 per month, with 
the customary subsistence. 

Masters will make reports to the Sea Service Bu- 
reau each voyage of the conduct and ability of deck 
boys, which bureau will set up a record which will 
enable at any time the determination of each deck 
boy's service and afford a record of the numbers 
and percentages abandoning or finishing the train- 
ing period. 

This is certainly a step in the right direc- 
tion, a move that has been advocated in the 
columns of the Journal for many years. 
We congratulate Mr. O'Connor and his as- 
sociates for the far-sighted and practical 
Americanism manifested in issuing these in- 
structions. 



BRITISH SEAMEN'S WAGES 



At a meeting held in London on May 
30, the National Maritime Board decided to 
raise the wages of seamen in British ships 
to the standard pay in force on January 1, 
1923. The increase is to be in two instal- 
ments, half on June 5, 1924, and the other 
half on September 5. 1924, so that wages at 
the present time are £9 10s. for sailors and 
£10 for firemen; other grades in propor- 
tion except ordinary seamen who received no 
increase. 

In commenting on the raise our contem- 
porary, The Seaman, calls attention to the 
deplorable condition that prevailed in British 
ports prior to the advent of collective bar- 
gaining. We quote : 

Look at the difference in the seafaring trade today 
compared with the position fifteen or twenty years 
ago. Then the shipowners never thought of con- 
sulting the men. When the question of reduction 
of wages arose they simply met together, decided 
upon the amount of reduction, and that was all there 
was to it. Where the men thought they were enti- 
tled to an increase, the same thing occurred; they 
stated what they required, but they did not always 
get it, as it was very difficult to get the men to 
stand firm in their demands. The men who had 
no chance of a job at the moment was prepared 
to strike, but the man who had the promise of a 
job would say, "Why didn't you strike last week, 
I have just got a job." And so the merry game 
went on, and the only time the men ever mentioned 
the word increase was when there happened to be 
a scarcity of men in a particular port. The owners 
just as regularly sought to bring about a reduction 
when there happened to be a surplus of men in 
a port. 

Moreover, there was no standard rate of pay or 
collective bargaining, but nearly every port had its 
own rate of pay; in fact, we can remember as many 
as six ships signing in one day in Cardiff, and every 
one of them at a different rate of wages, which 
ranged from £2 15s. to £3 10s. per month. 

What a difference today, since the establishment 
of the National Maritime Board. It is perfectly true 
that, through bad trade, the men have had three re- 
ductions in their wages, but compare the amounts 
they have been asked to submit to and the amounts 
that have been agreed upon bv collective bargaining 
on the National Maritime Board. 

Yes, indeed, there has been genuine prog* 
ress in British ships since the National Sail- 
ors' and Firemen's Union of Geat Britain and 
Ireland became a recognized factor in all mat- 
ters concerning seamen. 

In Great Britain, as well as in America, 
a small minority of self-styled radicals here 
attempted to scuttle the grand old Unions 
that made collective bargaining possible. 
Neither here nor there has the treacherous 
crowd made more than a small dent. True, 
collective bargaining has been abrogated by 



8 



July, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



201 



American shipowners, but that is merely a 
passing phase of the constant struggle be- 
tween employer and the employed. 

Some day American shipowners will real- 
ize, what British shipowners already know, 
that co-operation with the men who man 
their ships is not only necessary, but abso- 
lutely essential in building up a self-reliant 
merchant marine. 



THE RECORD OF CONGRESS 



THE AGE OF SPEED 

This old world of ours may be somewhat 
slow in moving toward the Brotherhood of 
Man. But there can be no doubt that our 
advance in shortening distances and reducing 
time required for travel has been phenomenal, 
to say the least. 

Lieutenant Russell L. Maughan of the 
United States Army has just proved the feasi- 
bility of a dawn-to-dusk flight across the 
continent. He made the skip from New York 
to San Francisco, a distance of 2850 miles, in 
eighteen hours and twenty minutes, at an 
average speed of 156.20 miles an hour. He 
followed the sun, which was some advantage. 
Whether a similar record can be made from 
San Francisco to New York remains to be 
seen, but one thing is certain, the gap between 
the Atlantic and Pacific coasts has been re- 
duced to less than a day. 

The feat outranks all previous records set 
by American aviators for cross-country 
flights. Lieutenants O. G. Kelly and J. A. 
Macready flew from New York to San Diego, 
2520 miles, but their flying time was nearly 
twenty-seven hours and their speed but 100 
miles an hour. Lieutenant Crocker made a 
flight from Houston, Texas, to a point be- 
yond the Canadian border, approximately 
1400 miles, and it took him eleven hours and 
twenty-eight ntinues to make the trip. Lieu- 
tenants Lowell Smith and J. P. Richter 
hopped from Canada to Mexico, 1280 miles, 
in twelve hours and thirteen minutes. 

By comparison the achievement of Lieuten- 
ant Maughan excels them all. The greatest 
importance, however, that attaches to these 
remarkable tests is that it discloses the possi- 
bilities of the airplane; it shows that it is 
the coming means of transporting the mails, 
and that the day is not far distant when it 
will be generally employed for rapid travel. 



Aside from the immigration restriction law 
described elsewhere in this issue, the late 
Congress passed the much discussed child 
labor amendment to the Constitution of the 
United States. When this amendment has 
been ratified by three-fourths of the Legis- 
latures of the various States, Congress will 
be enabled to regulate child labor by law. 

The soldiers' bonus or compensation bill 
was passed over the President's veto. A 
wage increase of $60,000,000 for postal em- 
ployes was vetoed by the President on the 
ground of "government economy." The Mel- 
lon tax bill, a favorite administration measure, 
was defeated, but the tax bill sponsored by 
Democrats and Progressives was passed. All 
farm legislation was ignored, as was the 
Howell-Barkley bill, which would repeal the 
labor sections of the Transportation Act and 
set up conciliation methods. 

The session was marked by party irregu- 
larity. Party discipline was destroyed, and 
there was friction with the executive branch. 

Investigations and probes brought much 
feeling. Many grave irregularities were 

exposed and three Cabinet officials resigned. 
Early in the session the House progressive 
forces formed a coalition and liberalized the 
rules. This was a blow to standpatism and 
made defeat of the Mellon tax bill possible. 
In the Senate, turmoil was continuous. The 
progressives controlled on many occasions. 
They took the tax question out of the hands 
of the administration party and forced a 
compromise. 

An appropriation bill that carried wage 
grants to thousands of Federal field employes 
failed to pass in the closing hours. These 
workers also lose their $240 annual bonus. 
The Federation of Federal Employes esti- 
mates the workers will lose $25,000,000. 

As far as seamen are concerned there was 
no special legislation changing their legal 
status — except on the immigration question. 
An investigation of the Shipping Board was 
commenced but has not been concluded. It 
should be understood, in this connection, that 
while the entire membership of the House of 
Representatives and one-third of the Senate 
will have to face their constituents at the 



202 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1924 



polls this November, the old Congress will 
meet again on the first Monday in December. 
Shortly after adjournment, Andrew Furu- 
seth closed the "Washington office of the In- 
ternational Seamen's Union of America and 
started on a speaking tour of the principal 
Atlantic ports. He is scheduled to arrive on 
the Pacific Coast about the middle of July 
and .is expected to make his headquarters at 
San Francisco until November. 



UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE 



The current issue of Advance, organ of the 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers, contains an 
interesting exhibit. It is a photostatic copy 
of the first check in payment of unemploy- 
ment benefit issued by the office in charge of 
the unemployment insurance scheme estab- 
lished by the employers and workers in the 
Chicago men's clothing market. The basis 
of the system was reviewed in the April 
Journal. Stating the plan briefly, it is joint 
contribution of employers and employes to 
an unemployment fund administered by ex- 
perts. Coupled with unemployment insurance 
is an employment office where expert service 
is given to the workers and to the employers. 
The collective agreement between the em- 
ployers and workers is, of course, scrupu- 
lously observed. This new system in Chicago, 
the first of its kind in the United States, 
makes of unemployment insurance something 
more than a benevolent act by an employer. 
It makes unemployment a legitimate charge 
against the industry. It is a guarantee that 
industry in dull times will have to look out 
for its human workers as it has heretofore 
looked out for its horses, mules and machines. 
What has been begun in Chicago is only a 
beginning, but an encouraging beginning, at 
rescuing human lives from that cruel and 
impersonal machine, the present system 
which employs the worker when it needs 
him and casts him aside like a sucked orange 
when it does not. 



Things on the Great Lakes are very quiet. 
Some of the ore boats are not running and 
the licensed deck officers from those boats 
are employed as sailors on the boats which 
are running. All of this makes for a great 
deal of unemployment. 



Well, the Republican convention at Cleve- 
land is over and everybody ought to be >atis- 
fied with that show. Almost in spite of itself, 
the convention made it plain that the Repub- 
lican party is the party of business, of those 
who live by selling something rather than 
those who, like the workers and farmers, live 
by producing something. The newspaper 
correspondents were of one mind on this sub- 
ject. William Allen White says that at its 
best the party "represents the moral yearn- 
ings of a benevolent plutocracy. At its worst, 
it breeds Daugherty and the Ohio gang.'' 
The New York Times called Dr. Burton's 
speech nominating President Coolidge "a 
good sales talk." Finally, the ticket itself is 
the ticket ideally suited to big business in- 
terests. Those who believe that the United 
States belongs of right to big business, that 
to make money is a chief end in life, that 
the profit principle is sacred, that the go- 
getter is a national hero and the pay-triot the 
best type American, cannot do better than to 
vote for Coolidge and Dawes. 



By refusing to appear before the Investi- 
gating Committee, Harry Daughtery, late- 
Attorney General of the United States, has 
drawn the last lines on the shameful picture 
of incompetence, corruption, or connivance at 
corruption, which he has given the country. 
Every lover of the square deal will be glad 
that the Senate is to appeal the ruling of 
Judge Cochran on which Mr. Daugherty re- 
lies. On the other hand, it is nothing short 
of national disgrace that the President, his 
political party, numerous editors and busi- 
ness men have attacked the investigator.^ of 
scandal so much more vigorously than the 
makers of scandal. 



The Union is not asking non-unionists to 
join the Union wholly for their own sakes. 
AW- want them to help us to accomplish the 
things so necessary to the well-being, welfare, 
and happiness of seamen. If they will join 
we can then unitedly help each other. 



Faith in ourselves, faith in each other, faith 
in the International Seamen's Union of Amer- 
ica is just and necessary for advancement 
and worthwhile achievement. 



in 



July, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



203 



Helen Blazes! Listen to the Ravings 
of Helen Maria! Slander on Gompers, 
Walker and Olander Opens Campaign 



DAWES SAID 

(New York World, June 16, 1924) 

"What is the position of the Minute 
Men? The Supreme Court of the 
United States has held that the rights 
of collective bargaining, or for indi- 
viduals to bargain with their employer 
for a closed shop, is one of the in- 
alienable rights under the Constitution. 
Therefore the Minute Men have put 
an open shop plank into their plat- 
form which is designed to be forced 
upon political parties and to crystal- 
lize into laws that would be strong 
for constitutional justice, just as the 
lawless labor leader does when he 
orders American citizens killed or as- 
saulted when they go peaceably to 
work. 

"The labor leaders are talking about 
the Minute Men as being opposed to 
labor. They are not opposed to labor 
organizations; they are fighting beside 
the union labor man who is taking 
his life in his hands and fighting to 
keep his organization out of the 
hands of revolutionists and radicals. 

"We had not more than started the 
Minute Men organization before Vic- 
tor Olander, secretary of the Illinois 
Federation of Labor, attacked us in 
one of those familiar clouds of dema- 
gogic smoke. It was a fair sample of 
the stuff and clap-trap that has intimi- 
dated cowardly politicians of both 
parties. 

"The Minute Men challenge the 
right of the labor demagogue to speak 
for the patriotic citizen that belongs 
to his organization. John H. Walker, 
president of the Illinois Federation of 
Labor, talks about labor and the clap- 
trap about injunction. It is feared by 
Sam Gompers, John H. Walker and 
Victor Olander as an encroachment 
on the liberty of the American peo- 
ple. It is not liberty encroachment 
they fear. It is the fear of encroach- 
ment on their privilege to assault and 
kill American citizens. 

"They do not represent honest 
union labor, but they intimidate cow- 
ardly politicians when it comes to 
law enforcement, and that has got to 
stop in this city of Chicago. 

"We went out and saved two judges 
known as injunction judges, Judge 
Sullivan and Judge Holden, at the 
last election. These injunctions are 
required to be issued by law." 



CHARLES G. DAWES, Republican candidate for 
Vice-President, has put himself definitely on record 
for the anti-union shop all over again in the midst 
of the campaign. In an interview published on June 16 
in the New York World, Dawes set forth the aims of the 
Minute Men of the Constitution, the union-hating organi- 
zation of which he was the founder and of which he is 
the supreme dictator. 

This organization, Dawes says, was formed to force an 
"open shop" plank into the national platforms. 

Dawes says he wants such a plank so that there may 
be laws enacted to curb the "lawless labor leader" who 
"orders American citizens killed or assaulted when they 
go peaceably to work." 

Dawes names Samuel Gompers, president of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor; John H. Walker, president of 
the Illinois State Federation of Labor, and Victor A. Olan- 
der, vice-president of the International Seamen's Union 
of America, as the kind of labor leaders who "fear the 
encroachment" of such laws as Dawes and his so-called 
Minute Men want enacted. 

These three men are named, as will be seen, as the 
kind who are possessed of the "privilege to assault and 
kill American citizens," who "do not represent honest 
labor" and who "intimidate cowardly politicians." 

This is Dawes speaking — Dawes who says these things 
— Dawes who gained fame by trying to make a Congres- 
sional committee think he was a rough customer with his 
"Hell 'n' Maria." 

Dawes boasts that his union-hating organization "saved 
two injunction judges" in Chicago, and goes on to make 
the ridiculous claim "that these injunctions are required to 
be issued by law." A candidate for Vice-President ought 
to know better. Injunctions are issued at the pleasure 
of judges. They are not required by law. Some judges, 
however, think that any kind of an injunction against 
workers is permitted by law — and that is all they want 
to know. 

This is Dawes' most recent pronouncement. It will be 
carefully studied. His unspeakable slander of such labor 
officials as Gompers, Walker and Olander will be under- 
stood and resented. 
11 



204 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1924 



SEAMEN'S INTERNATIONAL CODE 

(Continued from June issue) 



Andrew Furuseth's comment and criticism 
of the proposed Seamen's International Code, 
tentatively drafted by the International Labor 
Office (functioning by authority of the League 
of Nations), is continued herewith: 

VI 

Section 2, of Article 20, has previously been 
quoted, because it showed that pratically the en- 
tire life of the seaman on board is to depend upon 
''party agreements." Manning, working hours — that 
is the watches — food, drink, quarters, etc., are to be 
settled by or through agreements entered into be- 
fore signing. Of course agreements are just con- 
tracts under another name and contracts are on shore 
a special part of the activities of attorneys and 
courts. How to construe them and how to enforce 
them taxes the ability of our legal profession and 
appeals are permitted and provided in order that 
justice may be done. 

Under this proposed system the master, the ship- 
owner and the shipowner's attorney are in prac- 
tice to draw up the contract to be presented to 
the seaman, who is to hear it read and who is 
then to be asked by the competent public authority 
if he understands. Upon a declaration that he does, 
the articles will be signed and the vessel goes to 
sea. 

It is not within reason to suppose that the master 
and the seaman will have the same understanding 
of all the specific clauses that have been signed 
and a quarrel arises. Who is to determine what 
any special clause really means? The master, of 
course. 

Chapter III, Article 11 (eleven) says: 

"The master shall be the head of the 
society constituted by the crew and shall 
have authority over its members." 

Let us suppose that the crew do not agree that 
the master is giving the proper instruction, and 
are disposed to disobey. How is the master to 
enforce his authority? By the physical force of 
himself and his officers. There is no other way at 
sea, where there are neither policemen, judges, a 
posse comitatuts or even a handy war vessel. But 
suppose that the crew use force against the force, 
there is then a clear mutiny, and such may not at 
all have been the intention. It is entirely possible 
that the crew may think themselves in the right. 
Nay, it is barely possible, that the members of 
the crew are in the right. But right or not, any 
general resistance that goes to the point of attempt- 
ing^ to take the command from the master is 
certain to be treated as a mutiny. Such occur- 
rences, though rare, have happened in the past and 
the crew have compelled the master to take the 
vessel into port. The master on one side and 
the crew on the other believed that they were 
right. It took a court with a jury to determine. 
Sometimes the crew were exonerated and some- 
times the members of the crew were punished. 
And this happened when there were specific clear 
laws on the question at issue. How often are such 
things to happen, when it may be caused by a mis- 
understanding of a contract which was, perhaps, 
after all so drawn as to cause honest differences 
of opinions? Let us suppose that the crew is in the 
right, but that the master maintains his authority 
and then deals mercilessly with the men, because 
of the fear that they may again resist or appeal 
to the authorities. 



How far may the master go in enforcing a con- 
dition based upon a contract? To whom, except 
the Consul, will the crew report and ask for re- 
dress? But the Consul's very first impulse, nay 
his first duty, is to supress disorders, revolts and 
mutiny at sea and to sustain the master who re- 
ports it. And yet the court may hold that the 
crew were right when the whole thing is laid 
bare. In the meantime, what of the passengers 
or the perishable freight? Collect damages from 
the guilty parties? Yes, if they hath wherewithal, 
as it is put in the Scroll of Oleron. But if they 
have not, there can be no indemnity and the fault 
was with a system, which made an honest dif- 
ference not only possible but very probable. 

It may be said that the Code providing for dis- 
cipline will take care of these questions, and I am 
assuming that it will punish after the fact, when 
proper public regulations could and would have 
prevented the whole trouble. After all. wc must 
come to the point where violations of contract in- 
stead of infractions of law are to be punished by 
or according to criminal law. The idea is not 
progressive. It is reactionary. It goes to the 
very distant past and there finds discarded means 
of dealing with present difficulties. And the men — 
so-called — may be so young and inexperienced as 
to be morally irresponsible, or they may be moral- 
ly irresponsible because they are from races which 
have none of our moral conceptions, but have 
moral concepts of their own, for which they, as 
individuals, are not responsible. What rial sea- 
man of the white race would want to ship in 
such a vessel with such a crew under such conditions, 
and what decent man would want to send his 
family as passengers? If the officers and the sea- 
men were not better than the law, marine com- 
merce would come to an inglorious end, if not a 
bloody one. 

But the foregoing is not all. A few real sea- 
men may be employed, perhaps enough to bring the 
vessel into port by the application of the "pump or 
sink" method; but how arc these seamen to get re- 
dress, when in port, or how arc they to be able 
to get away from the vessel, if no redress is to 
be had? The crew complain to the Consul. The 
master brings the "party agreement" and the Con- 
sul finds that the clauses of the contract have not 
been violated. According to this proposed sys- 
tem, the seamen must remain with the vessel or 
they must desert in face of treaties that provide 
for the arrest, detention, and the return of such 
seamen to the vessel "to which they owe serv- 
ice or labor," which was the phrase used in place 
of plain "slavery' in the Constitution of the United 
States — words that had to be wiped out in blood. 
Article 29 reads as follows: 

"Whatever the duration and nature of his 
agreement, the seaman may require the rep- 
resentative of the competent authority to 
authorize him to land immediately in the 
following cases: 

(a) Changes in the voyage which may 
endanger the seaman's life or injure his 
health or interests. 

(b) Change in the nationality of the 
vessel. 

(c) Failure of the captain to comply 
with the laws and regulations concerning 
the safety of the vessel. 

(d) Risk of war or grave danger of in- 
fection arising before or in the course of 
which the seaman had no means of inform- 
ing himself before the signature of the 
agreement. 

(e) Illness or injury occurring in the 
course of the voyage through no fault of 



12 



July, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



20: 



the seaman and requiring treatment on 
land. 

(f) Assault or insult by the captain or 
officers or gross abuse of authority on 
their part. 

And in general any failure of the ship- 
owner or the captain to carry out his 
obligations under the agreement without 
prejudice to the right of the seaman to 
bring an action on account of such fail- 
ure." 

If the seaman can prove to the representative 
of the competent authority that the vessel is go- 
ing to an especially unhealthy port — so bad that 
the seaman's life is reasonably in danger, and that 
he did not or could not know this before sign- 
ing, or that the vessel is leaking so badly that 
she is likely to sink, and that she has no life- 
boats, or that he is sick, and that it is not his 
fault, or that the master or the officers are grossly 
abusing their authority or assaulting or insult- 
ing him, then and in such cases, providing he 
can prove it, he may be landed. And how is he 
going to prove some of those things? Are his 
shipmates, who are to remain on the vessel, go- 
ing to give the testimony, and are they going to be 
believed when the officers swear the opposite? 
What rubbish! If the crew were twelve and were 
the reincarnation of the twelve disciples, there 
would yet be two who would testify falsely, and 
with better reasons than Judas or Peter had. But 
then the seaman is to be landed, if the master or 
shipowner has failed to live up to the contract, 
which he — the shipowner — dictated or devised? No, 
no, there is no legal way in which the seaman can 
get divorce from the vessel unless the national flag 
is lowered and some other flag is hoisted. The 
seaman is to continue to be sold with the vessel 
as the serf was sold with the estate. To desert 
is the only way, and then his picture will be 
published, together with an offer of reward for 
his return, just as if he had broken out of any 
other prison. 

Of course there are supposed to be some means 
of terminating agreements. In fact there must 
be, since there are agreements for indefinite time; 
but even these means are so guarded and so 
hazy that they may be evaded. With owlish solemn 
superfluity Article 24 povides that if an agree- 
ment for specific time should expire at sea, the 
seaman shall, notwithstanding, take the vessel into 
the port of destination. What else could the sea- 
man do to save his own life? Evidently it is here 
to prevent a suit for damages. An agreement for 
an indefinite period may be ended in the follow- 
ing manner: 

Article 25. 

(1) In agreements for an indefinite 
period either party shall have the right 
to denounce the agreements with the notice 
stipulated for this purpose. 

(2) The period of notice shall be fixed 
in the agreement. It shall be the same 
for both parties and shall not be less than 
24 hours. 

(3) Notice may be given in writing 
or verbally. It shajl be entered by the 
•captain in the log. The party giving 
notice may demand an acknowledgement. 
In default of acknowledgement he may call 
one or more persons to witness the notice. 

(4) If the period of notice does not end 
until after the captain has given orders for 
service with a view to leaving port the 
agreement will not expire unless such order 



is given not less than 24 hours before the 
departure of the vessel. 

(5) Even if a seaman has given suf- 
ficient notice he may not leave the vessel 
on its arrival in port until the captain has 
ordered the cessation of sea service. Not- 
withstanding he may leave the vessel 24 
hours after arrival at anchorage. 

(6) An action for damages may be 
brought by either party against the other 
for failure to observe the period of notice. 

(7) Damages may be recovered for the 
denunciation of the agreement even if 
the period of notice has been observed 
provided it be proved that the agreement 
was denounced for the purpose of injur- 
ing the other party. 

All of which seems to mean that the master 
may, if it be difficult for him to get another man, 
so arrange that the seaman must remain with the 
vessel to make one more trip in order that the 
vessel may obtain a cheaper man. Substantially, 
it is a fact that the seaman may only be relieved 
from his contract upon reasons that are now found 
in the law of all maritime nations. The master's 
right to legally dismiss the seaman or violate the 
contract is given in the following Articles: 

Article 27. "Whatever the nature of 
the ageement, it shall come to an end in 
the following cases: 

(a) Rescission of the agreement by 
mutual consent of the parties. 

(b) Death of the seaman. 

(c) Loss or total unseaworthiness of the 
vessel. 

(d) Dismissal of the seaman under the 
conditions laid down in Section 28. 

(e) Landing of the seaman under the 
•conditions laid down in Section 29. 

(f) Physical unfitness of the seaman as- 
certained after embarkation in the cir- 
cumstances defined in Article 18, paragraph 
(3)." 

Article 28. (1) "Whatever the period or 
nature of the agreement, the shipowner 
or master may dismiss the seaman for suf- 
ficient motives. 

The following shall be considered suf- 
ficient motives for dismissal: 

(a) Technical unfitness for the service 
which the seaman was engaged to per- 
form. 

(b) Physical unfitness due to an injury 
or sickness for which the seaman himself 
is to blame or resulting from unauthorized 
and unjustified absence. 

(c) Unauthorized and unjustified absence. 

(d) Serious breach of discipline. 

(e) Prosecution for felony or misde- 
meanor or for smuggling. 

Or in general any failure by the seaman 
to carry out essential obligations, under the 
agreement, without prejudice to the right 
of the shipowner to bring an action for 
damages on account of such failure. 

(2) The motive for dismissal shall be 
entered in the list of crew. 

(3) The shipowner shall compensate the 
seaman for any damage suffered from dis- 
missal without sufficient motive. The com- 
pensation shall be fixed by the competent 
Court, taking into account (a) custom, (b) 
the nature of the seaman's work, (c) the 
period fixed for termination of the agree- 
ment (d) his previous service, (e) the 



13 



206 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1924 



injury caused by dismissal and (f) the 
gravity of the injustice committed. 

(4) Notwithstanding the provisions of 
this article and without prejudice to the 
question of the legitimacy of dismissal 
or to any damages which may oe award- 
ed therefor, the master may at any time 
land the seaman. A note of such landing 
shall be entered in the seamen's discharge 
book and countersigned by the competent 
authority. Further, in all cases where the 
seaman is landed in a foreign port the 
master shall previously obtain permission 
from the competent public authority in the 
port." 
If, under the foregoing, the owner and master 
working in co-operation, cannot arrange so that 
the seaman may be held or dismissed at will, *it 
will only be because they are better than law. 
And this is supposed to be progress? 

This proposed Code then goes on to provide for 
repatriation, but in such way as to permit the 
owner to shed also this duty, which is now 
practically unqualified. The unemployment in- 
demnity, when coupled with the seaman's con- 
tinued serfdom will, no doubt, act as a premium 
on losing the vessel, if the treatment be especially 
bad. Any real seaman knows how to assist in 
losing any vessel and in such way that it cannot 
very well be proved against him. This proposed 
Code gives him practically no other way in getting 
out of what may be a condition so unendurable as 
to make the man be willing to take any chances 
to get free. 

It is most respectfully submitted that progres- 
sively fewer and fewer occidental born men will 
be found at sea under laws such as are here pro- 
posed. Seamen will more and more have to be 
obtained from the so-called lower races and the 
seapower will inevitably go to them. It is an 
indisputable historical fact that the sea-power, 
which any nation or race has been able to attain 
and keep, has depended upon the number of skilled 
and loyal seamen which the nation or race 
has been able to furnish from its own population. 
The boy brought up in an occidental family and 
taught in an occidental school will not seek the 
sea, if as a seaman he must surrender all these 
rights and forget all those principles, which he 
has been taught to look upon as the birthright of 
all men. The occidental man will find something 
else to do. 

If it be not intended to surrender the sea-power 
to the African and the Oriental, there must be 
public laws providing, while at sea, for a high 
minimum standard of individual efficiency, for 
minimum crew accommodations, food and, except 
in emergencies, reasonable rest. There must be 
public laws to enforce discipline, which means 
ability and willingness to obey lawful orders, and 
real responsibility resting upon the vessel, the 
owners, the officers and the men at sea. Nothing 
less can furnish reasonable security. In any safe 
harbor the seaman must have the right to draw 
one-half of his earned wages, to quit the service 
of the vessel by sacrificing the other half of the 
wages and such clothing and other effects as 
he leaves on board, without any risk of being 
arrested, defained and returned to the vessel, there 
to be compelled to labor against his will. Such 
wages, clothes, effects or other rights as are left 
on board to become the property of the vessel as 
indemnity for violation of the contract. This would 
be, as near as can be, even-handed justice, because 
the vessel has now and must continue to have 
certain rights to void the contract by paying one, 
two or three months' pay and the cost of re- 



patriation, if the seaman is to be dismissed for legal 
cause. 

Since the seaman must obey orders that may 
cause serious injury, sickness or death, he must 
be entitled to maintenance and care, regardless of 
what the sickness is or what might have been its 
cause, and then he must be entitled to such in- 
demnity for injury or death caused by improper 
or unsafe gear and appliances or inefficient or 
careless officers, as may on proper legal proceed- 
ings be decided. 

If the League of Nations cannot or will not pro- 
vide such laws, then let the League refrain from 
any action in the matter and leave it to nations 
that will do it and in doing it will, if they have the 
people and wealth requisite, acquire and maintain 
the power on the seas, which has been and will 
continue to be the power which gives security 
and furnishes legitimate means to gather wealth. 
(Concluded in next issue) 



CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 



Masters Right to Discharge Seamen — 
Several seamen on the motor ship Dona Lane 
were discharged at Hongkong, without their 
consent, because they had previously refused 
to work cargo on a Sunday. When paid off 
four days' wages were also withheld because 
of willful disobedience of the master's lawful 
command. 

In due time these seamen returned to the 
United States and brought suit for a month's 
extra wages, maintenance at Hongkong and 
cost of transportation from Hongkong to 
Seattle. The case was tried by Federal Judge 
Cushman of the Western District Court of 
Washington (Southern Division), who held 
that the forfeiture of four days wages was 
sufficient punishment for disobedience of the 
master's lawful command and then awarded 
each seaman an extra month's pay, also ex- 
pense incurred for necessaries at Hongkong 
and a reasonable amount for their transpor- 
tation from Hongkong to Seattle. 

Payment for Overtime Work — Federal 
Judge Bourquin, of the Western District 
Court of Washington (Nothern Division), in 
revoking certain forfeitures of wages and 
ordering payment for overtime work ren- 
dered by seamen on the Steamship President 
Grant, delivered a very wholesome lecture to 
those masters who use every pretext to order 
a few days' forfeiture of seamen's wages. 
Judge Bourquin said : 

"The finding is for libelants for the wages 
withheld by respondents on claims of for- 
feiture. Forfeitures are always odious. This 
at bar is statutory, and however necessary, 



14 



July, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



207 



shipowners, who would invoke the statute to 
their gain at seamen's expense — who would 
be court, plaintiff, prosecutor, witness, judge, 
jury, and marshal, must pursue strictly the 
statute and its four corners turn square and 
precise." 

Medical Treatment — Aliens employed as 
seamen on American vessels are to be re- 
garded as American seamen, their nationality 
being that of the ship, and the act of Decem- 
ber 26, 1920, providing that "alien seamen" 
found on arrival at United States ports to 
be afflicted with certain diseases, shall be 
sent to hospital and treated at the expense of 
the ship, her master, owner or consignee, has 
no application to aliens serving in American 
ships. A Chilean, employed as a seaman on 
a ship of the Ward Line, was sent to Ellis 
Island upon arrival of the ship at New York, 
because he was found to be suffering from 
venereal disease. He was detained about a 
month and discharged as cured. Thereupon 
the Government brought suit against the 
Ward Line for recovery of the expense of 
detention and treatment, and obtained a ver- 
dict in the United States District Court. 
The shipowners appealed, and on the general 



principle that seamen follow the nationality 
of their vessel, and that seamen in any case- 
are not immigrants, the Circuit Court of 
Appeals, 2d cir., reversed the judgment 
below.— (N. Y. & Cuba Mail S. S. Co. vs. 
United States., 297 Fed. 158). 

Damage Awarded in State Court — John 
Summers, a member of the Marine Cooks and 
Stewards Union, fell from a gangplank to 
the deck of the Yale while that vessel was 
lying alongside of the dock at Wilmington. 
California, and brought an action for damages 
against the owners. The case was tried 
before Judge Trabucco, in the State Superior 
Court and he gave judgment for $1000, on 
June 16. Attorney Hutton, who presented 
the case, states the judgment has been paid. 

Seamen's Loss of Clothing — T. O. Brennan, 
a member of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific, 
stored his clothes with the Seamen's Institute 
on Clay street, San Francisco. Someone 
broke into the storeroom and stole them. 
The Institute refused to pay him for the 
clothes, so he brought suit in the Justices' 
Court, and Judge Frank T. Deasy awarded 
judgment for $50, which was all the law 
permitted him to give. 



U.S. UNDEVELOPEDWATCR POWER MEASURED 

Governmertt" geological Survey Reports Nation's StnsatTzs #c Rivers 
Coald foe Harnessed 18 rrodace 2>k, 81 8.000 Horsepower. 




COPYRIGHT" I92fc- IS* RALPH <~COUCM, WASMlNGlON , O.O. 



ISSUED THROUGH INTERNATIONAL LABOR NEWS SERVKE 

The undeveloped or potential water power 
resources of the United States amount to the 
huge total of 34,818,000 horse-power, the U. S. 
Geological Survey announces following a sur- 
vey of streams, rivers and other water-courses. 

15 



The survey was made on the 
basis of the horse-power ca- 
pacity available 90 per cent of 
the time. A similar survey on 
the basis of the horse-power 
available 50 per cent of the 
time showed a horse-power of 
approximately 55,000,000. 

Water-wheels now in opera- 
tion in the United States to 
generate energy for public 
utilities and for general manu- 
facturing have a capacity of 
9,086,958 horse-power, the sur- 
vey reported recently. Unde- 
veloped horse-power capacity, 
therefore, amounts to nearly 
four times that which is in use. 
Washington leads all other 
States in undeveloped water- 
power. Streams in that State could be harnessed 
to produce 4,900,000 horse-power. California 
ranks second with a capacity of 4,603,000 horse- 
power, while New York is third with a potential 
water energy amounting to 4,010,000 horse-power. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1924 



ORGANIZED LABOR IN CANADA 



The figures published in the Thirteenth 
Annual Report on Labor Organization in 
Canada, covering the calendar year 1923, 
which has just been issued by the Depart- 
ment of Labor, indicate a check in the re- 
cession in trade union membership in the 
Dominion which has continued during the 
three-year period from 1920 to 1922. Al- 
though the year 1923 shows a loss of 25 in 
all classes of local branches, the combined 
membership increased by 1471, the number of 
branches standing at 2487 and the member- 
ship at 278,092. The trade union system in 
Canada is composed of (1) local branches of 
international organizations, (2) non-interna- 
tional bodies and their local branches, (3) 
independent units, and (4) national and Catho- 
lic unions. There are 94 international organi- 
zations with branches in Canada, and between 
them they represent 2079 subordinate lodges,, 
with a combined reported membership of 203,- 
843. These figures indicate that there are two 
more international organizations operating in 
the Dominion than were recorded in 1922, and 
that the local branches have decreased by 29 
and the membership by 2307. There are 18 of 
what are termed "non-international" organiza- 
tions, the same number as recorded in 1922, 
with a total of 278 local branches and a re- 
ported membership of 34,315, a gain in branches 
of six and in members of 11,342. The indepen- 
dent units number 24, a loss of one, the reported 
total membership being 9934, an increase of 871. 
The unions designated as "National and Catho- 
lic" number 106, the same as in 1922; but the 
membership, which was reported at 30,000, 
shows a decline of 8335. The membership of 
all classes of organized labor in Canada, as 
reported to the department for the past 
thirteen years, has been as follows : 

1911 133,132 1918 248,887 

1912 160,120 1919 378,047 

1913 175,799 1920 373,842 

1914 166,163 1921 313,320 

1915 143,343 1922 276,621 

1916 160,407 1923 278,092 

1917 204,630 

The 2487 local branch unions of all classes 
in the Dominion are divided by provinces as 
follows: Ontario, 1034; Quebec, 456; British 
Columbia, 236; Alberta, 208; Saskatchewan, 
162; Nova Scotia, 134; Manitoba, 133; New 
Brunswick, 114; and Prince Edward Island, 10. 



A STUDY OF ECONOMICS 

(By Professor Lloyd M. Crosgrave, formerly Pro- 
fessor of Economics, Indiana University, Lec- 
turer, Workers' Study Classes.) 



The large scale enterprises that supply the 
people's wants today are dominated, for good 
or bad, by a few individuals. 

This is done by means of the corporation. 

A "corporation" has the following charac- 
teristics: 

1. It is created by the laws of the State. 

2. It has many of the rights that in- 
dividuals have, such as the right to own 
property; to carry on business, to sue in the 
courts, etc. 

3. Persons may invest in it but it exists 
separately from those persons, so that, for 
instance, if it cannot pay its debts, the per- 
sons who invested in it are not called upon 
to make the payment. 

Corporation is governed as follows : 

1. There are the officers — president, sec- 
retary, treasurer, etc. They perform the du- 
ties usually pertaining to such offices. 

2. There is the Board of Directors — a 
small group of persons that has general over- 
sight of the corporation's business, elects the 
officers, determines what shall be done with 
profits. 

3. There are the stock-holders — persons 
who have bought or who have been given 
"shares of stock" and who on this account 
are entitled to vote when the members of 
the Board of Directors are elected and to 
share in profits of the corporation, if there 
are any. 

4. There are the bond-holders — persons 
who have bought the corporation's bonds 
and who are promised a certain definite an- 
nual payment for each bond they hold. The 
bond-holders do not vote for the directors. 

5. There are the employes of the corpora- 
tion, but these have no voice in its manage- 
ment. 

It is probable that our very efficient meth- 
ods for manufacturing, mining, transporta- 
tion, etc., could not have been built up, as 
they have been during the last fifty years, 
if it had not been for the corporation. Single 
individuals, or even partnerships, would 
have been wholly unequal to the task. This 



16 



July, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



209 



is because the corporation has the following 
great advantages : 

1. It enables very many persons — stock- 
holders and bondholders — to unite their 
wealth into one great enterprise. Some cor- 
porations have over a hundred thousand 
stock-holders. 

2. It induces people to invest because 
they know that if it should fail they would 
not be held responsible for its debts. 

3. It has a well-established constitution, 
officers, etc., and is likely to be better and 
more smoothly governed than our political 
governments are. Thus it is that the modern 
business corporation, especially in the United 
States, is a wonder of efficiency. At the same 
time, it must be admitted that the cor- 
poration is extremely undemocratic : 

1. In electing the Board of Directors, the 
stock-holder casts as many votes as he owns 
shares of stock. Therefore, the few who are 
able to own many shares of stock, dominate 
the corporation. As W. H. Lough, in his 
book entitled "Corporation Finance," page 
75, puts it: "The minority stock-holders may 
find themselves unrepresented and absolutely 
powerless. This is unfortunately the condi- 
tion of the minority in almost all American 
corporations." By the "minority" in the 
above quotation, Mr. Lough really means the 
majority who are able to own but a few 
shares of stock. 

2. The Board of Directors elects the of- 
ficers of the corporation, so that even the 
stock-holders have no direct voice in saying 
who the officers shall be. 

3. In theory the bond-holders do not help 
to govern the corporation but, in reality, the 
few bond-holders who are very wealthy have 
much to say concerning what the policy of 
the corporation shall be, since if it does not 
suit them they will not invest. 

1 The employes of the corporation have 
no voice whatever in its management, except 
as they are able to force their will upon it by 
means of collective bargaining. The larger 
manufacturing corporations are usually strong 
enough to keep unions out of their factories 
altogether or to make the unions that exist 
inefficient. 

We have, then, in the modern large busi- 
ness corporation : 

1. A large body of persons (employes) 



who have no voice whatever in its manage- 
ment. 

2. A group of individuals (bond-holders) 
who are of considerable indirect power if they 
are able to buy a very large quantity of bonds. 

3. The stock-holders who are supposed 
to elect the Board of Directors, although in 
reality this is done only by the few who 
are very wealthy and are very active in ex- 
ercising their powers. 

4. The Board of Directors, which is the 
real governing body of the corporation, elect- 
ing its officers, determining its policy, etc. 

Thus it comes about that a business under- 
taking with which are connected, say, 300,000 
men — 100,000 of them being stock-holders 
and 200,000 of the employes — may be ruled, 
in reality, by a dozen individuals. 

Such is the situation at present. What 
will be the developments of the future? 

Little can be said about this with cer- 
tainty. For instance, we must remain in 
doubt : 

1. As to whether the employes of large 
industrial enterprises shall come to have a 
real voice concerning how they shall be 
carried on, through the further development 
of organized labor, etc. 

2. As to what proportion of business shall 
remain in the hands of modern corporations 
and what proportion shall be carried on in 
other ways — government ownership, co-opera- 
tive enterprises, etc. 

3. As to what extent corporations may be 
made democratic through the employes in- 
vesting in the stock and thus becoming voters 
when it comes to electing the Board of Direc- 
tors. The extent to which this is likely to be 
done will be dealt with in another paper. 

Whatever happens, one thing is certain. 
Industrial democracy will be approached and 
will be successful only insofar as the per- 
sons concerned — especially the wage-earners 
— study the situation and form intelligent 
judgments as to what should be done. 



Organize and there will be no need or occa- 
sion for a general strike or any other strike. 
People once fully organized or nearly so can 
negotiate peaceful settlements of their just 
grievances and demands. The surest way to 
prevent strikes and improve material condi- 
tions is through organization. 



17 



210 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1924 



BOOK REVIEW 



The People's Corporation, by King Gillette. 
Boni & Liveright, publishers, New York. 

A world where a man might seek to reach 
the farthest limits of his ability without tread- 
ing upon the rights of others in that seeking; 
where the struggle for bread and butter would 
not be too all-absorbing; where men could 
have an opportunity to live completely: and 
where the stimulus of competition would be 
felt in creative effort instead of in the strug- 
gle to live, is so pleasant to contemplate that 
the imagination is tempted to return again 
and again to the picture. Moreover, affairs 
have come to such a pretty pass today that 
we are scarcely so foolhardy as to pass over 
proposals for improvement without a more or 
less careful examination. 

Oh, undoubtedly something is rotten some- 
where. Few of us would question Mr. Gil- 
lette's statement that 'No sane man can live 
on this planet twenty years without realiz- 
ing that something is seriously wrong with 
the world. More than that, he must realize 
that this something concerns the gap between 
the Haves and the Have-Nots." Mr. Gillette 
has a plan for bridging the gap, and explains 
it impersonally and seriously in his new 
book, "The People's Corporation." As the 
result of the best judgment of a man of long 
and successful business experience, this plan 
merits at least respectful hearing. "The Peo- 
ple's Corporation" does not propose to change 
the organization of society except indirectly ; 
it does not enunciate a theory of societv ; it 
does not propose a new political order. "The 
People's Corporation" is concerned primarily 
with the economic organization of society and 
purposes to show a better and more effective 
system under which men may work to earn a 
living. 

Commencing with a bird's-eye view of our 
present industrial organization, Mr. Gillette 
points out what he considers its fundamental 
weaknesses. Very briefly summarized, these 
are : Private ownership and control of such 
common goods as land, water, fuel, air, etc. ; 
competition, which Mr. Gillette argues is the 
progenitor of a host of evils— duplication, 
waste, non-productive industries;' and the 
great group of men and women engaged in 



occupations which he considers do not actually 
contribute to the world's wealth, as lor ex- 
ample, retail merchants lawyer-, judges, ad- 
vertisers, brokers, etc ; and the other great 
group of men and women supported in idle- 
ness by interest accruing on piled-up capital. 
In addition to these there are, of course, the 
sick and helpless, the aged, the children, and 
the criminals. To fully understand Mr. Gil- 
lette's position it is necessary to remember 
that throughout his discussion he neither 
blames these groups nor these institutions. 
On the contrary, he recognizes that they are 
essential to our present economic system. 
His contention is simply that our system is 
inefficient, wasteful, and productive of much 
avoidable misery. 

lie has observed that co-operation and co- 
ordination of effort are effective and produc- 
tive of highly desirable results in the pro- 
duction of wealth. His plan seeks to estab- 
lish co-operation on a world scale. The peo- 
ple, acting through accredited representatives, 
shall create a People's Corporation, which 
shall gradually purchase ownership and con- 
trol of all industries. This purchasing would 
extend over a long period of time, depending 
upon the rapidity with which funds were 
made available for investment purposes. The 
funds would consist of deposits made by as- 
sociate units of citizens, organized in all parts 
of the country. Shares in the People's Cor- 
poration, represented by the deposits, would 
be simply "dollars on deposit" and would 
have no speculative value. (The element- of 
speculation and uncertainty are to play no 
part in Mr. Gillette's scheme.) A plan of 
organization is presented, together with a sug- 
gested constitution and rules for the forma- 
tion and functioning of the corporation and 
the associate units. Mr. Gillette further pro- 
that the Government co-operate with 
the corporation in the latter's purcha- 
industries. This part of his plan sounds very 
possible as he has outlined it, but considera- 
tion of past interpretations of the constitu- 
tional functioning of Congress and the Gov- 
ernment of these United States makes one 
wonder what would actually happen if the 
plan were put in operation. Fortunately, how- 
ever, Mr. Gillette appears confident that the 
co-operation he proposes to receive from the 



18 



July, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



211 



Government is not vital to. the success of his 
plan. 

Under the most favorable circumstances, 
the acquisition of industries by the People's 
Corporation would be slow. Slower probably 
even than Mr. Gillette expects, and attended 
by difficulties impossible to foresee. Even- 
tually all industry would be owned by the 
people and would be administered in much 
the same manner as is a large industrial trust 
or corporation, except that it would be ad- 
ministered for the benefit of the whole public 
rather than for a comparatively small group 
of stockholders ; and it would have the advan- 
tage of possessing resources and facilities for 
their use limited only by the physical limits 
of the world and the ability of men. Mr. 
Gillette believes that ultimately the whole 
world will function as a "Peope's Corpora- 
tion," although he assumes that this will be 
a gradual thing, adopted by one nation at a 
time. 

The strength of the plan lies particularly in 
its simplicity, in its utilization of present ma- 
chinery, and in its comparative ease of execu- 
tion, without bloodshed, turmoil, suffering, or 
social disruption. The plan is almost unique 
in that it would not result in a confiscation of 
private property or wealth. Existing fortunes 
would not be dissipated and taken from their 
owners. They would simply cease to accumu- 
late more money, but their possessors might 
use them so long as they lasted. 

Throughout Mr. Gillette's discussion we 
find difficulties presented by the plan admira- 
bly solved, and we also find many interesting 
suggestions. It is in the details of the picture 
that the majority would probably find place 
for criticism. For example, the vision of 
hundreds of people living in one apartment 
house with hundreds of other apartment 
houses in the immediate vicinity, and of all 
the people of the country concentrated in a 
few large cities, does not square with the so- 
ciologist's knowledge of human behavior. His 
eager desire to remove all the farmers from 
their secluded farms and save them from long 
winters of idleness, is perhaps not a thing 
which will meet with the approval of the 
farmers. There are many kinds of craftsmen 
in the world. Mr. Gillette is almost a crafts- 
man in business efficiency, and perhaps for 



that very reason does not understand that 
cooking, farming, sewing, and the like can 
be done on a small scale to the very great joy 
of the .individual worker. 

However, these are all details of the plan, 
and objections to them are not necessarily ob- 
jections to the plan, unless they are regarded 
as inherent in it. Mr. Gillette would prob- 
ably consider them "matters of routine ad- 
justment." "The incandescent lamp was bril- 
liant in the mind of Edison before it added 
its utility to millions of homes, offices, and 
workshops. Thereafter, the production of 
millions of lamps yearly and their use was a 
routine process." 

It was, but it took a long time to bring 
electricity to its present usefulness, and it is 
not venturing much to prophesy that any re- 
organization of society will take much more 
nearly one hundred years than ten years for 
its accomplishment. If it should prove ef- 
fective at the end of one hundred years, Mr. 
Gillette would have made a contribution to 
progress incalculable in its value. — M. T. H. 



LAKE FERRYMEN'S AGREEMENT 

Under the terms of an agreement between 
the Detroit and Windsor Ferry Co. and the 
Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes and the 
Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' 
Union of the Great Lakes, the following 
wages and conditions will prevail for 12 
months, ending May 29, 1925: 

Deck crews, firemen and oilers on the 
Windsor Ferries to receive $150 per month, 
a day off every two weeks same as formerly, 
and an eight-hour day. 

Wheelsmen, watchmen and lookouts on the 
Boblo boats are to receive $105 per month 
for an eight-hour day. Ordinary seamen to 
receive $22 per week, and to be divided into 
two shifts. 

Firemen and oilers on Boblo boats to re- 
ceive $105 per month. 

Sailors, firemen and oilers on Belle Isle 
boats to receive same wages as men on 
Windsor ferries. 



We can give a score of good reasons for 
belonging to our union. No really good rea- 
sons can the non-unionist give for not belong- 
ing to it. 



19 



212 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1924 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The Southern Pacific Co. is reported to 
have placed an order for a 7000-ton cargo 
steamer with the Federal Shipbuilding Co., 
Kearny, N. J. 

The former U. S. S. Dixie, owned by C. L. 
Dimon, New York, will be converted into a 
passenger vessel for the San Francisco-Seattle 
trade. The Dixie is being reconditioned at New 
York. 

The Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey has 
placed an order with the Krupp works, Kiel, 
for the construction of two motor tankers ol 
15,000 tons each, which will be built on the 
Isherwood system. 

The Bureau of Navigation, Department of 
Commerce, reports 129 sailing, steam, gas, and 
unrigged vessels of 26,972 gross tons built in 
the United States, and officially numbered dur- 
ing the month of May, 1924. 

Two of the transatlantic cable companies 
have complained to the Treasury Department 
that the cables are being damaged by the drag- 
ging anchors of ships bringing contraband 
spirits off the coast for smuggling ashore. 

The Coast Cuard issued notice that their per- 
sonnel will be increased by 150 commissioned 
officers, 400 warrant officers, and 2245 enlisted 
men. This increased force is needed to stop 
smuggling. Congress has appropriated $14,- 
000,000 for the purpose. 

Arrangements for storage of more than 
2.500,000 cases of salmon in the public termi- 
nals have been completed by the Port of Seattle 
Commission. The American Hawaiian Steam- 
ship Company has taken a total of 68,000 
square feet of space in the east waterway ter- 
minals. 

The Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation 
has booked an order to build a combination 
freight and passenger steamer for the Hawaii 
Meat Co., Honolulu. The vessel will cost ap- 
proximately $450,000, and the dimensions will 
be: Length, 210 feet; breadth moulded, 36 
feet; depth, 16 feet; mean draft, 13.6 feet. 

The President has signed the Sutherland bill, 
which is intended to break the power of pack- 
ing corporations in the Alaskan salmon waters. 
There has been no protective legislation for 



this industry since 1906. Under the Sutherland 
bill, traps are abolished. From 1907 to 1922 
more than 332,000,000 salmon have been caught 
by this method. 

The Nawsco Line freighter, Wabash, has been 
sold in New York under the United States 
Marshal's hammer for $45,500. W. P. New- 
hall was named as purchaser. The Wabash 
was the only remaining ship privately owned 
by the Nawsco Line, its other ship, the Brush, 
having been lost. The Nawsco Line has been 
operating Shipping Board ships in inter- 
coastal trade for several years and was re- 
cently forced into bankruptcy by creditors in 
Boston, Philadelphia and New York. 

The Shipping Board has notified operators 
of a reduction in the allowance for deck, en- 
gine, and steward stores, ranging from SI to 
$5 per day, according to the class of ships, 
effective May 15. No change has been made in 
the victualing allowance, which remain- fixed 
at 65 cents per man per day. The new store 
allowances are as follows: Class 1 ships, up 
to 5000 tons, $17 daily: class 2. from 5001 to 
6500 tons, $17.50 daily; class 3, from 6501 to 
8000 tons, $18 daily ; class 4, from 8001 to 9500 
tons, $19 daily; class 5, from 9501 to 11,000 
tons, $20 daily; above 11,000 tons. $21 daily. 

The motor lifeboats on the United State- 
liner Leviathan have been equipped with Port- 
able Direction binders, and all lifeboats on the 
vessel have been supplied with Submarine 
Sounders. The Leviathan is the only ship 
afloat equipped with these new scientific sound- 
ing machines which make it easy for an ap- 
proaching vessel to locate the lifeboats should 
it be necessary for the passengers and crew 
of the ship to take to the small boats. This 
device was developed during the war for the 
direction of submarines, and in its application 
to merchant ships has a range of from five to 
ten miles. 

It was announced at the annual meeting of 
Canada Steamship Lines, Ltd., that the com- 
pany has sold three of its ocean steamers at 
a loss of $800,000. The company has practi- 
cally retired from ocean shipping, with the 
exception of the service it is now operating 
to the continent with chartered steamers, and 
is confining its operations to river and lake 
service, where a profit is being made. Read- 
ing between the lines of the report, it would 



20 



July, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



213 



seem as if a loss had been experienced from 
the operation of the chartered steamers, be- 
cause it is "expected that they will be placed 
on a paying basis this year." 

Five boats, $87,000 worth of liquor, and 
twelve prisoners were the prizes reported at 
New York on June 16, by the Coast Guard and 
the Customs Marine Patrol, as a result of their 
week-end activities off Sandy Hook and New 
London, Conn. A yacht, named Rosedale, was 
sighted while making thirty knots an hour off 
Sandy Hook. The yacht headed for the sea, 
and, because of its superior speed, left the 
cutter far behind. The cutter fired two shots 
from her one-pounder over the Rosedale's bow, 
but the yacht refused to stop. Thereupon, a 
shell was sent through the engine room, and 
another through the port bow of the yacht. The 
Rosedale surrendered immediately. 

Foreclosure of the mortgage on the Bath 
Iron Works, Inc., at Bath, Me., has been recom- 
mended by a committee of the bond-holders. 
The Merrill Trust Co. of Bangor, the trustee, 
will proceed in behalf of about 300 holders of 
the bond issue of $1,210,000 on which interest 
was defaulted last January. The future policy 
in regard to the plant will be decided after 
the appointment of a receiver. The slump in 
shipbuilding is given as the reason for the 
present financial embarrassment of the corpora- 
tion, which specialized in naval work, boilers 
and high class commercial work. The stoppage 
in naval construction as a result of the Wash- 
ington Agreement, was the direct cause of the 
company's troubles, which are shared by several 
other naval armament concerns. 

The first descriptions of the two new ves- 
sels being built in Gothenburg, Sweden, for 
the Pacific Mail Company have been re- 
ceived. The two ships, being built by Aktie- 
bolegat Gotaverke Shipyard, have accommo 1 
dations for thirty first-class and sixty steer- 
age passengers. They are sister ships of the 
latest Diesel type motorship of the well-deck 
type, and have two masts, one funnel, three 
cargo holds with a capacity of 2900 tons 
deadweight. Both ships are 315 feet in length 
over all, are 45.9 feet across the beam, with 
a depth of 32 feet to the shelter deck. Pro- 
pulsion power will be supplied by two six- 
cylinder four-cycle cross-head type reversible 
Diesels of 2600 horse-power, and will be 



capable of a speed of fifteen knots per hour. 
The City of San Francisco will be the first 
to reach here, and will make, her trial trip 
from Gothenburg July 15. 

The approaches to New York harbor are 
said to be better lighted than those of any 
other seaport in the world. This was not 
always so, for a chart of New York, dated 
.1737, shows not a single buoy or seamark. 
But the massive masonry lighthouse at Sandy 
Hook, completed in 1764, is the oldest standing 
light tower in the United States. It was 
erected by means of funds raised in New York 
through a lottery. The outermost ocean guides 
to New York Harbor are the lightships, Nan- 
tucket, Fire Island, and Ambrose, marking the 
approach from the eastward, and Scotland 
from the southward. Nantucket lightship, 200 
miles east of the entrance, occupies one of the 
most exposed stations in the world, 41 miles 
from the nearest land. This is the mark for 
which most of the vessels crossing the North 
Atlantic direct their course westward bound 
and from which they take their departure sail- 
ing eastward. 

The S. S. Santa Rosa, 6415 tons, owned by 
the Grace S. S. Co., New York, laden with 
nitrate from Chile, and valued, with cargo, 
stores, and earned freight, after salvage, at 
$745,000, stranded when approaching Charles- 
ton Harbor, S. C, December 26, 1922. She 
was uninjured and in no danger except in 
case of storm, and was lightly imbedded in 
the sand, but unable to extricate herself by 
her own power. After numerous volunteer 
tugs had unsuccessfully worked to release her 
for three days, and the lightering of part of 
her cargo, the wrecking tug I. J. Merritt, en- 
gaged by the owners on "no cure, no pay" 
basis, arrived, and the other tugs were dis- 
missed. The second day thereafter she was 
floated, chiefly by the use of wrecking an- 
chors and cables furnished by the tug. The 
United States District Court of Charleston 
has now held that the wrecking tug I. J. 
Merritt was entitled to an award of $22,000 
and expenses ; that the other tugs were also 
entitled to salvage awards, varying with the 
extent of their services, the total awards and 
allowances for expenses and damaged gear 
and lighterage amounting to approximately 
$50,000. 



21 



214 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1924 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



The Norwegian firm of Wilh. Wilhelmsen, 
Tonsberg, has ordered another 6400 ton 
d.w. twin-screw motorship from the Deutsche 
Werke, Hamburg. She will have four-cycle 
engines. 

Total launchings from Clyde yards in the 
four months ended April 30, were 59 vessels 
of an aggregate of 140,000 tons, as compared 
with 35 vessels of 120,000 tons in the same 
period last year and 32 vessels of 106,000 
tons in the same period of 1922. 

The Swedish barque Bonus, lying at Gothen- 
burg, was recently sold to German owners, 
who required certain alterations to be carried 
out. It is therefore significant to note that the 
contract for the work was placed in Sweden, 
a country of high exchange, where apparently 
the work could be done more cheaply than in 
Germany. 

The Cunard, White Star and Canadian 
Pacific steamship companies are closing up 
their business in Russia, by reason of the 
practical closing of the door to Russian im- 
migrants in America under the new im- 
migration law. About one and one-half mil- 
lion dollars in prepaid fares will be refunded, 
and more than 5000 Russians in transit to 
the United States will be sent back home. 

Navigation to Leningrad (Petrograd) was 
reopened early in May, the Russian steam- 
ship Bolshevik, from Hamburg, arriving May 
6 without using icebreakers. Last year the 
German flag, with 205 arriving vessels of a 
total of 345,000 tons gross, held first place at 
Leningrad, followed by the Russian flag with 
156,000 tons, the Norwegian with 134,000 
tons, and the British with 128,000 tons gross. 

Nine years from the date of the ' torpedoing 
of the Lusitania the Mixed Claims Commission, 
which has been working on cases growing out 
of that tragedy, has settled 65 of the 285 claims 
filed, it was stated on the anniversary of the 
tragedy. It will be at least another year, of- 
ficials estimated, before the cases are cleared 
up. In the 65 awards made, damages of 
$4,708,410 were claimed, but were reduced to 
$1,006,618. The total claimed in the 285 cases 
was $24.71 4,922. 



For the first time in months, Norwegian 
owners have placed shipbuilding contracts in 
England. Wilhelm Jebsen, Bergen, has con- 
tracted for a Diesel motor tank ship, of 
10,500 tons, to be built at Armstrong, New- 
castle, and Knut Knutsen, Haugesund, is about 
to contract for a 13,000-ton Diesel tanker with 
another British yard. Mr. Knutsen has two 
other motorships under construction in Den- 
mark. 

The State of Alagoas, Brazil, in March 
granted a monthly subsidy of 3000 francs 
(nearly $200) to the Hugo Stinnes and North 
German Lloyd steamship companies for a 
monthly call of one or more freight and 
passenger vessels at the port of Jaragua 
(Maccio). The amount is about equivalent 
to the port charges, and the effect of the 
subsidy is thus to exempt these ships from 
port charges without contravening treaties 
providing for equality of treatment in such 
matters. 

Ernest Wirtanen, a sailor on the Finnish 
four-masted ship. Marlborough Hall, fell nearly 
100 feet from the royal mast to the deck when 
the ship was at sea. He was unconscious for 
eight days and had 14 stitches put in a gash 
in his left leg. His comrades prepared a canvas 
shroud and weights for his burial, but he re- 
covered and when the ship reached Melbourne, 
seemed little the worse for his experience. It 
is probable that death was averted by the fact 
that his leg caught a belaying pin, breaking his 
fall to a great extent. 

Extensive harbor works are being under- 
taken at Boulogne-sur-Mer to provide accom- 
modation for big liners which, it is hoped. 
will make Boulogne a port of call. The Cor- 
not Mole, which stretches from the existing 
harbor a mile and a quarter out to sea. is to 
be extended, and two new moles, of about 
1000 and 1300 yards respectively, are to be 
constructed to form breakwaters. The water 
enclosed within these three moles will con- 
stitute a safe anchorage for transatlantic 
liners. The estuary of the River Liane im- 
mediately behind the old harbor is to be 
converted into an inner harbor and fish dock. 

H. & C. Grayson, Ltd., the great ship- 
building and ship repair firm of Liverpool, 
reports that a loss of £14.600 was realized 
for the year ended June 30. 1023. and a profit 
of £6352 for the six months ended Decem- 



22 



July, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



215 



ber 31, 1923, without making provision for 
depreciation. After liquidating the accounts 
of the old company, there remains a credit 
balance of £14,756, which is carried forward. 
The report states that the dispute with the 
boilermakers was the cause of great losses, 
in common with other establishments in 
Great Britain, and investments in associated 
companies depreciated in value much below 
their book figures. 

The new Free Harbor at Kiel was formally 
declared open April 12. By utilizing its splendid 
intermediary position between the Atlantic and 
the Baltic the town hopes that this Free Harbor 
will enable it to become a great transit port 
for American freights going to and from the 
Baltic. The new harbor is henceforth to be 
known as the Wiker Freihafen, owing to the 
fact that the northern end of it is called the 
Wik. In spite of this fact it will probably be 
known abroad as the Kiel Free Harbor. Kiel 
is not only the most easterly harbor of the 
North Sea, but also the most westerly harbor of 
the Baltic, and the cost of building the Free 
Port was borne by the town, without any 
financial aid from the Reich. 

The White Star Line (Oceanic Steam Nav. 
Co.), the entire capital of which is owned 
by the International Mercantile Marine Co., 
shows a net profit after depreciation, etc., 
of £610,704 for 1923, which leaves a net 
balance of £374,091 after deduction of direc- 
tors' fees, interest and taxes. A dividend 
of 5 per cent is paid, which is rather a small 
return on the investment, considering the 
high price at which the shares are held by 
the holding company. The capital stock con- 
sists of 500 shares of £1000 each or £5,- 
000,000 and debentures of £1,266,900 are out- 
standing. The fleet is valued at £8,089,654. 
The report states that the result of the year's 
working is much less favorable than previous 
years. 

At the beginning of 1923 Latvia's shipping 
included 31 steamships of 38.310 registered 
tons, 56 sailing vessels of 9129 tons, and 9 
motor ships of 993 tons, making a total of 
96 ships aggregating 48,432 tons. This rep- 
resents a long stride toward restoration of 
the country's pre-war merchant fleet, which 
on January 1, 1914, comprised 59 steamers of 
77,626 registered tons and 274 sailing and 
motor vessels of 49,093 tons, but which by 



the end of 1921 had decreased 75 per cent, 
or to 34,021 tons. The growth in steam ton- 
nage, the only type of vessel recording an 
increase, was made possible by short-term 
loans granted to local shipowners by the 
Government up to one-fourth of the value of 
the ships purchased. 

The French Chamber of Deputies has adopted 
the bill approving the sales of Government 
merchant vessels under the law of July 19, 
1921, providing for the liquidation of the State 
fleet. The vessels sold numbered 422, repre- 
senting 1,242,595 tons gross, and having cost 
1425 million francs. The sales brought in 247 
millions, so that the loss on capital alone 
amounts to 1178 millions, to which is to be 
added another half-billion for operation losses. 
This brings the total deficit caused by the 
French Government's venture in shipping to 
1680 million francs. Out of the 247 millions 
realized through the vessels, barely 70 millions 
have been paid so far by the purchasers, the 
remainder being due in annual instalments bear- 
ing a moderate interest and covered by a first 
lien mortgage on the vessel. 

The activities of the Russian Government 
Volunteer Fleet are mainly centered in serv- 
ing the Russian Far East, with strips be- 
tween Vladivostok and the ports of China 
and Japan. At the present time there are in 
operation 10 steamships owned by the fleet 
and 4 chartered; these permit the transport, 
under favorable circumstances, of as high as 
322,500 long tons of cargo. Regular trips are 
planned between Vladivostok, Kamchatka, 
and the Okhotsk shore, between Vladivostok, 
Xikolaievsk-on-the-Amur and Alexandrov on 
Sakhalin, with stops at intervening ports of 
the Maritime Province. Local service in the 
Usuri Gulf and tramp trips to the ports of 
Japan, China, and Chosen are also included in 
the plans. In the Asoz Sea region the Volun- 
teer Fleet has organized coastwise trips ; for 
this purpose it has acquired several auxiliary 
sailing vessels. Recent advertisements in 
"Izvestia" by the Government fleet announce 
regular trips between Leningrad and Euro- 
pean ports by twenty-three steamships, 
mostly passenger-carrying, with a total 
capacity of more than 75,000 tons. Weekly 
express, passenger, and freight service is to 
be maintained between Leningrad and 
London. 



23 



216 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1924 



LABOR NEWS 



The Laundry Workers' Union of San 
Francisco has just negotiated a wage scale 
and working agreement with the Laundry 
Owners' Association providing for a wage 
increase of $2 per week for each of the 
2000 members of the organization, most of 
whom are women. 

A clear profit of $4,892,255 for the first five 
months of the present year is reported by 
the International Shoe Co., with headquarters 
in New York. This is after depreciation, in- 
terest and federal taxes have been paid and 
is a gain over the same period last year, 
when net profits totaled $4,354,259. 

For the second quarter of this year stock- 
holders in the various Standard oil groups 
will receive $40,699,592 in cash dividends. 
This is one of the largest amounts ever 
divided among these stockholders. It com- 
pares with $34,975,867 in the first quarter of 
the year and with $36,311,251 in the corres- 
ponding quarter last year. 

Voters of San Jose, Calif., repudiated the 
"American plan" and the entire anti-union 
posse by re-electing William J. Bigger, mem- 
ber of the Carpenters' Union, to the city 
council. The unionist was supported by 
large elements of the citizenship, including 
churchmen and merchants, who are tired of 
the union-smashing policy of the "American 
planners." 

Union busters in Trinidad, Colo., have 
coined a new term. Such deceptions as "open 
shop" and "American plan" have outlived 
their usefulness, and now the "Sons of Lib- 
erty" has been substituted. The cardinal prin- 
ciple of the new organization is that every 
man should be encouraged to work for low 
wages, and it is a conspiracy if he be advised 
to the contrary. 

It is stated that Attorney General Stone, 
successor of Daugherty, has shaken up the 
secret service branch of that department. 
All the "honorary agents" appointed by 
Daughterty and Burns have been dropped, it 
is stated. These agents are well-known 
business men who were given a badge and 



entitled to certain privileges in return for 
information they were alleged to place at the 
disposal of the department. Many of the 
old-time "dicks" have been replaced by law 
school graduates. 

Uncle Sam is now taking official notice of 
the arrival of new babies in certain States. 
The plan is that in States, which are within 
the United States birth registration area and 
in which the State registrars are agents of 
the Bureau of the Census, official birth certifi- 
cates, signed by the Director of the United 
States Bureau of the Census, may be secured 
and sent to mothers as notification that the 
birth of their babies has been recorded. The 
certificates have a picture of the Capitol in 
the background and bear the official seal of 
the Department of Commerce. 

In resolutions favoring labor's right to 
organize, the general conference of the Meth- 
odist Church recommended an increasing 
share for labor in the control of industry, 
and a living wage. The churchmen made 
this distinction between "property for use" 
and "property for power" : "Wealth accru- 
ing to the holders through monopoly values 
or special privileges or through large oppor- 
tunities for costless saving is not earned, and 
wealth created by society should be devoted 
to the development of all the people in ways 
to be determined by the people themselves." 

The Great Northern Railroad Co. disposed 
of gold bonds to the value of $15,000,000 
without even advertising their sale. The 
bonds will yield nearly 5 l / 2 per cent. Presi- 
dent Hill made this statement in reference to 
the company's profits, which should be of 
interest to shopmen : "During the first four 
months of the current year net railway oper- 
ating income is estimated at $2,796,000, as 
compared with the actual figure of $1,595,000 
in the first four months of 1923." These 
profits are at the rate of more than $10,000,000 
a year, and are indicative of the returns be- 
ing made by Class 1 railroads. 

The average child who has a radio today 
is gaining more knowledge of the world than 
was possessed by the well-educated man of fifty 
years ago. Dr. A. Duncan Yokum of the 
University of Pennsylvania told university 
graduates in New York City. Dr. Yokum 
said the radio, the motion picture and the 
automobile have turned established education 



24 



July, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



217 



methods topsy-turvy. Children, he said, have 
grasped the scientific construction of the 
radio in a way that amazes their parents. 
"What educators must do now is to teach 
them how to apply all of this mass of real 
experience that is coming- into their lives," 
said Dr. Yokum. 

"The tax bill agreed to by the House and 
Senate, as a substitute for the Mellon bill, 
calls for a 25 per cent reduction of 1923 
taxes, payable in 1924. Other provisions of 
the bill do not apply until next year. The 
normal income tax rate will be 2 per cent 
on net incomes up to $4000. Present rates 
are 4 per cent on incomes of $4000. The 
exemptions are the same. The tax on auto 
parts and tires is cut from 5 per cent to 2y 2 
per cent. Various miscellaneous and nuisance 
taxes are repealed as is the tax on candies 
and beverages. The tax on admissions above 
50 cents is repealed. Publicity of income 
taxes, in a modified form, is provided. 

Employes on the big MofTat tunnel, which 
will shorten the distance from Denver to 
the West, have been forced on strike because 
of unbearable work conditions. The strikers 
say they are forced back into the tunnel be- 
fore the gas from dynamite explosions has 
cleared. This produces a cracking headache 
called "powder," and is one of the most acute 
forms of headache known. The workers also 
object to the food served them in the camps. 
Efforts have been made to organize these 
workers, but Charles Leckenby, a member 
of the Moffat tunnel commission, assured 
trade unionists that conditions are so ideal 
organization is not necessary. In fact, de- 
clared Mr. Leckenby, if a union was formed 
there is nothing it could do. 

While postal workers are incensed at the 
Presidential veto of their pay bill, they are 
not unmindful of the old guard's shifty tactics 
in the Senate. The veto was read to the 
Senate six hours before adjournment on 
Saturday, June 7. The Senate had time to 
act, but it sidestepped, though there were but 
three votes against the bill when it passed 
that body. There were but six votes against 
it in the house. The Senate reactionaries 
knew the veto would be overridden if Sena- 
tors were permitted to vote. Parliamentary 
tricks made this impossible. Postal workers 



are particularly resentful at Senators Edge of 
New Jersey, Moses of New Hampshire, 
Phipps of Colorado and Sterling of South 
Dakota. The first three framed the bill and 
the postal employes insist they should at 
least make an attempt to have the Senate 
act on the veto. 

Figures on women in Alabama industries, 
issued by the federal women's bureau, contra- 
dict the theory that women wage earners 
are for the most part young persons who 
work for wages temporarily. Twenty-eight 
per cent of the woman reporting were be- 
tween 16 and 20 years old, 38.6 per cent be- 
tween 20 and 30, and 28.9 per cent between 
30 and 50. Sixty per cent of the women re- 
porting had been working three years or 
longer ; 42 per cent, five years or longer ; 
and 22.3 per cent, 10 years or longer in the 
trade in which they were occupied at the 
time of the survey. "Because the idea per- 
sists that women are in industry only during 
brief periods," says the report, "there is a 
marked tendency to put them at work at 
low skilled jobs where there is obviously less 
economic advantage, less pressure to keep 
them from shifting to other jobs." 

Coal owners of West Virginia have 'been 
defeated in their attempt to "railroad" of- 
ficials of the Miners' Union to the peniten- 
tiary. Treason and murder charges against 
C. Frank Keeney, Fred Mooney and William 
Blizzard have collapsed. The prosecution 
told the circuit court that former trials have 
produced only negative results and that many 
material witnesses have disappeared, making 
further action futile. The charges were 
based on the march of miners during the 
strike of three years ago. Inflamed by the 
coal owners' gunmen, citizens formed a mob 
to march into Logan county, the home of the 
gunmen. Trade union officials induced the 
mob to abandon their wild venture. In a 
statewide campaign the coal owners pictured 
the accused as riding at the head of thou- 
sands of miners bent on overthrowing the 
government. The miners were indicted in 
Logan County, but they secured a change of 
venue from that center of union hate. To 
escape the coal owners' poison propaganda 
they later secured venue changes from Mor- 
gan and Greenbrier counties. 



25 



218 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1924 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



A new agreement has just been signed 
for workers employed in the German Deep 
Sea Fishery. Firemen get an increase of 20 
(gold) marks a month, and other ratings 
15 (gold) marks. A gold mark is worth 
24 cents. 

Official figures setting forth the movement 
of emigrants of British nationality show that, 
during the year 1923, a total of 256,284, as 
compared with 174,096, during the year 1922. 
departed from Great Britain and Ireland for 
various destinations. 

The Australian Federal Bureau of Statis- 
tics shows that, out of 1.291.303 workers in 
Australia of 20 years of age and over, 702,- 
938 are trade unionists. Of 1,041,915 male 
workers, 616,886 (59.2 per cent) and of 249,- 
388 women workers, 86.052 (34.5 per cent) 
are trade unionists. There are 387 unions 
affiliated with 27 central labor organizations. 

An important report just published by the 
Minister of Health discusses the conditions 
affecting the welfare of mothers in Great 
Britain. Although the infant mortality rate 
in England and Wales lias been reduced dur- 
ing this century by over half, the maternal 
mortality rate has remained practicallv sta- 
tionary. About four mothers lose their lives 
for every thousand children born. 

The British Trade Unions are at present 
showing considerable increase in member- 
ship. Fred Bramley, General Secretary of 
the Trades Union Congress, was recentlv 
quoted in the Daily Herald that five and 
a half million trade unionists will be repre- 
sented at the next Trade Union Congress in 
September. (At the end of December, 1923, 
the total was 4,369,268, according to the 
report to be submitted to the I. F. T. U. 
Congress at Vienna.) 

Work was found in France for 297.000 
foreign workers in 1923. Of this number 
262,000 were entering France for the first 
time, according to statistics published by the 
International Labor Office. Of the 262.000 
immigrants, 112.000 were Italians, 50,000 
Poles, 36.000 Spaniards. 33.000 Belgians and 
11.000 Portuguese. More than 40,000 of 



these foreigners were placed in employment 
in the building trades, 83,000 in agriculture, 
and 51,000 in various branches of industry. 
There were 48,000 employed as laborers and 
35,000 in coal and iron mines. 

The government of Bombay has published 
its plan for the protection of children and 
young persons in the form of a bill to He 
introduced in the Bombay Legislative Coun- 
cil. This bill would create separate courts 
for children's cases and abolish hanging and 
transportation as punishment for youthful 
offenders. It would prevent the sending to 
prison of any children except those adjudged 
by the court to be too unruly to benefit by 
admission to a reformatory school; would 
introduce a system of probation and also es- 
tablish industrial schools, teaching trades to 
offenders under 16. 

Many French employers pay family allow- 
ances, in addition to wages, to workers with 
children. These allowances are usually paid 
through "compensation funds," companies or- 
ganized to finance the allowances in a way 
that will equalize the financial burden among 
employers of any one industry or region. 
It is reported that there are 120 compensation 
funds including 7600 employers, distributing 
family allowances amounting to nearly 100 
million franes a year to 800.000 workers. In 
many cases the whole allowance is paid 
directly to the mother of the family instead 
of to the wage earner. 

A minimum age of eight years for boys 
and ten for girls is established in the carpet- 
weaving industry by a decree issued in De- 
cember, 1923. by the governor of the Pel 
province of Kerman. The new decree also 
provides for a maximum working-day of 
<ight hours, separate work places for boys 
and for girls, prohibition of the employment 
of workers suffering from contagious dis- 
. prohibition of underground or damp 
workshops and other regulations to secure 
better working conditions. This decree con- 
firms and in some respects extends the meas- 
ures taken by the Persian government some- 
time ago at the suggestion of the Interna- 
tional Labor Office. 

The movement of migration in the year 
1923 shows a considerable increase as regards 
certain countries, according to statistics re- 
cently published by the International Labor 



26 



July, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



219 



Office. The net emigration from Great Brit- 
ain in 1923 was 198,678, as compared with 
106,070 in 1922. Emigration from Italy in- 
creased from 134,517 in 1922 to 228,901 in 
1923. In France the reverse is true. Immi- 
gration of alien workers into France increased 
from 183,472 in 1922 to 262,877 in 1923. 
Immigration into the United States for 
the calendar year 1923 was 387,057, as com- 
pared to 281,351 in 1922, and into Canada im- 
migration increased from 46,690 for the year 
1922 to 117,011 in 1923. 

According to information received by the 
International Labor Office, the Japanese Gov- 
ernment has decided to pay all the traveling 
expenses of Japanese nationals who emigrate 
to Brazil, and to make a grant to each of 
200 yen. It is further reported that Japanese 
financiers are proposing the formation of a 
company for encouraging emigration to 
South America. The capital of the company 
will be subscribed to private individuals up 
to a total of twenty to twenty-five million 
dollars and the Government will add an equal 
sum. These steps are to be taken as a result 
of the unemployment due to the earthquake 
of last year and the congestion of population 
in certain areas of Japan. 

The change in trade union membership in 
Soviet Russia is worthy of consideration. Ac- 
cording to statistics recently published by 
the International Labor Office the member- 
ships in trade unions in October, 1921, were 
7,938,600. In April, 1922, this number had 
decreased to 5,846,800, and in October, 1922, 
to 4,546,000. During the year 1923, however, 
a reversal of this movement set in and ac- 
cording to the census of October, 1923, trade 
union memberships had increased to 5,541,- 
000. The increase during the year 1923 is 
divided among all occupations and unions, 
but the greatest increase is reflected in indus- 
trial trade unions, approximately 600,000. 
Agricultural trade unions increased their 
membership by 13,000; transport and com- 
merce unions by 60,000; Soviet employes and 
professional unions increased by approxi- 
mately 300,000; and a scattered increase in 
miscellaneous Unions was also reflected. 

According to information published by the 
International Labor Office, China is rapidly 
undergoing a far-reaching change in the in- 
dustrial and economic life of her people. A 



striking feature of this change is the growing 
extent to which women and children are em- 
ployed in modern factories. It is generally 
estimated that in cotton mills nearly 40 per 
cent of the workers are women, 40 per cent 
are children, and only 20 per cent are men. 
Many children of 8 and 9 are admitted into 
factories and even some under 7 are known 
to be at work. In silk filatures in Central 
and South China, nearly all the workers are 
women and girls, but boys between 10 and 
20 are largely used in North China. In 
Chefee, of the 21,000 women and girls em- 
ployed in industry, about 18,000 are in the 
hairnet, lace and embroidery industries. 
Taking all branches of industry together, 
probably 15 per cent of the employes are 
women, 20 per cent boys and girls under 
14, and 65 per cent men. 



Roster of International 
Seamen's Union of America 



(Continued from Page 2) 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash DAVID ROBERTS, Agent 

84 Seneca Street 

SAN PEDRO, Cal ADDISON KIRK, Agent 

111 Sixth Street. P. O. Box 574 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 
OF THE PACIFIC COAST 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO. Cal 86 Commercial Street 

EUGENE STEIDLE, Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 5955 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock 

P. O. Box 214 
SAN PEDRO, Cal P. O. Box 54 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSBN, Secretary 
Telephone Sutter 6452 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42 

ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 138 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca Street 

Branches: 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C.) Canada P. O. Box 1675 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska P. O. Box 201 

UNITED FISHERMEN OF THE PACIFIC 
ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 138 

FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 59 Clay Street 

C. W. DEAL, Secretary 
Telephone Sutter 2205 

FISH TRAP, PILE DRIVERS AND WEB WORKERS 
OF PUGET SOUND AND ALASKA 
P. O. Box 371, Bellingham, Wash. 



27 



220 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1924 



A SEAMAN'S BANK 

WHEN PAID OFF OPEN A SAVINGS ACCOUNT 
4*4% INTEREST 

Address 

SEABOARD BRANCH 

ANGLO-CALIFORNIA TRUST CO. 

101 Market Street 
San Francisco California 



NORFOLK, VA. 



Navigation, Marine 
Engineering 

Instruction for All Licenses: 

Deck, Engine, Pilot 

Success Guaranteed or Fee Refunded 

U. S. Nautical College, 

Inc. 

"The School Without a Failure" 

119 Bank St. Norfolk, Va. 

Capt. Wm. J. Blue, Pres., Phone 41626 



MILWAUKEE, WIS. 



JOHN B. AMANN 
Dealer in Choice Meats 

Marine Orders Promptly Delivered 

506 Reed Street Milwaukee, Wis. 

Telephone Hanover 300 



The Only Store in 

Milwaukee, Wis. 

That Carries in Stock at all Times 

a . Full Line of Union Made Gents' 

Furnishings Goods. 

Mail Orders Promptly Filled 

W. GERHARD 

897 THIRD STREET 



ASHTABULA, OHIO 



O'Leary's Shoe Store 

77 BRIDGE STREET 
Ashtabula Harbor, Ohio 

Complete line of men's work shoes, 
dress shoes and rubber footwear 



Marine Sanitary Barber 
Shop 

(Next Door to Union Hall) 

Ashtabula Harbor, Ohio 

Experienced Tonsorial Artists 
Solicit the patronage of seafaring men 



INFORMATION WANTED 

Attorney Silas B. Axtell, 11 
Moore street, New York City, is 
desirous to have information about 
the following seamen: 

Wanted — C. F. Carlson, employed 
on the S. S. Selwyn Eddy, June 26, 
1923. Case pending in Supreme 
Court, Queens County, New York. 
Will be reached shortly for trial. 

Wanted — Max Weillich, C. E. 
Seonard, D. K. MacDonald, James 
C. Collins, James V. McNiel, E. S. 
Laurent, E. F. Jensen, A. S. Thomp- 
son, Ernest Hansen, F. Alvarez, W. 
E. Morris, Abeleno Calbo, Paul 
Nystrom, in the case of Collins et 
al. vs. Dollar Steamship Line, plain- 
tiffs whose testimony has not been 
taken, to get in touch with me or 
a union delegate at any port so 
that we can take testimony and 
prepare for trial to collect damages 
for breach of contract due to the 
wrongful discharge of this crew of 
Americans replaced by Chinamen. 

Wanted — Information about Jo- 
seph Carr, a seaman who was 
injured on the S. S. Ruth. He 
sustained broken arms, back and 
ribs. He retained legal service in 
New York to represent him in his 
claim against the company. He 
was sent for an X-ray on June 11 
to the Central X-ray Laboratories, 
Times Square Building, Times 
Square, New York. The X-ray 
was made, but he disappeared. He 
has not communicated with his 
relatives, who reside at 101 Parker 
street, New Bedford, Mass. 



PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



TAXI 



CALL UNION 9020 

Red Tod Cab Co., of R. I., Inc. 

67 Chestnut St. Providence, R. I. 

28 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of 
the Pacific since its organization 

H. W. HUTTON 

Will give the cases of seafaring men 

prompt attention 

527 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Market 

Streets, San Francisco 

Phone Douglas 315 



Albert Michelson 

Attorney-at-Law 

Attorney for Marine Firemen and 
\\ ;it»rtenders' Union of the Pacific. 

Admiralty Law a Specialty 

676 Mills Building, San Francisco 

Telephone Douglas 1058 

Residence Phone Bayview 736 



Telephone Garfield 306 



Henry Heidelberg 

Attorney at Law 

(Heidelberg & Murasky) 
Flood Building, San Francisco 



S. T. HogevolL Seamen's Law- 
yer; wages, salvage and damage*. 
909 Pacific Building, 821 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Tel. Sutter 6900 

Notary Public — Typewriting 

ANNE F. HASTY 

SEABOARD BRANCH 
Anglo-California Trust Co. 

101 Market St. San Francisco 



SEAMEN 

Before sailing, sail up to our studio 
and have your Photograph taken 



wvfl&Sk 



41 Grant Ave. 



San Francisco 



San Francisco Camera Exchange 

KODAKS AND CAMERAS 

Bought, Sold, Exchanged, Repaired 

and Rented — Developing — Printing 

88 THIRD STREET, AT MISSION 

San Francisco 

Mail Orders Given Special Attention 



Photos of Ships 

Bring your photos to us for print- 
ing and developing and let us supply 
you for your next voyage. 

Allen Photo Supply Co. 

Kodaks bought, sold, rented and ex- 
changed. 

246 Market St., San Francisco 



Seamen's & Travelers 
Passport Studio 

J. MARSH 
453 Washington Street 

(Near Sansome Street) 
San Francisco, California 



July, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



221 



Walk-Over 

(SHOES FOR cJWENAND WOMEN) 

UNION MADE 



844-850 MARKET STREET 



SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



Where sailormen know that 

style, quality and price are 

always right — 



HATS 

Stores at 

26 Third St. 605 Kearny 1080 Market 

3242 Mission 720 Market 2640 Mission 

226 W. 5th St., Los Angeles 



SMOKES ! ! 

Cigarettes and Cigars a Specialty at 

Wholesale Prices 

See Me Before You Load Up 

SYD MODLYN 

Ocean Market 
80 Market St. San Francisco 



LACKING TIME 
SEAMEN SUFFER 

Many sailors are suffering to- 
day from decayed and neglected 
teeth because their time in port 
is limited. 

They know the average den- 
tist in his small office cannot 
finish their work properly 
"while they wait." 

The Parker offices with their 
large force of dentists, nurses 
and assistants can serve you 
promptly and successfully at 
short notice. 



Pacific Coast offices of dentists 
using 



E. R. Parker 
System 

located at 



Vancouver, B. C, San Francisco, 
Portland, Seattle, Bellingham, Ta- 
coma, San Diego, Eureka, Oak- 
land, Santa Cruz. 




United States Laundry 

Telephone MARKET 1721 

1148 Harrison Street 
San Francisco, California 



BEN HARRIS 

No Relation to Joe Harris 

Patronize an Old Reliable Outfitter 

The Best Seamen's Outfitter on the 
Waterfront 



218 Embarcadero 



San Francisco 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 

— at — 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 5348 



At Night— 



Complete Banking Service from 
9 A. M. till 12 P. M. for Sailor- 



Liberty 



Market 
at Mason 



Bank 



San Francisco 



THE ONE PRICE STORE 

Sander Supply Co. 

SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

Furnishing Goods, Oilskins, 

Sea Boots 

Square Knot Material 

Uniform Caps 

93-95 Market, Cor. of Spear Street 
South. Pac. Bldg., San Francisco 

Open Evenings for the 
Convenience of Our Patrons 



FEELY, The Druggist 

32 EMBARCADERO 

Telephone Garfield 248 

Drugs and Toilet Supplies 

Tobacco Sold at Wholesale Prices 

San Francisco, California 



WHEN IN PORT 
Stop at 

PACIFIC HOTEL 

Clean Inviting Homelike 

54 Embarcadero 
San Francisco, California 



29 



J. MAHER'S 

RELIABLE HOOKS 

All Kinds Hand Made — Wholesale and 

Retail 

610A 3rd Street San Francisco 

Tel. Garfield 2340 



ABERDEEN, WASH. 



The "Red Front" 

CARRIES A FULL STOCK OF 
UNION MADE CLOTHING, HAT3, 
SHOES, COLLARS, SUSPENDERS, 
GLOVES, OVERALLS, SHIRTS 

A. M. BENDETSON 

321 East Heron Street - Aberdeen 

Exclusive Owner of "The Red Front" 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings, Hickory Shirts, 

Hats, Oil Clothing. 

Home of the Union Made 

Co-operative Shoe. 

302 So. F Street, ABERDEEN, Wash. 

on the Water Front 



A. A. Star Transfer Co. 

QUICK SERVICE 

EXPRESS — BAGGAGE 

Phone 307 — Office by Union Depot 
ABERDEEN, WASH. 



HUOTARI & CO. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE 

and MEN'S FURNISHINGS 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Orders taken for 

Made-to-Measure Clothing 

Heron and F Sts., Aberdeen, Wash. 

Tickets to and from Europe 

NOTARY PUBLIC 



Phone 263 

"Niels and Charlie" 

"THE ROYAL" 
"THE SAILORS' REST" 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 
219 EIGHTH ST., HOQUIAM, WASH. 



EUREKA, CAL. 



— For — 

A GOOD CUP OF COFFEE 

— or — 

A SQUARE MEAL 

— Try — 
EUREKA CHOP HOUSE 

Cor. Second and D Sts., Eureka, Cal. 
A. R. ABRAHAMSEN, Prop. 



222 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1924 



Office Phone Main 5190 
Residence Phone Elliott 5825 



Established 1890 
COMPASSES ADJUSTED 



MARSHALL'S 

NAVIGATION SCHOOL 

WE GUARANTEE to teach you until you receive a LICENSE 

WE will save you TIME and MONEY 

203 Bay Building, First and University Sts. SEATTLE, WASH. 



,. V. WESTERMAN 

UNION LABEL 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2— Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney- Watson Go. 

FUNERAL DIRECTORS 
AND EMBALMERS 

Crematory and Columbarium in 
Connection 



Broadway at Olive St. 



Seattle 



THE HUB 

Shoe and Clothing Company 

UNION MADE HEAD TO FOOT 

OUTFITTERS 

615-517 First Avenue 

Opp. Totem Pole 

Seattle, Wash. 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS 
AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., Cor. University, 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



Union Store 

Best Line of Men's Suits 

Overcoats, Raincoats, Shoes, Hats 

and Men's Furnishings 

CARL SCHERMER 

103-107 First Avenue South 
Near Yesler Way SEATTLE 



George's Barber Shop 

Baths, 35 Cents 

Laundry Office and Steel Lockers 
For Rent 

Baggage and Parcels Checked Free 

20 Sacramento St., San Francisco 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim and Douglas Shoes 

And the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 Sixth Street, SAN PEDRO OPP. SAILORS' UNION HALL 



NOTICE! 

exclusive agency here for the 
T. & M. Tailors in the U. S. 



The 

only C. 

A., affiliated with the American Fed 

eration of Labor and employing only 

members of the Journeymen Tailors' 

Union, is held by the reliable tailoring 

man 

S. G. SWANSON 

Established 1904 
Upstairs, Room 4, Bank of San Pedro 

Building 
110 W. 6th Street San Pedro, Cal. 



STOP ASHORE AT 

HOTEL DORIC 

44 THIRD ST., near Market 
San Francisco, Calif. 

Rates: $1.00 to $1.50 per day 
Special Rates to Permanent 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Members of crew of S. S. West 
Modus in May, 1923, kindly com- 
municate with Edward A. Vos- 
seler, 200 Broadway, New York. 
Important. 



Men employed on tied-up fleet 
at Stoney Point, New York, in 
April, 1922, kindly communicate 
with Edward A. Vosseler, 200 
Broadway, New York. Important. 
30 



SEAMEN 

Visit 
Your Hatter 

FRED AMMANN 

UNION HATS 

at the right prices. I'll try and 
wait on you personally and show 
you a large assortment and give 
you your money's worth. 

JOHN B. STETSON hats, too 

If you want your Panama blocked 
right I'll do that. 

You'll find me at 

72 Market St., San Francisco 

next to Ocean Market 



MEAD'S 
RESTAURANT 

No. 14 
EMBARCADERO 

NO. 3 
MARKET STREET 

"THE" Place to Eat 

in 

San Francisco 



FALCK'S 
COMFORT 

a 5 Cent Cigar 

A Blender of Mixtures 

Reiss Prumera Pipes a specialty 

HENRY FALCK 
533 Kearny St., San Francisco, Cal. 



"CHECKERS" 

Smoke Checkers Tobacco — A cool, 
mild and smooth smoke 

2 oz. tins, 15c 
16 oz. canister, $1.20 

Weisert Bros. Tobacco Co., 

H. Sergeson, Pacific Coast Agent 

219 Drumm Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



GRANT HOTEL 

I. MADRIERES, Prop. 

Reasonable Rates 

Hot and Cold Water 

Phone Garfield 420 

50 CLAY STREET 

San Francisco, California 



July, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 223 

TACOMA, WASH. 



BOSS ™ TAILOR 

1120 MARKET STREET, SAN FRANCISCO 

OPPOSITE SEVENTH STREET 



SUITS AND 
OVERCOATS 

To Order at Popular 
Prices 




All Work Done 

Under Strictly Union 

Conditions 



We Furnish the 
Label 



Always Fair with Labor — Always Will Be! 



JENSEN & NELSEN 

Gent's Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 
Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 



110 EAST STREET 
Kearny 3863 



Near Mission 
San Francisco 



H. SAMUEL 

THE OLD UNION STORE 
Established 1874 

Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 

Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, Bags, 
Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and OH 
Clothing, Watches and Jewelry. 

Phone Kearny 519 

676 THIRD STREET, near Townsend 

San Francisco 



THE 
James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

PRINTING 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "Tne Seamen's Journal' 



LET ME 

Clean, Press and Repair Your Suit 

ALL WORK GUARANTEED 

AL'S 

4 Clay St., San Francisco, Cal. 
Suits Pressed, 50 cents 

WHILE YOU WAIT 



"ALL NIGHT IN" 

A Sailor's Dream of Bliss 

Good Beds, Baths, Fine Lounges 
Stop and Meet Shipmates at 

LINCOLN HOTEL 



115 MARKET 



SAN FRANCISCO 



Telephone Garfield 594 

O. B. Olsen's 
Restaurant 

Delicious Meals at Pre-War Prices 

Quick Service 

98 Embarcadero and 4 Mission St. 

San Francisco, Open 6 a. m. to 1 a. m. 



Seamen, when in port, 
deal with 

W. P. Shanahan & Co, 



MEN'S SHOES 
Expert Repairing 



254 Market Street 



San Francisco 



ALAMEDA CAFE 

JACOB PETERSEN & SON 

Proprietors 

Established 1880 

COFFEE AND LUNCH HOUSE 

7 Market Street and 17 Steuart Street 
San Francisco 



D. Edwards & Sons 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Fair Prices. Reliable Goods 

92 EAST STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

GUARANTEED OIL CLOTHING 



HOTEL GOLDEN 

Per Day, 75c and $1.00 
Weekly, $3.00 to $5.00 

82 MARKET STREET 

(One Block from Ferry Bldg.) 

San Francisco, California 

31 



SEAMEN — ATTENTION! 

When In TACOMA, Visit 

Brower & Thomas 

FOR TOUR 

CIGARS AND TOBACCO 

THREE STORES 

1103 Broadway 11th & A Streets 

930 Pacific Avenue 



Always with the 
Union Label 

DUNDEE 

Woolen Mills 
Popular Priced Tailors 

Tacoma, 920 Pacific Avenue 

Seattle, 312 Pike Street 

Bellingham, 1306 Dock Street 

Aberdeen, 204 E. Heron Street 



Starkel's Smoke Shop 

Corner 11th and A Street 
TACOMA, WASH. 

Cigars, Tobacco, Smoking Articles, 
Pipe Repairing 

Restaurant and Barber Shop 



HUMBOLDT BANK, Head Office, 
783 Market Street, near Fourth. 
Branch: Bush and Montgomery 
Sts. For the half-year ending 
June 30, 1924, a dividend has been 
declared at the rate of four (4) per 
cent per annum on all savings 
deposits; payable on and after 
Tuesday, July 1, 1924. Dividends 
not called for are added to and 
bear the same rate of interest as 
the principal from July 1, 1924. 
Savings deposits made on or be- 
fore July 10, 1924, will draw in- 
terest from July 1, 1924. 

H. C. KLEVESAHL, Cashier. 



His Kind Invitation. — Professor 
(after trying first-hour class) — 
"Some time ago my doctor told 
me to exercise early every morn- 
ing with dumb-bells. Will the class 
please join me tomorrow after 
breakfast?" — The Watchman-Ex- 
aminer. 



224 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1924 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

. Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 

and Battery Sts., Opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Cal. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL. Is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to Illustrate and teach 
i any branch of Navigation. 
I The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation 
and Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law, and Is now, 
In addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short Interval of time. 




UNION MADF ^ complete line of seamen's shirts and 

garments of all kinds, union made right 

SHIRTS ^ ere * n California, sold direct from factory 

to wearer and every garment guaranteed. 

and UNDERWEAR Direct from Factory to You 



1118 Market Street, San Francisco 
112 South Spring Street, Los Angeles 
1141 J Street, Fresno 
717 K Street, Sacramento 



Since 1872 



Eagleson & Co. 



Established 1917 by U. S. S. B. 

School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 

FERRY BLDG., SAN FRANCISCO 



Puget Sound 
Nautical School 

Conducted by CAPT. H. S. SMITH, 
four years Assistant Inspector of 
Steamboats, Puget Sound District. 
Formerly Instructor in New York 
Nautical College. 

Room 303, Bay Bldg. 1213 First Ave. 
SEATTLE, WASH. 




Gifts That Last 



James Jr. Sorensen 



Watches, Diamonds, Jewelry, 
Clocks and Silverware 

Largest Assortment, Right Prices 
All Watch Repairing Guaranteed 



Jres.cndJrw. 715 Market Street, bet. Third and Fourth Sts 

Jewelers, Watchmakers San Francisco, Cal. 

Opticians Established 1896 Phone Kearny 2017 




A Good Place 
to Trade 



Courteous Service 

Broad Assortments 

Moderate Prices 



Market at Fifth 
San Francisco 



UNION LABEL 

IS IN EVERY ONE OF OUR 

Hard finished — Hard wearing 

$QC WORSTED 
OO SUITS 

— See Them in our Windows — 




85?-868 MARKET ST. 
SAN FRANCISCO 



Joint Accounts 

This bank will open accounts In 
the name of two Individuals, for 
instance, man and wife, either of 
whom may deposit money for or 
draw against the account. 

HUMBOLDT 
BANK 

783 MARKET ST., Near Fourth 
SAN FRANCISCO 



32 




Official Paper of the International Seamen's Union of America 

=1111 C3IIIllf III! llC3lllIIIIIfIIIC31 IIIIIIIIIIlC:31IItlll1llllC3IIf 11IllllllC3IIIllllllIIIC3llltlllI1tllC3llieilII11IIZ:-SllllII lllC3lllllttlllllC3flllIlllllIIC3lllllllIIIllC3lilllilI*IIIC3llll11lllllIC3IIIIIIIIIIilC3llllllllllllC311llllll.llllC3llllll :: ^ 

c 



A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 

Sea power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's tools. 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use them. 

Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



Contents 

LABOR DAY MESSAGES 259 

IMMIGRATION LAW DEFINED 260 

MORE RICHES TO THE RICH 261 

EDITORIALS: 

WHAT AILS THE AMERICAN BOY? 262 

BUYING POWER OF THE DOLLAR 263 

THE RECORD OF MR. DAWES 263 

YOUR UNION .' 264 

A WORLD SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY! 265 

WHAT IS AN INJUNCTION? 266 

A. F. OF L. FOR LA FOLLETTE 267 

THE PRICE TRUE MEN PAY 269 

THE BUTTERFISH 270 

CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 271 

LLOYD'S REGISTER STATISTICS 272 

A STUDY OF ECONOMICS 274 

THE LIFE OF TOLSTOY 275 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 276, 277, 278, 279 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 280, 281, 282, 283 



\rr\t vvvuttt xt r\ Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice 

VUL. XXXV 111, No. 9 as second-class matter. Acceptance for 

TiTTTi^r t-. xt ■, nnn mailing at special rate of postage provided 

WHOLE No. 1928 for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 

authorized September 7, 1918. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
SEPT. 1, 1924 



^iiiiiiiE]iimiiiiiiiE2iiiiiiiiiiioiiiiiiiiiiic]iiiiiiiiiiiic]iiiiiiiiiiii[iiiiiiimiiic]iiiiiiiiiiii[]iiim icain can imu nni iiiiiHiiiiiiiiiiiomiiiiHiiniiiiiiimiiHiimiimiiniiiiiiiiiiiiniiii? 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of I* Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary-Treasurer 

359 North Wells Street, Chicago, 111. 

DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES: 

ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass..._ PERCY J. PRYOR Secretary 

1% Lewis Street 
Branches: 

NEW YORK, N. Y...._ JOSEPH FELTON. Agent 

67-69 Front Street 

BALTIMORE. Md C. RASMUSSEN, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa S. HODGSON, Agent 

108 Walnut Street 

NORFOLK, Va,- „..DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex LOUIS LARSEN. Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PROVIDENCE. R. I RALPH RD7ERS, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 

MARINE FIREMEN'S, OILERS' AND WATERTEND- 
ERS' UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y 70 South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 
Telephone John 0975 

Branches: 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa ERNEST MISSLAND, Agent 

108 Walnut Street 

BALTIMORE, Md JAMES ANDERSON, Agent 

804 South Broadway 

GALVESTON, Tex JOHN CLAUSSEN, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

BOSTON, Mass TONY ASTE, Agent 

288 State Street 

NORFOLK, Va _ DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

335 Eddy Street 

ATLANTIC AND GULF COOKS', STEWARDS' AND 

WAITERS' UNION 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretary 

4 South Street. Phone John 0975 

Branches: 

BOSTON, MASS _ JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

288 State Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa FRANK NOLAN, Agent 

108 Walnut street, Telephone Lombard 40 

BALTIMORE, MD CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

NORFOLK, VA DAN INGRAHAM. Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, LA FRANK STOCKL Agent 

106 Julia Street 

PROVIDENCE. R. I FRANK B. HAYWARD. Agent 

335 Eddy Street 

GALVESTON, TEX LOUIS LARSEN, Agent 

321 20th Street 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass WM. H. BROWN, Secretary 

288 State Street 

Branches: 
GLOUCESTER, Mass NEWMAN SHEA Asent 

209 Main Street 
NEW YORK. N. Y JAMES J. FAGAN, Agent 

6 Fulton Street 



GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

CHICAGO, 111 359 North Wells Street 

K. B. NOLAN, Secretary 

VAL. DUSTER. Treasurer 

Phone State 5175 

Branches: 
BUFFALO. N. Y „ „ PATRICK O'BRIEN 

55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND, Ohio - E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1501 Columbus Road 
MILWAUKEE. Wis CHAS. BRADHERTNG, Agent 

162 Reed Street, Phon. Hanover 240 
DETROIT, Mich WM. DONNELLY, Agent 

410 Shelby Street. Phone Main 0044 
ASHTABULA, Ohio 74 Bridge Street 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 

COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 71 Main Street 

THOS. CONWAY, Secretary 

ED. HICKS. Treasurer. Phone Seneca «048 

Branches: 

CLEVELAND, 819 Superior Avenue 

Phone Main 866 

MILWAUKEE. Wis 162 Reed Street 

Phone Hanover 240 

DETROIT. Mich „ 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO. ILL _ 357 North Clark Street 

Phone State 5175 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters: 

BUFFALO. N. Y 35 West Eagle Street 

J. M. SECORD, Secretary 
Telephone Seneca 896 

Branches: 

CHICAGO. Ill 357 North Clark Street 

CLEVELAND. 1501 Columbus Road 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

DETROIT, MICH 410 Shelby Street 

PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal _ 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE C. LARSEN, Acting Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches: 

VANCOUVER, B. C G. CAMPBELL, Agent 

305 Cambie Street 
P. O. Box 571, Telephone Seymour 8703 

TACOMA, Wash A. KLEMMSEN, Agent 

22Q7 North Thirtieth Street 
P. O. Box 102, Telephone Main 3984 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, Agent 

84 Seneca Street 
P. O. Box 65, Telephone Elliot 6752 

ABERDEEN, Wash ANDREW ANDERSEN 

103 North F Street 
P. O. BOX 180, Telephone 2467 

PORTLAND, Ore D. W. PAUL, Agent 

243 Ash Street, Telephone Broadway 1639 

SAN PEDRO, Cal HARRY OHLSEN. Agent 

267 Seventh Street 
P. O. Box 67, Telephone 2524J 

HONOLULU, T. H JOSEPH FALTUS, Agent 

F. O. Box 314, Telephone 4495 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS 1 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 58 Commercial Street 

PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 3699 
(Continued on Page 27) 



September, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



259 



LABOR DAY MESSAGES 



BY SAMUEL GOMPERS 
President American Federation of Labor 




ABOR DAY is the one holiday in all 
the year dedicated to humanity. It is 
a day set apart for the consideration 
of human problems and for rejoicing 
at progress made toward that better 
day for which we strive constantly. 

Labor Day is a day on which the leader- 
ship of the trade union movement in the fight 
for human betterment is universally acknowl- 
edged and acclaimed. 

There could be no Labor Day without 
Labor. There could be no Labor Day with- 
out Organized Labor. 

Those who do not belong to the labor 
movement may here and there make speeches 
on Labor Day. Usually their speeches are 
unnecessary; and where they are helpful they 
are filled with a recounting of the services 
rendered by the Trade-union Movement. 

Labor — Organized Labor — the Labor Move- 
ment — that is what makes Labor Day pos- 
sible ; that is what makes it real. 

Labor Day was set apart as a holiday be- 
cause Organized Labor demanded it. It was 
a recognition of Labor's right to celebrate 
its victories and to carry to all of the people 
its great message of hope and freedom. 

On this Labor Day talk Labor! Do not 
anywhere permit Labor Day to be anything 
but Labor Day. Talk Labor, preach the great 
message of Labor, carry forward the mes- 
sage of human freedom and human aspira- 
tion as a Labor message. 

Welcome the friends of Labor in all gather- 
ings. Welcome these friends when they come 
with their support and their encouragement. 
But see that everywhere the day is observed 
as Labor Day. 

The Labor Movement in America is a 
movement of wage-earners, for wage-earners, 
conducted by wage-earners. It is a movement 
primarily for the protection and advancement 
of the rights and interests of the wage- 
earners through trade union organization. 

Let us observe Labor Day in the spirit of 
the Labor Movement. Let us blazon the 



message of trade unionism across the hori- 
zon. Let us give of its inspiration to those 
who are oppressed, who are without hope 
and whose souls are hungering. Let us un- 
furl its banners and sing its songs. 

Labor Day is for Labor, and Labor is striv- 
ing to enlarge the life of the great masses of 
our people. Labor Day is for Labor, and 
Labor fights the fight for all who are heavy 
laden. 

Upward and onward, this Labor Day, for 
humanity, for the right, for justice, for free- 
dom and democracy, in the name of Labor, 
through our great Trade Union Movement ! 



BY FRANK MORRISON 

Secretary American Federation of Labor 



1 


1 



jABOR DAY assumes a deeper sig- 
nificance with each succeeding year. 
More thought is given to vital things; 
to the value of the power to create ; to 
develop life itself. 

The Organized Labor Movement is the 
expression of this ideal. It is spokesman for 
the wage workers. It is responsible for this 
day, now universally acclaimed. 

The past year has been one of progress for 
Labor. This advance has not been confined 
to material improvements. Our most substan- 
tial gain is a widening public opinion favor- 
able to the workers' cause. 

The great religious movements are a unit 
in defense of the trade union theory. In in- 
creasing numbers churchmen of every belief 
appreciate the trade union ideal that the 
worker must have free expression in his em- 
ployment, not only for industrial reasons, but 
that he may carry this independence into 
other activities. This harmonizes with the 
historic Christian ideal of the worth of the 
individual, as against the pagan ideal that the 
worker is but a voiceless cog in the ma- 
chinery of state. 

What is popularly known as "Garyism in 
industry" is recognition of the pagan ideal 
that would substitute democracy for an au- 
tocracy that grinds every ideal and hope out 
of the workers' lives. Against the pagan 
ideal, organized workers throw every power 



260 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



September, 1924 



they possess. No issue is more important 
than this. It is the groundwork of progress. 
Democracy is impossible if wage workers in 
a country pledged to democracy are denied 
the thing that makes democracy possible. 

The Federal Child Labor amendment that 
has been submitted to the States by Con- 
gress is another proof of the value of public 
opinion that Organized Labor has developed. 
The amendment is doubly significant because 
it is the first social addition to the Nation's 
organic law. 

This Labor Day marks a wider accept- 
ance of Labor's non-partisan political theory. 
Thoughtful citizens in every walk of life are 
agreed on the viciousness of political parti- 
sanship that is so well summarized by the 
Father of our country. 

The coming campaign will witness a greater 
non-partisan political activity by Labor and 
sympathizers. The wage workers will urge 
their program of national and State remedial 
legislation more vigorously than ever. Suc- 
cess is assured as Labor, for the first time, 
enters the campaign without divisions on the 
practicability of non-partisan methods. For 
the first time, Labor's energies will not be 
spent in discussions of this issue. 

The workers have a greater faith in them- 
selves, and in their cause. Through expe- 
rience and a knowledge of the past, they 
know that progress can only come through 
intelligence and orderly development. 

Possessing that knowledge, they face the 
future with every confidence. 



IMMIGRATION LAW DEFINED 



POVERTY, A MAN-MADE EVIL 



It is not because the earth is niggardly or 
because industrial development is backward 
that grinding poverty, with all the mental 
and spiritual degradation grinding poverty 
entails, is still the almost universal lot. Pov- 
erty exists because, even today, the masses 
regard themselves as doomed to helplessness 
and are well satisfied if some outside power 
gives them a chance to make a living. Yet 
man is not naturally helpless. By his inven- 
tive genius he has now conquered his en- 
vironment, and want and the fear of want are 
today unnatural and artificial ills. — William 
C. Owen, in London Freedom. 



The American tanker La Placentia arrived 
in San Pedro, Cal., on July 11 from a trip to 
Chili. The members of the crew were ex- 
amined by the immigration authorities and 
held in detention for further examination 
under the immigration law. On the next day 
the Sailors' Union of the Pacific was notified. 
After some telegrams had been exchanged 
with the Bureau of Immigration at Wash- 
ington, Attorney H. W. Hutton of San 
Francisco was sent to Los Angeles. Mr. 
Hutton reported that he was denied permis- 
sion to interview the men and recommended 
that a writ of habeas corpus be applied for 
on behalf of the ten seamen of the La Pla- 
centia. The Union accepted Mr. Hutton's 
advice and instructed him to proceed. Fol- 
lowing is a verbatim copy of the opinion 
rendered by the Federal District Judge who 
considered Mr. Hutton's petition : 

In the District Court of the United States, South- 
ern District of California, Southern Division. In the 
Matter of the Petition of A. Hersvik and S. Kongs- 
vik.— No. 6610-J Crim. 

Habeas Corpus to Determine Whether Petitioners 
Are Legally Held by the Immigration Officers. 

On June 4, 1924, petitioners were alien residents of 
the United States, and had been such residents for a 
period of more than three years immediately prior to 
said date. They were seamen by occupation. On 
June 4, 1924, they shipped on an American vessel as a 
part of the crew, engaging for a voyage to the port 
of Antofogasta, in the Republic of Chile, and return. 
Upon the arrival of the ship on its return voyage, on 
the 11th day of July, 1924, at the port of San Pedro, 
Cal., petitioners were detained by the immigration 
officers as being aliens not entitled to be admitted to 
the United States. 

Petitioners do not come within the class known as 
immigrants defined in Section 3 of the Immigration 
Act of 1924 as being aliens "departing from any place 
outside the United States destined for the United 
States," for they did not depart from any foreign 
place but departed from the United States for a con- 
tinuous voyage which ended in a United States port. 
They were not subject to the collection of a head tax 
by the express rule of the immigration department, 
which excepts from that tax (Rule 1, subdivision e) 
"aliens who, starting from a port of the United 
States, return thereto after a continuous sea trip or 
a cruise without change of vessel." Had they re- 
mained in the United States they could not have been 
deported, for they had resided here for a period of 
three years (Section 34, Immigration Act of 1917). 

The position of the Government is that, having 
departed beyond the territorial jurisdiction of the 
United States, the seamen abandoned any right 
which they had acquired to here remain, and that, 
upon their return, they should be treated as though 
they were entering for the first time. If such is the 
legal situation attendant upon the facts, then peti- 
tioners should be remanded to the custody of the 
immigration authorities, to be by them permitted to 



September, 1924 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



261 



reship in foreign commerce or be dealt with as those 
officers may otherwise determine under authority of 
the immigration law. 

The endeavor here must be to ascertain the intent 
of the law, for in none of its particular terms does it 
exactly cover the case "of the petitioners. Here the 
seamen, in the pursuit